The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3
House of Carmelites or White Friars.
The house of the Carmelites, or Whitefriars, stood on the south side of , between the Temple and Salisbury-court.
The priory, or church, was founded by Rich. Gray, knt. ancestor to the lord Gray of Codnor, in the county of Derby in the year . King Edward I. gave to the prior and brethren of this house a plat of ground in , whereupon to build this house,
|which was afterwards re-edified by Hugh Courtney, earl of Devonshire, about the year , being the of Edward III.|
The curriers formerly lived hereabouts; it is certain they had a guild in this church, founded in , of which they brought in this account into Chancery, about the of Richard II. as did other guilds in London at this time:
Among the lands and tenements in St. Dunstan, occur the
in , rented at Also for a tenement called
Also for a tenement called
both in .
Among the tenements and gardens in the scite of the house is of with a garden let to the lord Delaware; and for the rent of a tenement and a garden let to the lady Margaret countess of Kent.
Among the eminent persons interred in this church was-
John Lufken, mayor, who with the commonalty of the city of London, granted a lane, called Crocker's-lane, reaching from to the Thames, to build the west end of the church. Sir Robert Knolles, knt. (ancestor to the earls of Banbury) was a great builder here also, in the reigns of Richard II. and Henry IV. who, though born of mean parentage (in the county of Chester) was by his valiant behaviour advanced from a common soldier, in the French wars, under Edw. III. to be a great commander. He built
and founded a college of secular priests at Pontefract; and dying
|full of years, at his manor of Stone-Thorpe, in Norfolk, in , was brought to London, and honourably buried by the lady Constance, his wife, in the body of this church of Whitefriars, which he had newly built.|
Here, some time, lay intombed, in a
the body of Robert Mascall, bishop of Hereford. He was often employed uy Hen. IV. (to whom he was confessor) upon embassies to foreign princes, and was sent, with other bishops, to the council of Constance. He built the choir, presbytery and steeple of this church, and gave many rich ornaments to this religious house, wherein he died, .
Stephen Patrington, bishop of St. David's, who died , and Nic. Kenton, who died , and John Milverton, who died , all provincials of the order of Carmelites.
There lay buried also, in the middle of the new choir, sir John Mowbray, earl of Nottingham, . By him lay sir Edward Courtney.
In the south wall laid sir Hugh Montgomery, and sir John, his brother. John Wolle, son to sir John Wolle. Thomas Baybolt, esq. Elizabeth, countess of Athole. Dame Johan, wife to sir Thomas Say, of Alden. Sir Peirce Castle, baron. John lord Gray, son to Reginald lord Gray, of Wilton, . Sir John Ludlow, sir Richard Derois, Richard Gray, and John Ashley, knts. Robert Bristow, Thomas Perry, Robert Tempest, William Call, esqrs. William Neddow.
In the old choir, below the altar, laid dame Margaret, &c. This dame Margaret, unknown, seems to be the lady Margaret, countess of Kent, who by will, , bequeathed her body to be buried in the church of the late Whitefriars in , under the tomb where Richard earl of Kent, her late husband, lay, if it might be suffered.
Under the lamp, sir John Browne, knt. and John, his son and heir. By him, sir Simon de Berford, knt.
In the walk between the choir and the church: Peter Wygus, Robert Matthew, esqrs. sir John Shargell, sir John Norice, sir Geffrey Roose, knts. Mathew Hadocke, William Clarell, John Aprichard, William Wentworth, Thomas Wickam, esqrs. Sir Terwit, sir Stephen Popham, knts.--Bastard de Scales. Henry Blunt, esq. Dame Elizabeth Blunt. Jo. Swan, esq. Alice Foster, of the heirs of sir Stephen Popham.
Also in the said Friars laid these that follow: Sir Robert Brocket, knt. John Drayton, esq. John, son to Robert Chanlowes, and his daughter Katharine by him. John Salvin, William Hampton, John Bampton, John Winter, Edmond Oldhall, William Appleyard, Thomas Dabby, esqrs. Sir Hugh Courtney, knt. John Drury, son to Robert Drury. Elizabeth Gemersey, gentlewoman.
In the east part of the church: sir Thomas Townsend,
|sir Richard Greene, knts. William Scot, esq. Thomas Federinghey, J. Fulforde, Edward Elsemere, William Hart, gent.|
In the south part of the church: dame Mary Senclare, daughter to sir Thomas Talbot, knt.--Aucher, esq.; sir William Morris, knt. and at his feet dame Christian his wife; sir Peter de Mota, knt. Richard Hewton, esq. sir John Heron, knt. Richard Eaton, esq. Hugh Stapleton, gent. William Copley, gent. sir Ralph Saint Owen, sir Hugh Bromflete, knts.
In the chapter-house, Henry Bedil.
In the cloister, Ry. Beyton, sir Rafe St. Owen.
Sir Richard Greene, by his will, made , bequeathed to the prior and convent of Carmelite Friars, London, . Item, towards the new work of their church, .
Here John Denham, citizen and draper of London, ordained by his last will (dated ,) to be buried, viz.
This house was valued at and was surrendered the , the of Henry VIII.
The seal of this house was circular, and represented a double niche with a trefoil canopy, in which was St. Paul, with a shrine in his right hand, and a sword in his left, and the blessed Virgin in the niche. Legend, .
In the place of the friars' church were built many houses, lodgings for noblemen and others. Among the rest, here lived sir John Cheeke, knt. tutor to king Edward VI. and afterwards his secretary of state.
In , the inhabitants of the precinct of Whitefriars obtained divers liberties, privileges, and exemptions, by a charter from James the .
This precinct is extra parochial, and separate from the jurisdiction of the city.
The parish of St. Bartholomew the Great was possessed of great privileges, some of which are lost from disuse. Those that remain are :--
A person not a freeman of London may keep a shop, or exercise a calling, or any trade, within the parish. The parishioners are exempt from serving on juries, and from all ward offices. They appoint their own constables, who are however subject to the city magistrates. By act of parliament they levy and assess themselves by taxes for paving, lamps, watching, and cleaning the parish. They are charged with no city taxes, except for the London Workhouse, and the sewers.
, or, as it is sometimes called to distinguish it from a place of the same name in the eastern part of the town, , is the greatest market for black cattle, sheep and horses, in Europe; for the latter of which it was celebrated by Fitz-Stephen, towards the close of the century. It is also a market for hay and straw.
is supposed to have received its name from Smith, the owner thereof, and from its having been originally a smooth or level field. It was anciently much larger than it now appears, its area being greatly diminished by the buildings with which it is enclosed: the whole west side extended as far as the sheep-market does at present, and was called the Elms, from the number of those trees that grew there.
King Henry II. granted to the priory of St. Bartholomew the privilege of a fair to be kept annually at Bartholomew-tide, on the eve, the day, and the morrow, to which the clothiers of England, and the drapers of London repaired, and had their booths and standings in the church-yard within the priory, which was separated from only by walls and gates that were locked every night, and watched, for the safety of the goods deposited there; and the narrow street or lane afterwards built where the cloth was sold, still retains the name of .
This fair, which was at instituted for the convenience of trade, was at length prolonged to a fortnight, and became of little other use but for idle youth and loose people to resort to; on which, in the year , an order of common council was made, by which it was again reduced to the original term of days, and the booths for drolls and plays, erected in the middle of , by the falling of which several persons had lost their lives, were prohibited in future.
A court of pie-powder is held daily during this fair, to determine all differences between the persons frequenting it. It is held at a low public house, known by the sign of the Hand and Shears, in .
The place called the Elms in , was anciently the place of execution for offenders. This place was in use for executions in the year , and, as it seems, long before; by a clause roll, Henry III. wherein mention is made of
This place was celebrated in the days of chivalry, as the scene of numerous splendid jousts and tournaments.
In the year , Edward III. great and royal justs were held in ; there being present the kings of England, France, and Scotland, with many
In the year , Edward III. on the days of May, in were justs holden, the king and queen being present; with the most part of the chivalry of England and of France, and of other nations; to the which came Spaniards, Cyprians, and Armenians, knightly requesting aid of the king of England against the Pagans that invaded their confines.
The of Edward III. dame Alice Perrers, or Pierce, (the king's concubine) as lady of the sun, rode from the , through Cheap, accompanied by many lords and ladies, every lady leading a lord by his horse's bridle, till they came into ; and then began a great just, which lasted for days.
Also the of Richard II. was the like great riding from the Tower to , and every lord led a lady's horses bridle; and in the morning began the justs in , which lasted days.
In the of the same king royal justs and tournaments were proclaimed to be done in ; to begin on Sunday next after the feast of St. Michael. Many strangers came forth out of other countries; namely, Valerian, earl of St. Paul, that had married king Richard's sister; the lady Maud Courtney, and William, the young earl of Ostarvant, son to Albert of Baviere, earl of Holland and Hainault.
In the year , the of Richard II. certain lords of Scotland came into England to get
; the earl of Mar challenged the earl of Nottingham to just with him; and so they rode together certain courses, but not the full challenge; for the earl of Mar was cast, both horse and man, and of his ribs broken with the fall; so that he was conveyed out of , and so towards Scotland, but died by the way at York.
Sir William Darell, knt. the kings banner-bearer of Scotland, challenged sir Piercy Courtney, knt. the king's banner-bearer of England; and when they run certain courses, gave over without conclusion of victory. Then J. Cookborne, esq. of Scotland,
|challenged sir Nicholas Hawberke, knt. and rode courses, but Cookborne was borne over horse and man, &c.|
In the year , the of Henry IV. a play was acted at Skinner's well, which lasted days; and afterwards was the scene of a royal jousting between the earl of Somerset and the seneschal of Hainault, sir John Cornwall, sir Richard Arundel, and the son of sir John Cheyney, against certain Frenchmen.
In the beginning of Henry the Vth«s reign, another memorable encounter happened here in , between Robert Carey, of the West, son of sir John Carey, knt, and a foreign knight, called Arragonese.
In the year , the of Henry VI. the , a battle was fought in , within the lists before the king; being sir Philip la Beause, of Arragon, knt., the other an esquire of the king's house, called John Ansley, or Antsley. They came to the field all armed; the knight with his sword drawn, and the esquire with his spear; which spear he cast against the knight, but the knight avoided it with his sword, and cast it to the ground. Then the esquire took his axe, and smote many blows on the knight, and made him let fall his axe, and brake up his uniber times, and would have smote him on the face with his dagger to have slain him; but then the king cried,
, and so they parted. The king made John Ansley a knight, and the knight of Arragon offered his harness at Windsor.
In the year , the of Edward IV. the Bastard of Burgoine challenged the lord Scales, brother to the queen, to fight with him both on horseback and on foot. The king, therefore, caused lists to be prepared in , the length of taylors yards, and feet; and in breadth yards, and feet; double barred, feet between the bars, the timber-work whereof cost , besides the fair and costly galleries prepared for the ladies.
Though is a very extensive square, surrounded with many good buildings, yet the area of it is in general exceeding filthy; owing to the great number of cattle, horses, &c. that are brought to it twice a week. The area is the market-place for beasts and horses; the north-west corner for sheep and calves, and the north-east corner for hogs.
This market is nearly coeval with the fair. It appears that almost years ago, a market of considerable extent was held in for black cattle, sheep, horses, and oxen.
There are annually sold in this market, upwards of bullocks, and sheep.
On the east side of is the magnificent
 Indenture of foundation of Henry VII.«s Chapel; chapter-house, Westminster.
 Vide ante, vol. ii. p. 303.
 Vide ante. vol. i. p. 115.