The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas


South View of the West Cloister of the Grey Friars.



On the north side of the new hall is the infirmary or sick ward,


to which the boys ate sent upon the appearance of indisposition, that they may be under the immediate inspection and superintendance of the resident apothecary and a nurse appointed for the purpose. This building, including the apothecary's house, forms sides of a square, which serves as a place of recreation for those approaching convalescence, and beyond which no boy is allowed to go without permission of the apothecary or nurse, until his return to his own ward. This building, with a square called the new-playground, and a few out buildings, form the western side of the whole fabric.

The north end of the western cloister leads into another called the new cloister, under the writing-school (which has been already described); and at the end of this cloister is the north-western gate (leading to St. Bartholomew's hospital) which is now closed. Part of this cloister has been parted off, and a very convenient building called the laboratory, erected for the boys to wash themselves. There is also a large bath, which can be filled with either hot or cold water.

Adjoining the north end of this cloister is the steward's house, the front of which looks into the play ground called The Ditch; and adjoining this is a house for of the grammar-masters, which house also adjoins the grammar school, a handsome modern brick building, for which the hospital is greatly indebted to Mr. Alderman Gill, who was for several years treasurer, and the immediate predecessor of the late J. Palmer, esq. a gentleman who for many years so honourably filled that situation. This is the only building on the north side of the hospital, which side has been greatly enlarged by pulling down some houses lately occupied by the masters, and throwing it open, thereby making a very handsome entrance from .

On the south side of this entrance is the treasurer's house; and the other houses in this ground are occupied by the matron, masters, and beadles. The steward has also a small office on the south side, opposite his house.

Proceeding in an easterly direction, leads to the south-west entrance from Butcher-hall-lane, ; and in this space (which is called the counting-house yard) stands the


and several other houses, which are inhabited by the clerks and some of the masters. The treasurer has also a back entrance to his house at the end of the counting-house, and his garden runs at the back of all the houses on the eastern side of this yard. The building on the western side is occupied by the boys; and in an ornamented niche of red brick in the centre, opposite the door of the counting house, is a statue of king Edward in his royal robes, with the sceptre in his right hand, and the charter of incorporation in


his left. From his neck is suspended the blue ribbon and George. On the black slab on which he stands is the following inscription :--





of famous memory in the


year of his age, founded this


The counting house is a neat brick building, containing a good room on the ground floor for the clerks, and a handsome room over it called the court-room, where the governors meet. It is of the Doric order, and has pillars supporting a frieze across it, with enriched arches. In each corner are pilasters, and the frieze without a cornice is continued round the room. The wainscot is pannelled, and the ceiling plain with a kind of fan in the centre. At the north end stands the president's chair, under a little canopy, with the arms of England over it. Beneath the arms is a half length portrait of king Edward, executed by Hans Holbein, in good preservation, the countenance very fair and delicate. On the right side of the above is a half length portrait of Charles II. by sir Peter Lely, with a more placid countenance than the generality of his portraits. On the left of king Edward is a portrait of king James the .

Besides the above royal pictures, there are portraits of the following gentlemen who have been presidents of the hospital: sir Richard Dobbs, knt. (the president) ; sir Wolstan Dixie, knt. lord mayor , president ; sir John Leman, ; sir Christopher Clitherow, ; sir Thomas Vyner, ; sir John Frederick, ; sir John Moore, ; sir Thomas Forbes, ; Richard Clark, esq. ; sir John Anderson, the late president, . There are also portraits of the following benefactors: Dame Mary Ramsay, ; Mr. Richard Young, ; Thomas Singleton, esq. ; William Gibbon, esq. ; Erasmus Smith, esq. ; Thomas Barnes, esq. ; John Morris, esq. ; Daniel Colwall, esq. ; John Fowke, esq. ; Thomas Stretchley, esq. ; Henry Stone, esq. ; Thomas Parr, ; Thomas Dyer, ; Mr. Dyer, jun. Mrs. Catherine Dyer; and J. Palmer, esq. a full length, by sir T. Lawrence.

Besides the above, there is also a portrait of a Mr. St. Amand, the grandfather of a benefactor, which was left to the hospital under very peculiar circumstances, as will appear by the following extract from the will of the benefactor :--

By will, dated , James St. Amand, esq. of St. George the Martyr, , gave the original picture of his grandfather to , upon condition that the treasurer thereof give a receipt to my executors, and a promise never to alienate the said picture; and as often as a change of treasurers takes place, every new treasurer shall send a written receipt and promise


of the same effect to the vice-chancellor of Oxford.

Item, I give all the rest of my money and property of every description (after the payment of my debts, legacies, and funeral, and whatever expense attends the execution of this will) to

Christ's Hospital

. And my will is, that whatever of my effects the governors of the hospital shall consider as being of no benefit to the hospital, they, the governors shall sell all such (except the picture aforesaid) to the best advantage, and the money arising from the sale shall go, together with all the money I may leave in specie or in my banker's hands undisposed of, to purchase


per cent. Bank annuities, which annuities, together with the securities for money which I leave behind me, shall be made


separate stock, never to be diminished by the hospital, unless my executors require the aid of apart of the said stock in consequence of an unforeseen expense attending this my will. My further will is, that the interest arising from such property (as long as the hospital shall preserve the aforesaid picture) shall be applied either to increase the number of blue coat children, or for the better assisting such of the children as may be put out apprentices by the said hospital. I further desire that the aforesaid picture shall be kept in the treasury of the said hospital, and that it annually be produced at the


general court held after the

1st of January

in every year, and such part of my will, relative to that hospital, shall be then and there publicly read. I also desire that the picture shall be shewn once annually to whomsoever the vice-chancellor of Oxford shall send to demand a sight thereof; but in case the sight be refused to the vice-chancellor or his deputy, then I direct that all my bequests given to

Christ's Hospital

shall immediately cease. And I hereby give and devise the same from that time to the University of Oxford, to the intent that the university may buy freehold lands of inheritance, and the rent arising therefrom to be applied as follows: in the


place, the chief Bodleian librarian shall receive of it as much as shall augment his salary to


annually, provided he be a bachelor. Secondly, the sub-librarian, if a bachelor, shall have his salary augmented to


per annum, which augmentation of salary shall continue only as long as they remain bachelors, and shall not be paid again if they marry, until other librarians who may be bachelors are substituted in their room. What remains after paying them I desire may be applied to the purchase of manuscripts and good printed editions of classic authors, such as may be worthy a place in the library. In this manner I desire such money may be disposed of, as (if either librarian is married) would contribute to the augmentation of his salary were he not married.

of the executors of this will was Dr. Stukeley, the eminent antiquary.

An erroneous opinion has been entertained, that this picture is the portrait of the Pretender, and which probably may have arisen from the circumstance of of the ancestors of Mr. St. Amand


having married Asceline, the daughter of Robert d«Aubigny, of the house of Stuart, an English baron in the reign of Henry III.

On the west side of the court or yard, is a passage which leads into the cloisters, at the end of which is the south entrance from . Over this gateway is another statue of king Edward, also in royal lobes, with the sceptre and orb, with the following inscription:




of famous memory,

King of England

, was the founder of

Christ's Hospital

; and

Sr. Robt. Clayton


knt. and alderman, sometime

Lord Mayor

of this city of


, erected this

statue of

King Edward

, and built most

part of this fabrick,

Anno Dom.



It is only from the passage leading to this gate, and from the backs of the houses in , that the south front of this hospital can be seen. It consists of a centre and wings of red brick, divided into stories, the former being marked by Ionic pilasters, rising from a continued plinth, above the ground floor, and supporting a continued entablature and segmental pediment. The wings have at the angles pilasters of the same order, supporting angular pediments; the western is occupied by a large arched window; the eastern by the statue above-mentioned. The rest of the front is divided by pilasters without capitals or enrichments, and with square windows.

In , the governors (after a very particular survey of the building had been taken) came to a resolution to rebuild the whole, as soon as a sufficient sum of money could be raised for the purpose; to accomplish which a part of the revenues of the hospital were devoted to the establishment of a fund, which was immediately aided by a grant of from the corporation of London, and has since been enlarged by many private benefactions.

The records and other papers belonging to the hospital are kept in a room built for the purpose, to preserve them from fire; amongst them is the earliest record of the hospital, and an anthem sung by the children, very beautifully illuminated.

There are in London wards, or large rooms, for the children, besides the infirmary or sick ward, and each of these wards accommodates from to boys. At Hertford there are wards for the boys, and for the girls, besides a grammar-school, a writing-school, and houses for the masters and beadles, the same as in London.

The whole establishment will accommodate boys and girls, who are provided for without any expense to their parents or


friends, and furnished will every thing necessary to forward their education.

The government of the foundations of king Edward having been vested in the corporation of London, the lord mayor, all the aldermen, and of the common council (chosen by lot out of their own body,) have the government of this hospital, aided and assisted by those gentlemen who have become governors by benefaction.

The lord mayor, aldermen, and common councilmen, have all the privileges of individual governors. The aldermen have exclusive privileges; but the common council men act in common with the other governors, and have the same powers, but no more, and on quitting the common council they cease to be governors. This also applies to the aldermen, who are only governors by virtue of their office; and on ceasing to be aldermen, they also cease to be governors, unless they have become governors by benefaction.

The treasurer, upon receiving a benefaction of informs the committee, who recommend that the gentleman should be made a governor, if qualified. The court then refers it back to the committee, to consider of his qualifications, and to report thereon, which is done by ballot. It usually follows that the gentleman is appointed a governor, no benefactor to that amount having been refused for a great many years.

Every governor, when he is admitted, has the following charge solemnly given him:


The cause of your repair hither at this present is, to give you knowledge, that you are elected and appointed, by the lord-mayor and court of aldermen, to the office, charge, and governance of Christ's hospital.

And, therefore, this is to require you, and every of you, that you endeavour yourselves, with all your wisdom and power, faithfully and diligently to serve in this vocation and calling, which is an office of high trust and worship: for ye are called to be the faithful distributors and disposers of the goods of almighty God to his poor and needy members. In the which office and calling if you shall be found negligent and unfaithful, ye shall not only declare yourselves to be the most unthankful and unworthy servants of almighty God; being put in trust to see the relief and succour of his poor and needy flock; but also ye shall shew yourselves to be very notable and great enemies to that work, which most highly doth advance and beautify the commonwealth of this realm, and chiefly of this city of London.

These are therefore to require you, and every of you, that ye here promise before God, and this assembly of your fellow-governors, faithfully to travail in this your office and calling, that this work may have its perfection, and that the needy number committed to your charge be diligently and wholesomely provided for, as you will answer before God, at the hour and time when you and we shall stand before him, to render an account of our doings. And, promising this to do, you shall be now admitted into this company and fellowship.

The number of governors added to the list by benefactions from to , was ; and the amount of their benefactions up wards of All the governors are not made by virtue of having given each. are to be named in years by the governors in rotation. If there are governors made by virtue of their benefactions, there are no nominations, except in the case of a new alderman being made within the years. Every alderman, at the biennial nomination after he comes into office, is allowed to name a governor (which governor is to be a benefactor to the amount of although the full number of should have been nominated on account of benefactions to the amount of In the latter case the new alderman names the governor, and there is no rotation governor at all.

At the head of the government of the hospital is the president, who, being an alderman, is, of course, of the corporation, and is elected for life, provided he continues an alderman. But the more immediate government is vested in the treasurer (who is chairman of all committees) and a committee, chosen from the whole body of governors. This committee has the whole superintendance of the hospital, and reports to the general court from time to time upon the state of the foundation. The lord mayor has presentations, as alderman, and as lord mayor; the president , as president, and as alderman; the other aldermen have each presentation annually, provided children are admitted.

If the lord mayor happened to be president, he would have presentations, as president, as lord mayor, and as alderman.

The treasurer has also presentations as treasurer, and in his turn as governor. The ordinary governors fill up the remaining number in rotation, beginning each year where the last presentation left off.

The following are the regulations for the admission of children into , London, specially revised and settled at a court, , and again at a court, .

In London there are classical masters, writing masters, with ushers. A mathematical-master upon king Charles's foundation, and upon Mr. Travers; a drawing-master, singing-master, steward, and matron; clerks, a surveyor and architect, land surveyor, and solicitor; a physician, surgeon, a dentist, and a resident apothecary. There are also beadles, nurses, and a cook.

At Hertford there is a classical-master, writing-master, ushers, and mistresses to the girls' school, a steward and matron, physician, surgeon, and apothecary, beadles, nurses, and a cook.

From the evidence given before the committee of the in , it appears that the gross income of the hospital,


exclusive of the balance in the hands of the treasurer upon making up the accounts, and arising from all sources, was, in , and in , The expenditure for the same years was- , ; and, in ,

The annual amount of salaries in London in was and at Hertford , making a total of , which includes the wages of all the servants, and pensions to retired officers and widows.

The cash-book is balanced every week, signed by the treasurer, and laid before the committee every time they meet. The general account of receipts and payments is made up at the end of every year, and reported to the general court in March.

There are at present boys and girls admitted annually, exclusive of those admitted on gifts; and of course nearly the same number discharged; but, as the number admitted is regulated the finances, the relative numbers seldom agree.

When a governor gives a presentation to the parents or nearest relative of the child to be admitted, it is necessary for them to obtain a copy of the certificate of the marriage of the parents, and also a copy of the register of the birth of the child, which must be taken to the counting-house, any day (holidays excepted) between the hours of and , when the presentation will be filled up, the parents giving an account of the number of children they have, their income, &c.; and information may then be obtained on what day the child will be admitted, should it be found eligible.

Every child is stripped and examined by the medical establishment, previous to its being admitted; and upon the report of those gentlemen the admission principally depends.

Once in every year the steward takes an opportunity of calling out all those boys whose terms expire within the year, and directs them to apprise their friends of the circumstance; the friends, in consequence, usually come within a few days of the time, and apply at the counting-house, where a written discharge is made out, which must be delivered to the steward, and the boy is at liberty to depart.

The masters of those boys that are bound apprentices are entitled to the sum of , which is paid to the master upon producing the indenture, pursuant to the wills of several benefactors, who left sums of money for that purpose; and at the expiration of the apprenticeship the young man may apply for a gift towards setting him up in business. These amount to various sums from to

The boys are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, all classical


learning, and Hebrew; part in mathematics, and part in drawing.

According to a recent regulation, all the boys proceed as far in the classics as their talent or age will allow. They all leave at , except those who are intended for the university or the sea.

A sufficient number complete the classical course of education to fill up the university exhibitions as they become vacant. The boys are all taught in the classics at Hertford, and are transferred to the London establishment when they are about years of age.

There are exhibitions or scholarships for Cambridge, and for Oxford, belonging to this institution; the value of which at Cambridge is per annum; and at Pembroke-hall an additional exhibition from the college, making about for the years, and for the last years; to which may be added the bachelor's and master's degrees, which are all paid by the hospital. The Oxford exhibitions are more, or The governors pay all fees of entrance, towards furnishing the room, for books, and for clothes, making at least for the outfit.

The Grecians, or scholars intended for the university, are selected by the head classical master, without any interference of the governors, according to their talents and behaviour, subject to the approval of their friends. In the event of more than being equally qualified, the choice would fall upon the boy of best behaviour; and if talent and behaviour were both equal, it would then go by seniority. exhibition goes every year to Cambridge, and every year to Oxford, making in years.

On day, the lord mayor, sheriffs, and governors, go to , where an anthem is sung by the boys, and a sermon preached by of the young gentlemen who have lately returned from college; after which his lordship, accompanied by the sheriff and governors, proceed to the hall, where orations are delivered- in English by the senior scholar, who soon after goes to college: and the other in Latin by the next in rotation. A handsome collection is then made for the youths; and his lordship and the governors retire to the court-room, where an excellent dinner is provided.

There are examination days in the course of the year, viz. in May and November, when the boys belonging to the Grammar-schools are examined as to their progress in the classics by the head master of St. Pail's school; in reading, by the Rev. Mr.

Birch; and in arithmetic, by a gentleman appointed by the governors for that purpose, who distributes gold and silver medals to the boys who shew the greatest proficiency. There are also prize pieces, written for the occasion, exhibited upon a cross table at the top of the hall; and the treasurer awards a


silvergilt pen to the best writer under each of the masters, and the other boys that write prize pieces, have each a small silver medal given them.

At Easter there is a vacation of a fortnight, the week of which is the cloathing-week; and on Easter Monday the boys walk in procession, accompanied by the masters and steward, to the , where they wait till the lord mayor is ready to accompany them to . His lordship and the lady mayoress are there joined by the sheriffs, the aldermen, the recorder, chamberlain, town clerk, and other city officers, with their ladies; when a sermon is preached and an anthem sung; after which the boys have leave to visit their friends.

On Easter Tuesday the boys walk in procession, attended by the steward, matron, nurses, &c. to the Mansion-house, where they have the honour of being presented individually to his lordship, who gives to each boy a new sixpence, a glass of wine, and a couple of buns; after which ceremony his lordship again attends them to , where a sermon is preached and an anthem sung the same as on Monday.

The rest of the week is the same as the other vacations, Wednesday being a whole holiday, and Friday being a half-day holiday; and on the Monday following school is resumed.

Every Sunday evening from Christmas to Easter is appropriated to public suppers, when the public are admitted into the hall to witness the ceremony, which, to strangers in particular, is very interesting. It is necessary upon these occasions to be introduced by a governor. After supper an anthem is sung, and the boys then pass in rotation in couples before the president or treasurer (whichever may happen to fill the chair) to whom they make their bow and retire. The sight of so many children, where there is so much order preserved, some with bread-baskets, others with knife-baskets, table-cloths, &c. can surely never be termed an uninteresting sight.

At Whitsuntide days vacation is allowed. In August they have also a vacation, which lasts a month; and it is at this time that the privilege of sleeping out is granted. This privilege, intended for the accommodation of those boys whose friends reside in the country, is granted upon condition: viz. that he must not be seen within miles of the hospital during the time except in going and returning. There is also a fortnight's vacation at Christmas.

The interior government of the wards is vested in the nurses, assisted by or monitors, who are appointed by the steward. These monitors, if in the reading class, are appointed markers by the head classical master; that is, they have to


hear the other boys read and spell after dinner on Sundays. As a reward for filling this situation the head classical master is allowed to grant a silver medal to those whom he thinks deserving, which he gives, with very few exceptions, to all who have filled the situation a year or more.

A library has within the last few years been established within the hospital; and no book is allowed to be read, until it has been inspected by the senior scholars, or Grecians, as they are termed.

The following was the state of this interesting charity in :

Children put forth apprentices, and discharged from Christ's hospital, 194, ten whereof being instructed in the mathematics and navigation, were placed forth apprentices to commanders of ships, out of the mathematical school, founded by Charles the Second194
Children buried in the year3
Children under the care and charge of the hospital, in London and at Hertford1132
To be admitted on presentations granted to this time,150


Opposite to the south-west entrance into this hospital, on the south side of , is , (formerly Eldeness lane) which derives its name from the inn or house of Richard Nevil, the king-making earl of Warwick. Speaking of his coming to London to the convention of , Stow says, he was accompanied by

six hundred

men, all in red jackets imbroidered with ragged staves, before and behind, and was lodged in Warwicke-lane: in whose house there was often


oxen eaten at a breakfast, and

every taverne was full of his meate, for hee that had anie acquaintance in that house, might have there so much of sodden and rost meate, as he could pricke and carry upon a long dagger.

The memory of this earl is preserved by the above stone statue in front of the house at the west corner in ; it was repaired in , by J. Deykes, architect.

On the west side of this lane, near the north end, is the


[] This name is derived from the circumstance of the town ditch running under it which was arched over by Mr. Calthorp.

[] The present Chamberlain of London.

[] Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools.

[] The capitals are of red brick, and are beautiful specimens of workmanship.

[] The hospital is obliged, pursuant to the wills of deceased benefactors, to receive 90 children of particular descriptions, independent of those admitted upon governors' presentations of this description are four annually from Guy's hospital, and the rest from public companies and charities entitled to present upon the above authorities.

[] History of Christ's hospital, by E. I. Wilson, a neat and interesting little work, from which the principal part of the account of the foundation is derived.

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 Title Page
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
CHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
CHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
CHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
CHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
CHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
CHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
CHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
CHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
CHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
CHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
CHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
CHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
CHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
CHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
CHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
CHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
CHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
CHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
CHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
CHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
CHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
CHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
CHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
CHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
CHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
CHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward