The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3
St. Paul's Cathedral.
It has been judiciously remarked, that
this stupendous fabric holds the most distinguished rank;
The popular tradition, that a temple, dedicated to Diana, once occupied the site of , has already been mentioned, as well as the small degree of credit which sir Christopher Wren, the architect of the present structure, was inclined to give to the common report.
It may not be improper to mention what Stow, the most accurate of all the historians of London, states on the subject of a Roman temple having once stood on the site of .
says this author,
Sir William Baude, knt. the of Edward the , in the year , on Candlemas day,
This graunt he made, and for performance
&c. His son, sir William Baude, knt. confirmed his father's gift in the thirtieth of the same reign.
Though sir Christopher controverted the idea of Diana's temple, he was of opinion that a Christian church had stood upon this spot at a very early period, agreeably to the statements of different ecclesiastical writers; yet as venerable Bede, in his account of the establishment of Christianity in London, under bishop Mellitus, gives
| no intimation of such a fact, its accuracy is liable to be questioned. Bede, who lived nearest to the time, ascribes the foundation of the original to Ethelbert king of Kent, to whom all the country, south of the Humber, was feudatory. This munificent prince, after his conversion by St. Augustine, besides greatly contributing to the establishment of the cathedral at Canterbury, founded the abbey of St. Augustine in that city, and afterwards, in the year , began the building of ; to which church he granted the manor of Tillingham, with other lands. Erkenwald, the bishop, expended large sums upon the new fabric, but whether for additions, or to Ethelbert's plan, cannot be ascertained. |
During the successive centuries, from that time to the conquest, the immunities and possession of the cathedral were greatly increased by different sovereigns; among whom were Kenred, king of Mercia,, Athelstan, Edgar and his queen, Ethelred, Canute, and Edward the confessor. William, the Norman, following the example of his Saxon predecessors, confirmed to all its estates and privileges by a charter, which concludes with the words,
He afterwards granted to Maurice, the bishop, and his successors for ever, the castle of Stortford, in Hertfordshire, with all its appurtenances.
In the year , the old cathedral was destroyed by a destructive fire, which enveloped the greater part of the city in similar ruin. After this event, bishop Maurice, who had been chaplain and chancellor to the conqueror, conceived the
a work, says Stow,
Much of the stone used in that edifice was brought from Caen, in Normandy; and
The magnitude of the new edifice was so great, that neither Maurice, nor de Belmeis, his successor, were able to complete the undertaking; though each of them presided years, and expended great sums in furthering it. The latter appropriated the whole revenue of his bishopric for carrying on the work, supporting himself and his family by other means. Bishop Belmeis II. following the example of his uncle, proceeded with the work, and his successors
completed the undertaking; though not in all parts in accordance with the original plan.
In the conflagration of the city in the year or , the eastern part, or choir of the new church, appears to have been burnt: when it was restored is uncertain, though Dugdale
| conjectures it to have been executed in the time of bishop Richard de Ely, who expended great sums on this fabric in the reign of Henry the . The erection of the central tower was probably carried on at the same time, yet this was not completed till , in the last year of bishop de Sancta Maria. In , bishop Niger undertook to rebuild and extend the choir, in the pointed style of architecture, then becoming prevalent. The expense of this was partly defrayed by collections made throughout England and Ireland, and by the sale of indulgences. On the completion of the work, in the year , |
In the year ,
This must have been to adapt them to the style of the new choir. In the same year, the foundation of the Lady Chapel was begun by Fulk Basset, the then bishop: bishop Baldock gave towards completing it; and the rest of the charges were principally defrayed by the sale of indulgences. This chapel appears to have been completed within a year or after , as Dugdale has preserved a contract bearing that date, for paving it with marble, at per foot. Beneath it, and extending also under part of the choir, was the extensive crypt known as St. Faith's church.
The upper part of the spire, which was of timber, being greatly decayed, and the old cross that crowned its apex having fallen down, a considerable repair in this part was made in the years and , and a new cross was then set up, in the ball of which, the bishop, Gilbert de Segrave, enclosed numerous holy relics, in the vain hope of preserving the spire from storms. This may be considered as the period of the completion of the ancient church, and years had now intervened from the time of its foundation by Maurice.
In , a beautiful clock, of curious mechanism, was erected. The hour hand, or rather the hand of an angel, revolved past the numerals. If contrived with graceful attitude and easy motion, the thought was singularly appropriate, a heavenly messenger marking the progress of time.
On Candlemas eve () in the year -, in
| a great tempest of wind, bail, snow, and rain, accompanied by thunder, the towering spire of this edifice |
at least in appearance,
The subsequent repair was not completed till , when a man was killed on the pinnacles, through the breaking of a rope with which he was raising the weather-cock; which was an eagle, with expanded wings, made of copper, gilt, feet in length, and feet and a half in breadth over the wings.
In the year , , the spire was again set on fire, though not by lightning, as at supposed, and as Stow has recorded in his Annals; for Dr. Heylin affirms, that an aged plumber, when at the point of death, confessed that the fire had been occasioned by his own carelessness, in leaving a pan of coals and other fuel in the steeple whilst he went to dinner; and that he had judged it better, for his own safety, not to divulge the real cause, as the flames had got so high before his return that he found them impossible to be quenched.
directed the mayor to assemble the citizens for the purpose of taking the requisite measures for an immediate repair,
The citizens and the clergy contributed very liberally after this example, and the work was so immediately proceeded with, that, within a month after the fire, a complete covering of boards and lead,
So much expedition was practised on this occasion, that the roofs of all the aisles were fully
completed and covered with lead before the expiration of the year; as well as |
In like manner,
In this latter sentence, the historian alludes, probably, to the spire, which was never rebuilt, though divers models were devised, and sufficient monies collected for the execution.
Such was the fate of the ancient church ; and like many other monuments of antiquity, it might have passed into oblivion, had not that meritorious antiquary, Dugdale, with the assistance of that clever draughtsman and engraver, Hollar, preserved in his History of some considerable memorials of its form and decorations.
The ancient church was cruciform in plan, consisting of a body with north and south aisles, having square towers attached to the north and south sides of the west front, the southern being the steeple of the parochial church of St. Gregory, which was also attached to the cathedral. A quadrangular cloister was erected on the south side of the nave, of its sides being formed by the walls of the nave, and another by the west wall of the south transept. In the centre of the inclosed area was an octangular chapter house. At the intersection of the transept with the nave and choir rose a square tower; behind the altar rails was a space often met with in ancient churches, called the presbyterium, and here the
which was partitioned by a screen from chapel situated still more eastward. The transept had an extra aisle to the east, but contrary to what is usually seen in large churches; there were no attached chapels, or any projection from the main building beyond the buttresses, except the cloister and St. Gregory's church. Within the walls were several chapels denominated Bishop Kempe's chapel, , and St. Dunstan's, besides the Lady chapel.
From the accurate engravings which have been left of the old church by Wenceslaus Hollar, we are enabled to give a summary view of the architecture. In the view taken before the repairs in the early part of the century, the exterior is shewn to have possessed many elegant specimens of architecture. St. Gregory's church has mullioned windows, the walls are embattled, and the square tower ends in a dwarf spire. The windows of the south aisle of the cathedral appear to have been the workmanship of the century, at which time great alterations had been made in the building. The buttresses were carved up pilaster fashion, as in all Norman buildings, shewing that the original wall still remained, and the transept had a splendid window of the above date in its south wall. The alterations which took place under the direction of Inigo Jones amounted to a total modernization of the nave and transepts, and though the architect certainly introduced some fine architecture in his improvements, the want of character, and the absurd mixture of Italian architecture with the old pointed style, destroyed the effect of both.
The west front of had a portico before the entrances of the Corinthian order, consisting of columns and pilasters, sustaining an entablature and ballustrade. of the
|columns, with insulated pilasters, were ranged in front, and columns and pilasters in the flanks: on the ballustrade were statues of Charles II. and James II.|
In the wall above the portico were circular headed windows, over which was a block cornice; a circular window occupied the gable, and obelisks, on pedestals, were applied to the angles, The portico may be regarded as a fine specimen of Italian architecture, but its beauties were lost by its connection with the wall above. The west front of St. Gregory's church had a Venetian window substituted for the original mullioned . The towers which flanked this front of the cathedral, were raised in height by the addition of an octagonal story and dwarf spire, which possessed considerable claims for approbation. The south side of the cathedral was completely modernized. The windows in St. Gregory's church were changed from pointed into Venetian; the buttresses of the cathedral converted into pilasters, finished with balls; the mullions and tracery of the windows destroyed, and modern ones with semicircular heads, having a cherub's head carved on the key-stone, which, with the addition of consoles supported a square cornice above the window, similar to numerous examples in the churches of sir Christopher Wren substituted in their place. The clerestory windows were also altered into semicircular headed windows; the walls were covered with a new ashlaring, and finished with a block cornice and parapets. The transept had a new south front, with heavy buttresses and trusses in an anomalous style of architecture, neither assimilating with the ancient or modern works. The window was destroyed and circular headed windows in series supplied its place.
The doorway was arched and accompanied with pilasters. The west side of the transept was altered in a style corresponding with the nave.
The choir still retained its pristine features. The windows were pointed and filled with mullions and tracery, in the taste of the century, showing how much ornamental work had been then added to the recently erected structure, the buttresses were finished with pinnacles, and united to the choir by flying arches. The flying buttresses built to counteract the weight of the spire, were worthy of attention; the tower had lancet shaped windows in the taste of the period when it was erected.
The north side of the nave had been modernized in the same style as the south, and the whole of this view of the church corresponded in its main features with the opposite . Between several of the buttresses of the choir on both sides were small vestries, or chapels, which only occupied the recessed space of the buttresses. The eastern side of the transept shewed the original architecture of the century, in the windows of the aisle the clerestory had been partially modernized.
The east end of the church, at the period of the fire, appears to have been nearly in the same highly ornamented state, to which it was brought by the additions of the century. It was a beautiful architectural composition. In the basement were seen windows, which served to light the crypt and its subchapels. The windows of the superstructure greatly resembled the south transept of , a series of arched openings extended along the entire wall, over which was a large Catharine wheel carved in rich and resplendent tracery and inscribed in a circle, the angles being occupied by circles. Above this window was a gallery with a parapet, pierced with quarterfoils. In the gable above the gallery, was a window occupied by tracery. The ailes which were separated from the central division by buttresses, ending on pinnacles, had windows similar to their sides.
The cloisters were made in height into stories ; the lower was occupied by an arcade, the upper contained a series of windows, upon the whole displaying a rich example of the pointed style.
|which stood in the middle of the central area, was octangular, and though evidently defaced, shewed the remains of rich and elegant workmanship, in the same style of architecture as York cathedral. In the interior pillars sustained the vaulted roof.|
The interior of the cathedral, in splendour equalled, if it did not surpass, any church in England; of its best features was an uninterrupted view from west to east of the grand roof.
The nave was in height made into stories; the story consisted of an arcade of considerable altitude, composed of semicircular arches sustained on lofty pillars surrounded with smaller columns. The , or gallery story, consisted of single arches of the same breadth as the lower ones, but of less height, sustained on clustered columns. The inner column of the main pillar was carried up to sustain the roof. The upper story and vault
|were in the early pointed style; the vaulting was sustained on ribs consisting of arches and cross-springers with bosses at the intersections, and was probably erected at the same time as the central tower. The semicircular arches were in the plainest but most scientific style of Norman architecture; they possessed all the grandeur without the excess of ornament which marked this singular style of building. This part of the church was evidently the work of bishop de Beaumeis, erected after the fire in .|
The upper story and vault were additions of the same period as that in which the central tower was erected. The perspective was beautiful, comprising a vista of nearly feet, bounded by the splendid window in the eastern wall. The aisles retained a portion of the original Norman architecture; below the windows was a small arcade of semicircular arches, sustained on Norman columns. The screen to the choir was a beautiful composition of the century; it was rich in canopied niches and pannelling in the finest style of pointed architecture. The choir, as well in the ensemble as the detail, strikingly resembled the nave of . The upright of the walls was made into stories like the nave, but all trace of Norman architecture had been removed. The story shewed a lofty arcade of acutely pointed arches sustained on clustered columns. The vaulting consisted of diagonal ribs springing from the side walls, and uniting with principal rib, continued along the whole vault at the crown of the arch with bosses at the points of juncture, being a counterpart of the nave of . The style of architecture shewed a building of the century ornamented in the style of the succeeding . The stalls displayed that mixture of pointed and Grecian architecture which marked the early part of the century. Behind the altar screen the same style of building was continued; this portion was styled the
and was hounded by the screen of the Lady chapel, which was ornamented with upright pannels, and finished with an em battled parapet.
It will be seen from the foregoing description, that the excellent series of engravings by Hollar, allow of a complete idea being formed of the style and arrangement of the ancient cathedral. The whole of the superstructure, like the cathedral at Canterbury, was raised on arched vaults, which comprised not only many chapels, but the parochial church of St. Faith. Of this part Hollar has left a splendid engraving; from which it appears to have been a strongly vaulted building of the century, the ribs of the vault springing from massive pillars and the arches acutely pointed. It was separated from the remainder of the crypt by a pierced screen richly ornamented with carving in open work.
When the spire was rebuilt, in the year , an exact measurement was taken of the church, and this was copied by Dugdale from a brass table that was anciently affixed against a pillar in the choir. The entire length of the building was then feet; the
|breadth, feet; the height of the nave, from the pavement to the top of the vaulting, feet; and the height of the choir, or new fabric, as it was called, was feet. The altitude of the tower, from the level ground, was feet, and of the spire, feet; making a total of feet: yet, according to the table, the whole height of the spire was only feet. This variation has been accounted for, by supposing the height of the tower to have been taken to the summit of the battlements, or pinnacles, and that of the spire to have been reckoned from its base, a mode of measurement which might easily create an excess of feet in the entire altitude.|
The tablet being itself a curiosity, a translation of the Latin inscription is added; it was affixed to a column near the tomb of the duke of Lancaster.
It is impossible to particularize, within the necessary limits of this work, the vast variety of chapels, chantries, shrines, monuments, and ecclesiastical ornaments and vestments, that were to be found within the old cathedral. This, however, is the less to be regretted, as a very full and interesting account, illustrated by numerous excellent engravings, by Hollar, may be seen in Dugdale's history. Some of the chapels and monuments were in the most beautiful style of the pointed architecture. The screen, also, which separated the nave from the choir, was in a similar taste, and remarkably elegant, being enriched with canopied niches and statues. The statues which last adorned this screen, had been executed at the expense of that eminent citizen sir Paul Pindar.
The ancient mode of worship was celebrated in with great magnificence, and the numerous altars were richly adorned. Various statues of the Virgin, and of different saints, stood also in divers parts of the church, and frequent oblations were made before them.
as Dugdale calls it, which stood in the body of the church, had a solemn service performed before it every morning; to institute and support which, Barnet, bishop of Bath and Wells, left certain lands, in . Another statue of the Virgin stood in the Lady Chapel; and to this Hatfield, bishop of Durham, invited all
to come and make offerings, or to say a Paternoster, and an Ave. under promise of an indulgence of pardon for days. The blessed Mary had also a chapel and an altar, expressly dedicated to her (independent of the Lady Chapel) where at every celebration of her offices a taper was burnt, weighing . Before the altar in the Lady Chapel tapers, each weighing , were constantly kept burning during the celebrations in honor of God, our Lady, and St. Lawrence. In the nave also stood a great cross, with a taper burning; and near the north door of the church was a crucifix, to which frequent oblations were made. A picture of St. Paul, which was
on the right side of the high altar, is spoken of as a masterly performance; and may be regarded as an early specimen of oil painting, as it was executed in the year , and cost
The number of chantry chapels amounted to : of these, full particulars, with the names of the founders, &c. may be seen in Dugdale's history. There were likewise no fewer than endowed anniversary obits. Mr. Brayley observes, that these facts, when combined with the various saints' chapels, and altars, lead to the inference, that the priests belonging to this cathedral, including the regular establishment, could hardly be fewer than .
Among the splendid treasures of this church, as given by Dugdale, from an inventory taken in , and which occupies folio pages of the Monasticon, were the following : morses of gold, of silver; of copper, gilt, and of wood, plated with silver; all of them, richly embellished with jewels: pair of silver phials, or cruets; silver ampuls; silver chrismatory; pair of silver candlesticks; a silver cup, gilt, with
|a cover and pyx; holy-water vessels; silver censers; silver globes, with a plate and ship for frankincense; silver basons; silver crosses; golden chalices, or cups; silver chalices; books, richly bound; silver biers, with many trunks, boxes, and caskets with relics, decorated with jewels; silver cups; horns, enriched with silver; mitres, partly adorned with jewels as were also the bishop's gloves; pair of rich sandals; croziers; rich cushions; copes of the richest silks; many copes of cloth of gold, and others embroidered with curious figures; eighteen amices; vestments, with proper stoles, manciples, tunics, dalmatics, albes, corporals, canopies, &c. besides a great variety of rich articles belonging to the numerous altars, shrines, and chapels.|
Under the ancient form of worship in , it was the custom, annually, to choose an , or boy-bishop, who assumed the state and attire of a bishop, and whose rule continued from St. Nicholas's day () to that of the Holy Innocents, .
The boys of were famous for acting mysteries, or holy plays; and were also among the very of those who performed the more regular dramas. So early as the year , or of Richard the , they petitioned the king to prohibit some ignorant and
of the most remarkable occurrences that ever took place within the old cathedral, was the attempt made in by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, under the commands of pope Gregory XI, to compel Wickliff, the reformer, to subscribe to the condemnation of some of his own tenets, which had been recently promulgated in the articles that have been termed the Lollard's Creed. The pope had ordered the above
|prelates to apprehend and examine Wickliff; but they thought it most expedient to summon him to , as he was openly protected by the famous John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; and that nobleman accompanied him to the examination, together with the lord Percy, marshal of England. The proceedings were soon interrupted by a dispute, as to whether Wickliff should sit or stand; and the following curious dialogue arose on the lord Percy desiring him to be seated.|
This harsh language so exasperated the bishop's partizans, that the duke and the earl marshal judged it prudent to withdraw with Wickliff; yet the tumult continued through the day, and the city populace, instigated by some false rumours, forced the gates of the Marshalsea, in , and released the prisoners; and afterwards proceeding to the duke's palace, in the Savoy, plundered his house, and would have committed violence on his person, had they been able to have found him.
The splendour of the Catholic forms of worship in was gradually abrogated, as the Reformation assumed a decided character. of the latest of these exhibitions was on Whit-Sunday () , when the peace of Guisnes was proclaimed with great solemnity, and a general procession
was made from through and , to Leadenhall, and back again to . The procession was composed of
This was the last shew, continues the historian, of the rich crosses and copes in London; for shortly after they, with other their church plate, were called into the king's treasury and wardrobe.
On the eighteenth of September, in the succeeding year, the litany was chaunted in in the English language, and the epistle and gospel read at the high mass in the same tongue. Within months afterwards () the rood,
On the Candlemas day following, , the bearing of candles in the church was left off throughout the whole citie of London«; and various other ceremonies, as the strewing of ashes on Ash Wednesday, the carrying of Palms on palm Sunday, &c. were successively discontinued.
In the beginning of the year ,
Shortly after, on the , proclamation, says Stow,
The following entry occurs in the journal of the youthful monarch Edward the .-
These mandates, however, were not immediately attended to; and it was not till the (St. Barnabas's day), , that the high altar in this cathedral was removed. A table was then set where the altar stood,
On the feast of All Saints () , the new service book of the Common Prayer, was used in , and in the other churches of the city. On this occasion bishop Ridley preached a sermon in the choir in the forenoon,
and in the afternoon
The prebendaries of had now left off wearing their hoods, and the use of all copes, crosses, &c. was forbidden; soon afterwards,
In the following year, the bishop of London, the lord mayor, the lord chief justice,
were appointed commissioners for collecting all the remaining
in the metropolis,
On the accession of queen Mary, Bonner, the deprived bishop of London, was released from imprisonment and reinstated in his see. Shortly afterwards, the Latin service was re-established in ; and on the full restoration of the Romish religion and institutions by authority of parliament, Bonner ordered the choristers to proceed to the cathedral tower, and chaunt immediately such psalms as were suitable to the occasion. He had before this commenced his
That the London populace were not pleased with this change in religious affairs, may be inferred from an occurrence related by Stow, in these words:--
Whether any punishment awaited the perpetrators of this act does not appear; but Pendleton, most probably through his interference in the business, had a gun fired at him shortly afterwards, whilst preaching at Paul's Cross, the shot of which passed near to him, and struck on the church wall. This occasioned a proclamation to be issued, forbidding the bearing of weapons and the shooting with hand-guns. On the of the November following, a sermon was preached
| in the choir of , by Dr. Chadsey, of the prebendaries, in the presence of the mayor, aldermen, and city companies, bishop Bonner and other bishops, on account of a letter that had been received from the privy council, ordering to be sung in all the churches in the diocese, |
When the sermon was ended, the was sung; after which,
days afterwards, cardinal Pole having come by water from to , proceeded to ,
where he preached in presence of king Philip of Spain, from the text
, &c. and declared in his sermon that
The accession of queen Elizabeth in , again proved propitious to Protestantism, and the church-service was once more read in English at , and the other London churches, by proclamation; and at the same time the elevation of the host was strictly forbidden. When her sister died, Elizabeth was at Hatfield, and on her way thence to town, she was met at Highgate by most of the bishops, who, tendering their allegiance. were permitted to kiss their sovereign's hand, with the single exception of Bonner; the recollection of whose excessive severities induced the queen to treat him with marked disdain. In the following January, the papal supremacy was for ever abolished by parliament, and a general uniformity of worship established agreeably to the new book of Common Prayer, which, on the ensuing Whitsunday () was read generally in all the churches.
On the , the great gates of the west end of the cathedral were blown open in a tremendous storm of wind, which also caused the loss of many lives in the Thames and at sea. In another dreadful storm of wind, on the , the south-west gate was blown open: all the bolts, bars, and locks being broken by the violence of the blast.
The anniversary of Elizabeth's accession to the throne (anno ) was celebrated in London with great pomp, and, after a sermon preached by bishop Fletcher at cross, before the lord mayor, aldermen, &c.
This mention of the steeple can only refer to the stone-work that rose immediately above the intersection of the roofs of the nave and
| transept, as we know that the spire itself was never rebuilt after its destruction by fire in . It is observable, however, that even Ben Jonson, in his comedy of , performed in , has spoken of the steeple as if it was then standing. Iniquity says,
This probably refers to some surprising feats performed at different times from this steeple.
When queen Mary visited , as she passed through the churchyard, a Dutchman of the name of Peter stood on the weathercock of the steeple, holding a streamer in his hand, yards long, and waving it, stood some time on foot, at the same time shaking, the other;
The Dutchman had, however, adopted the precaution of constructing scaffolds under him, which would have saved his life, had he fallen from this perilous height. The city gave him for his
which, though not much, was a better reward than James the bestowed on the man who climbed to the top of Salisbury cathedral; the king conferring on him a patent for performing the feat exclusively.
On the marriage of Philip and Mary. when the king and queen passed the churchyard,
all of which were performed on the coronation of Edward VI.
It must appear strange to those who are acquainted with the decent order and propriety of regulation now observed in our cathedral churches, and other places of divine worship, that such improper customs and disgusting usages as are noticed in various works, should have been formerly admitted to be practised in ; and more especially that they should have been so long habitually exercised as to be defended on the plea of prescription.
The abuses at length became so flagrant, that an act of common council was issued to restrain them. This act, which was dated the , in the year of the reign of Philip and Mary, gives a curious picture of the manners of the time. It states, that
The act then proceeds to impose a fine on all future offenders of for the offence, for the , and for the , with nights imprisonment.
This statute, however, must have proved only a temporary restraint (excepting probably as to the leading of animals through the church ;) for in the reign of Elizabeth, we learn, from Malcolm's , that idlers and drunkards were indulged in lying and sleeping on the benches at the choir door; and that other usages, too nauseous for description, were also frequent.
Among the curious notices relating to the irreverend practices pursued in this church in the time of Elizabeth, collected by the same author from the manuscript presentments on visitations, preserved at , are the following:
Spur-money was an exaction from persons who entered the cathedral booted and spurred; the gentlemen of the choir were peremptory in their demand, and threatened imprisonment in the choir for the night to all who refused them a pecuniary gift. The custom is still prevalent among the juvenile members of the chapel royal, at Windsor, the choristers at Lichfield, and some other cathedrals. At the time that the above presentment was made, spurs were generally worn by the bucks and dashers of the age, to whom Ben Jonson alludes in a scene in the Alchymist, where Subtle advises Abel Drugger to place a
The notices of encroachments on , in the same reign, are equally curious. The chapels of the different chantrys were used most infamously. chapel in the chancel, was a receptacle for old stones, and a ladder. Long chapel in the nave received fir poles and lumber, the rubbish of the repairs of ; years had elapsed since they were placed there. St. Katharine's was used as a school-room, and a chapel adjoining Jesus chapel, was let for a glazier's workshop! Part of the vaults beneath the church was occupied by a carpenter; the remainder was held by the bishop, the dean and chapter, and the minor canons. vault, thought to have been used for a burial-place, was converted into a wine-cellar, and a way had been cut into it through the wall of the building itself. The shrowds and cloisters under the convocation house,
More than houses also had been built against the outer walls of the cathedral; and part of the very foundation was cut away to make offices. of those houses had a closet literally dug in the wall: from another was a way through a window into a ware-room in the steeple; a ,
and the owner of
| a |
From another presentment we learn the following:--
during this and the following reigns, were composed of a motley assemblage of the gay, the vain, the dissolute, the idle, the knavish, and the lewd; and various notices of this fashionable resort may be found in the old plays and other writings of the time. Ben Jonson, in his , has given a series of scenes in the interior of , and an assemblage of a great variety of the characters; in the course of which the curious piece of information occurs, that it was common to affix bills, in the form of advertisements, upon the columns in the aisles of the church, in a similar manner to what is now done in the : those bills he ridicules in affected specimens, the satire of which is admirable. Shakespeare, also, makes Falstaff say, in speaking of Bardolph,
It would seem, from Massinger's comedy of the
that even cut-purses might be enumerated among the frequenters of Paul's. Shave «em says,
In a scarce tract, intituled , printed in , Paul's Walk and its visitants are described in the following whimsical terms; to the honour of the fair sex, females do not appear to have formed any part of the company.
What is meant by the sentence,
alludes, probably, to the common saying (still in use) of
Stowe relates, that sir John Beauchamp, son to the great Guy, earl of Warwick, had a
in , which was misnamed Humphrey's, duke of Gloucester's, by ignorant people, who held the duke's memory in such particular veneration, that they were accustomed to assemble (thrice a year) at his tomb, and
to be his servants. The most solemn meeting was on the morning of St. Andrew's day, which, on this occasion, was, most probably, kept as a fast by the more zealous of the duke's servants; though the circumstances are not well explained, either by Stowe or Munday. Stowe's words are, that those who profess to
Antony Munday, Stowe's continuator says, that those who met
The other assembly took place on May day,
Amidst so many profanations of this sacred place, it will not surprise the reader to find added to them that of lottery gambling.
The lottery ever known in this country was drawn at the west door of , in . It consisted of tickets, at each, the profits of which were to be appropriated to repairing the havens of the kingdom. The drawing began on the , and continued day and night until the . The prizes were all in plate. Another lottery consisting of rich armour was drawn here in . On both these occasions a temporary wooden house was erected next to the walls for the purpose.
The annexed engraving shews the form of the church and the situation of the tombs.
Among the numerous monuments which adorned the old cathedral, the following were the most curious and important:--
In the nave on the south side was the tomb of John de Beauchamp. It was in the form of an altar, on which was his effigy in complete armour, with a surtout, emblazoned with his arms; his hands were joined in prayer, his head supported by a cushion, and his feet rested against a lion. The sides of the monument were divided into compartments, each containing a quaterfoil, every leaf a trefoil, and, in the centre, a shield of arms.
The tomb of bishop Kemp exhibited a fine specimen of sepulchral architecture of the time of Edward IV. It stood in the north aisle of the nave, in a chapel where service was performed daily. The screen consisted of open arches, decorated with trefoils, the buttresses with pinnacles and foliage. Above was a frieze with angels, shields of arms, badges, &c. finished with a cornice formed of lozenges pierced into quaterfoils. The basement had delicate arched pannels. At the east end of the screen was a circular arched niche, with a pointed moulding over it, on each side of which were small statues. The effigy of the bishop, arrayed in pontificalibus, lay on an altar tomb within.
On the floor of the nave and choir were numerous brasses, some of particular beauty. Thomas de Eure was represented in a vestment, embroidered with niches and saints. circular arches, with rising pinnacles, formed the canopy, above which was a circle, containing a representation of the annunciation. rich niches with saints, formed the border. John Newcourt had an equally elegant monument, with an engraving of the annunciation. There were also similar monuments, with their effigies, to Robert de Braybroke, bishop Fitzhugh, William Woraley, dean, died , Roger Brabazon, canon residentary, died d , and bishop King, exclusive of numerous brasses for the minor clergy of the cathedral.
In the north aisle of the choir were the following monuments :--
Beneath flat pointed arches in the wall, (before which were acutely pointed arches with trefoil heads and foliage capitals, and between the sweeps, circles enclosing quaterfoils,) were the tombs of the Saxon kings Sebba and Ethelred. The sarcophagus of each had a pointed covering fluted, and resting on dwarf columns.
Above each of their tombs was a tablet with the following inscriptions in black letter:
The tomb of William Aubrey, consisted of an arched recess, in which was his effigy between columns of the composite order resting on a plinth, and sustaining an entablature, in the centre of which were his arms in a scroll, and on either side a winged hourglass and a scull. He was represented with a pointed beard, ruff, and black gown and cap, his left hand resting on a scull and his right holding a roll of parchment. Beneath the effigy was the following inscription:--
Beneath was represented in basso relievo, female figures and male, being in armour, and all in the attitude of prayer.
On the same side was the monument of John de Chishul, bishop of London, ob. ; it was a plain sarcophagus, under pointed arches.
Bishop Niger's tomb was plain, of the altar form, before it were pointed arches, and in the back wall pierced quaterfoils. Above the tomb was a light screen of pointed arches, the heads of each filled with tracery of very delicate execution.
Attached to a tablet was the following inscription:--
On the same side of the aisle was a handsome monument to the memory of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, who died, , aged . The tomb was formed by a basement and pedestals, on
|which were composite pillars. The lower had arches, those on the side friezes and cornices only. Under those arches lay the effigies of the earl and his lady, on a sarcophagus; at the head his daughter Anne, lady Talbot, kneeling, and at the foot were sons in armour, viz. Henry, earl of Pembroke, and sir Edward Herbert; on the middle columns were others of the same order, sustaining the arms and crests of the family; over the lateral columns were obelisks and shields of arms; the whole was decorated with scroll work, foliage, &c.|
The next monument of interest was on the same side, to the memory of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Constantia and Blanch, his wives. It was not so elegant a design as some others of the same period. The effigies of himself and his wife Blanch, lay beneath a canopy of pointed pinnacles, which was supported by hexagonal pillars on small pedestals. The whole design, as Mr. Malcolm remarks, was rather clumsy. His spear, a curious shield, and his abacof, or cap of state, were suspended before the monument.
On a tablet was the following inscription :
Opposite the last was a handsome monument to the memory of sir Simon Burley ; his effigy in armour lay on an altar tomb, with a canopy at his head, his feet resting on a lion. The front of the tomb was divided into divisions, by buttresses ornamented with pinnacles. The middle division was double the width of the lateral ones, and was surmounted with a double arch, from which rose crocketted pinnacles, the spaces between being ornamented with shields of arms, &c.
On a tablet at the back of the tomb was the following inscription :--
On the north side of this aisle, beneath acutely pointed arches, the pillars of which rested on the tomb, was the effigy in brass of Ralph de Hengham, lord chief justice of the King's Bench.
Opposite the last, was a monument of the composite order, to the memory of sir Thomas Heneage, knt. chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, &c., who died , his effigy in armour and that of his wife were placed under an arch. A kneeling female and a child lying on a tomb, were represented on the basement.
In the chapel of St. George, at the east end of the north aisle, was a curious monument, to the memory of sir John Wolley, ob. . Above a basement was represented the effigies of persons, and at each corner was a composite column, supporting statues of Time, Fame, &c.;
On the north side of the high altar, was a monument to Alexander Nowell, dean of , died . In a niche was his bust, in a furred gown, with a cap and ruff, and on each side an obelisk.
In the south aisle were the following monuments, in a niche of black marble surmounted by an inscription and arms, the effigy of John Donne, D.D. (died March ,) in a winding sheet rising from a vase; near this was dean Colet's tomb. It consisted of a plain altar, with a skeleton stretched on a mat. At the corners were pillars, supporting others of the same order, surmounted with sculls. In the upper intercolumniation was an arched niche, containing a bust of the dean, the hands crossed on a book. Above the arch, was the crest of the Mercer's company, and below the niche : COL- LET: DECA: S. PAV: and on either side the following inscriptions:
On the front of the tomb below the skeleton was the following :
Near this was a composite monument with a recumbent effigy of William Hewit, esq. .
On the same side was a handsome monument, of the composite order, to the memory of sir W. Cockayn, . On a sarcophagus were the effigies of himself and his wife, covered by a pediment, supported by pillars.
In the eastern part of this aisle, was a heavy Ionic monument to sir Christopher Hatton, lord chancellor. On a sarcophagus was his effigy, in armour, with the robe of the order of the garter, his head resting on a mat. At each end of the tomb were pillars and pilasters, and between them a large arch; above the cornice, niches with figures between composite pillars, with the arms and crests of the deceased. On each side of the monument were heavy obelisks.
Near this was the monument of sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper, obit . It consisted of composite pillars, with pedestals elevated on a double basement, forming the support of a triangular pediment, on which were his arms, scrolls, and sculls. The effigies of his wives lay on the tomb, attired in the costume of the age, and on a table above was the effigy of sir Nicholas in full armour, his head bare, and resting on a rolled mat, at his feet his crest, a boar.
The tombs of Henry de Weugham, , and Eustace de Fauconberge, , bishops of London, were situated beneath pointed arches. At the commencement of the outward mouldings of these arches were roses, and above them circles inclosing quaterfoils. That of Wengham was a plain tomb, with his effigy recumbent in pontifical robes, and giving the benediction; over his head was a trefoil canopy. Fauconberge's was similar, except that the tomb had a border of foliage, and was divided into square pannels enclosing quaterfoils.
In the chapel of St. Dunstan, at the east end of this aisle, was the monument of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln. It consisted of an altar tomb, the front being adorned with niches and statues. On it lay the effigy of the earl in chain armour, with a sleeveless surtout. Angels knelt at his head, and at his feet was a lion.
In the nave of this church was a monument to the memory of bishop William, the Norman, though the site of it is not marked in Hollar's plan of the cathedral, neither has Dugdale described it. On it was the following inscription:--
Near this, attached to a column, was the following inscription, placed there by Edward Barkham, lord mayor, :--
Among the numerous eminent men who were buried in this church without monuments were sir John Poulteney, times mayor, ob. ; Hamond Chychwell, times mayor, ob. ;
|the duchess of Bedford, sister to Philip duke of Burgundy, ob ; sir Francis Walsingham, ob. ; sir Philip Sidney, ob. ; Dr. Thomas Lynacre, the famous physician to Henry VIII., ob. : William Lilly, the grammarian, master of school, ob. ; sir William Dethick, garter king at arms, ob. ; sir Anthony Vandyke, the celebrated painter, ob. ; and most of the Saxon bishops of London, besides those already mentioned.|
Among the abundant decorations of the old church, the high altar, and the shrine of St. Erkenwald, are celebrated as prodigies of splendour, in costly materials and workmanship. The former stood between columns in the eastern part of the choir: it was adorned with rich jewellery, and surrounded with images, most beautifully wrought; over it was a curious canopy of wood, depicted with the figures of saints and angels. Near the altar was St. Erkenwald's Shrine, which rested on a plain tomb, and was enriched with gold, silver, and precious stones; among which were
of Richard de Preston, of London, grocer, there to remain for curing diseases of the eyes. This shrine was for many ages the resort of the pious, and the gifts made to it were exceedingly valuable. Here king John, of France, when prisoner in England, offered basons of gold at the high altar; and Dugdale records, that the dean and chapter, in , employed goldsmiths during a whole year, to work on this venerated monument. The remains of St. Erkenwald were removed into the new church in the year .
The neglected state of the old cathedral during the latter years of Elizabeth, and in the reigns of James the and Charles the , has been already noticed, yet a few additional particulars of the several attempts made to effect a restoration of the building during the domination of the last sovereigns, may not be unacceptable.
In an estimate made in , the total of the required expenditure for repairs amounted to a sum much too great to be obtained by the unsupported endeavours of the bishop and the dean and chapter; and the king at that period seemed wholly indifferent to the deplorable state of the fabric. At length, however, after several years of indefatigable though ineffectual exertions, a gentleman named Henry Farley had the honour to excite the sovereign to patronize the intended reparation.
James, as a preliminary step, visited the cathedral in great state, on Sunday the , on horseback, attended by a numerous train of the nobility, state officers, courtiers, &c. He was met, agreeably to the ancient custom, at the posts and chains, called the bars, near the Temple gate, , by the lord mayor, sir William Cockain, the recorder, alderman, and other officers of the city, and presented with a purse of gold. On entering
|at the west door of , the king kneeled, and pronounced a prayer for the success of the undertaking. Thence he-proceeded to the choir under a canopy borne by the dean and residentary canons, accompanied by the clergy, and others, singing. The choir was adorned with some of the king's own arras (tapestry hangings) which had been sent for the purpose from . Hence after an anthem had been sung, the royal visitor proceeded to cross, where a sermon from an appropriate text (Psalm cii. verses and ) was preached by Dr. King, the then bishop of London, who had afterwards the honour to entertain the king with a sumptuous repast at his palace, which nearly adjoined to the church on the south side.|
In the November following a royal commission was issued for prosecuting the repairs, and soon afterwards a general subscription was commenced, in the progress of which large sums of money were received, and considerable quantities of stone provided: yet nothing of moment was then done ; much of the money was wasted, and the stone was misapplied; some of the latter was borrowed by the duke of Buckingham for the erection of the Water-gate at York House.
After the accession of Laud to the see of London, the business proceeded with greater vigour and effect, as has been already shewn; and under the direction of Inigo Jones, the work went rapidly on, till the breaking out of the civil war threw all things into confusion, and the parliament confiscated the unexpended money and materials to their own use.
of the orders of the house of commons after the abolition of episcopacy was, that the committee for pulling down
should take into their custody
A few months afterwards, namely, , it was also voted by the same house,
The famous Dr. Burges was afterwards appointed lecturer, and had a yearly salary of settled on him from the revenues. His discourses were delivered towards the east end of the church, which, with part of the choir, was
|separated from the body by a brick wall; and the congregation entered through of the north windows, which had been converted into a doorway. The elegant portico at the west end was fitted up with a range of shops below for milliners and others, and above were lodging rooms, which, if detraction has not usurped the pen of truth, were appropriated to purposes of a description far less commendable. About this time, also, as sir John Hawkins informs us, there was a music house at the west end of , known by the sign of the Mitre, which was frequented by persons of consequence, and who occasionally danced there.|
The re-establishment of the regular cathedral service took place as soon as it was possible for the members of the church to complete the necessary arrangements after the restoration. New subscriptions were solicited, and a commission for
the ruinous fabric, was issued under the king's letters patent, dated April the eighteenth, ; the repairs were begun on the following, under the direction of sir John Denham, K. B. who received a day as surveyor-general of the works, and who continued to hold that office till his death in , when Dr. Wren, afterwards sir Christopher, was unanimously chosen to succeed him: the salary of the latter was, on the , fixed at the sum of per anuum.
After the consumption of much fruitless labour, and the expenditure of . the principal part of which was for the portico, the great fire of destroyed the chief part of the building, and irreparably damaged the remainder. Still, however, the vast magnitude of the work, and the contemplation of the great expense requisite for building a new cathedral, occasioned a lapse of several years, as well as a further loss of considerable labour and materials, before it was finally determined that all attempts at reparation were hopeless. This, indeed, had long been the opinion of sir Christopher Wren, whose sagacious and penetrating judgment will be at once estimated from the following extract of a letter directed to him when at Oxford, in , by Dr. Sancroft, the then dean of , and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury.
The dean then notices various defects in the new casing of the upper walls by Inigo Jones, and proceeds thus:
Another letter, sent by the dean to sir Christopher, in July, commences with these words:
That this great man had been perfectly steady in his opinion of the necessity which existed for constructing a new edifice, may be seen by the following passage from sir John Evelyn's
published in , and addressed to sir Christopher:
At a meeting of the commissioners, in the latter part of the same month (namely, ) a letter from the king was read, which stated that
His majesty then proceeds to order the old wall to be taken down to the foundation of the east end,
The taking down of the parts mentioned in the king's letter
In August, the king requested that all the
unfit for the church, should be applied to the raising of the ground near Fleet-bridge, &c. where
were to be erected, which required
and during the subsequent months of the same year, many coffins, and bones of the dead, were removed, and re-buried in other parts of the church and church-yard. It is to be lamented that sufficient attention was not given to the preservation of such of the monuments as had escaped the ravages of the great fire; for, with little exception, these appear to have been regarded as
a great quantity of which was, in the progress of the work,
The impracticability of restoring the ancient church had now become so apparent, that Dr. Wren was ordered to prepare the requisite plans for a new cathedral; and, in the following year, we learn that he was presented with
In the construction of the model here spoken of both the architect and his employers acted under the persuasion that the expense of the intended building would be defrayed by voluntary contributions alone, and it was therefore deemed expedient to restrict the design to an edifice of moderate bulk. This model, however, though of
did not satisfy the public wish; though
the new fabric
Shortly afterwards it was determined by parliament that a duty
| of per chaldron should be levied on sea-coal, the produce to be partly applied to the erection of the intended church. The means of an augmented expenditure being thus secured, the architect drew various sketches, by way of consulting the prevailing taste, and finding that |
he extended his ideas, and endeavoured to gratify
it consisting only of order, the Corinthian, like at Rome,
as what he would have put in execution with the more cheerfulness and satisfaction,
to what was called a
obliged him to form new designs: but these he endeavoured so to modify, as to reconcile, as nearly as possible,
Hence arose the plan of the present church, which, in , was finally approved by the king, who ordered a model to be constructed sufficiently large to admit a man within it, and the commissioners directed the chapter-house to be roofed, ceiled, and glazed, as a receptacle for the model. After that period, says the Parentalia,
As the building was proceeded with, various minor alterations were made in the original plan, yet these were principally in the ornamental parts. The pulling down of the remaining walls of the old structure, and the removal of the rubbish, proved excessively laborious, as well as dangerous, and several men were killed in the progress of the work. It was intended that the choir should be erected, and, in consequence, the clearance was commenced at the east end, the demolition of which, with its beautiful rose window and pinnacles,
|furnished employment for men during days. The demolition of the ruined tower was a business of yet greater difficulty, as its height was nearly feet, and the labourers were afraid to work above. The architect therefore felt it necessary to facilitate its destruction by art; and gunpowder and the battering ram were in succession employed to propel the fall of its massive piers, each of which were about feet in diameter.|
In using the gunpowder Dr. Wren is said to have acted under the direction of a gunner from the Tower; and he commenced his experiments with the north-west pier, in the centre of the foundation of which a hole, feet square, was wrought,
Into this cavity a deal box, containing only eighteen pounds of powder, was
and a proper train laid. The effects of the ignition are thus detailed in the Parentalia:
In a subsequent attempt to expedite the fall of the walls, a person to whom the direction of the mine had been entrusted, charged the hole with too large a quantity of powder, through which, and from not closing it sufficiently, a stone was shot out into a house on the opposite side of the church-yard: this alarmed the neighbouring inhabitants so greatly, that the architect was ordered,
to use no more powder. He therefore, to save time and labour, determined to try a battering-ram, which he caused to be formed of a strong mast, about feet in length, strengthened with iron bars and ferrels, and headed with a great spike. It was then suspended beneath a triangular prop, and men were employed to vibrate it with force against part of the wall; and this they did with such effect, that on the day the wall fell: the same engine was used, and with similar success, in beating down all the more lofty ruins. The vast quantity of rubbish, which covered the ground in heaps, considerably impeded the digging and laying out
|of the foundations, and so much as loads were removed from the site of the church: most of the Kentish rag-stone found among it was purchased by the city to repave the streets with.|
On searching for the natural ground, that he might have a secure foundation for the new fabric, Dr. Wren discovered that the old cathedral had stood upon a stratum of very close and hard pot-earth, about feet deep on the north side, but gradually declining towards the south, till on the declivity of the hill it was scarcely feet: be concluded, however,
On boring beneath the pot-earth, he found a stratum of loose sand; and lower still, at low water mark, water and sand, mixed with periwinkles, and other sea-shells; under this a hard beach, and below all, the natural bed of clay, that extends, far and wide, under the city, county, and river.
The ancient burying-place, and the various Roman and other antiquities that were found on digging the foundations, have already been noticed, as well as the pit under the north-east angle of the present choir, which was excavated by the Roman potters, and afterwards filled up with fragments of broken vessels, urns, &c. This pit occasioned much additional labour, for the
having been taken away, the architect felt himself compelled to dig through all the intervening strata, till he came to the sea-beach at the depth of feet; here he commenced a pier of solid masonry, feet square, and carried it up to within feet of the present surface, where he turned a short arch to connect the work with the foundations of the new church, the line of which had been interrupted by the excavation.
The commission for rebuilding the cathedral was issued on the ; and on the ,
| the king signed an order for the work to be commenced, |
a sufficient stock of money having been raised to
In the same year, on the , the stone was laid in the new foundation, at the north-east corner of the choir, by T. Strong, mason; and, though various difficulties occurred in the course of the business, from want of money, the work was prosecuted with so much success and diligence,
The last commission, for
the church, was issued by George the , in the year .
An incident that occurred soon after the commencement of the work, and was regarded as a
is thus noticed in the Parentalia:
This circumstance made so strong an impression on the mind of the architect, that he caused a Phoenix, rising from the flames of the motto inscribed beneath, to be sculptured in the tympanum of the south
|pediment, above the portico, as emblematical of the re-construction of the church after the fire. It is finely executed, and is in length eighteen feet, and in height feet ; it was sculptured by Caius Gabriel Cibber, who was paid for the model, and for the sculpture. It is not improbable but that the stone brought to Dr. Wren was the same that had been provided in commemoration of Dr. King, who preached the sermon for promoting the rebuilding of , before James the , and who directed by his will that a plain stone only with the word , should record his memory.|
The general form, or ground plan, of , is that of a Latin cross, with an additional arm, or transept, at the west end, to give breadth to the principal front, and a semi-circular projection at the east end, for the altar. At the extremities of the principal transept there are also semicircular projections for porticoes, and at the angles of the cross are square projections, which, besides containing staircases, vestries, &c. serve as immense buttresses to the dome. The dome itself rises from the intersection of the nave and transept, and is terminated by a lantern, surmounted by a ball and cross, gilt.
On entering into a detailed examination of the exterior of this fabric, the subject that demands regard is the west front, which consists of a noble portico of orders, the Corinthian and the composite, resting on a basement formed by a double flight of steps, of Irish black marble, and surmounted by a spacious pediment; on each side also is a lofty tower, or steeple, the serving as the belfry, and the other as the clock-tower. The lower division of the portico is composed of lofty Corinthian columns, and the upper of composite columns (with their proper entablatures, &c.) all of which are coupled and fluted. In the tympanum of the pediment is a very large sculpture in basso relievo representing the
(which is regarded as the most spirited work of the artist, Francis Bird,) and on the apex is a
| gigantic statue of St. Paul; whilst on either hand, at different distances, along the summit of this front, are other colossal statues of St. Peter, St. James, and the Evangelists. The entablature of the upper order is remarkable, |
an example, in which, as in many other instances, we see sir Christopher Wren sacrificing a particular to a general effect; for this cornice, considered as the general termination of the body of the building, required to be treated in a bold and striking style, rather than with the delicacy proper to the order of which it constitutes a part: both the entablatures are continued round the whole fabric. The towers, which,
Each tower is decorated with columns, urns, statues, &c. and terminated by a majestic pine.
On the north and south sides of the cathedral, at each end of the principal transept, is a grand semi-circular portico, formed by Corinthian columns, feet each in diameter, supporting a half dome, above which rises a well-proportioned pediment, having a sculpture in the tympanum; that on the north side, represents the royal arms, and regalia, supported by angels; and that on the south, the phoenix rising from the flames, before described. The ascent to the north portico is by a semi-circular flight of about steps, of Irish black marble; but on the south side, where the ground is considerably lower, the ascent is formed by a flight of similar steps. It has been judiciously observed of these porticoes, that
The projecting semi-circle which terminates the east end, is of fine proportion, and properly enriched with architectural ornaments. The remainder of the vast outer walls of the fabric is of excellent masonry, strengthened as well as decorated by stories of coupled pilasters, arranged at regular distances; those above being of the composite order, and those below of the Corinthian. The intervals between the Corinthian pilasters are occupied by
| large windows, serving to light the side aisles, &c. and those between the composite pilasters by ornamented niches, in the pedestals of which are singularly inserted windows, belonging to rooms and galleries over the aisles. |
The entire summit of the side walls is surmounted by a regular ballustrade; but the continuity of line is judiciously broken by the superior elevation of the pediments of the transept, and by the large statues of the apostles ( on each side) which stand upon them.
The dome, or cupola, as it may with more propriety be termed,
This rises from a huge circular basement, which, at the height of about feet above the roof of the church, gives place to a Corinthian colonnade, formed by a circular range of columns; every intercolumniation being filled up with masonry, so disposed as to form an ornamental niche, or recess; an arrangement by which the projecting buttresses of the cupola are most judiciously concealed,
As all the buttresses are pierced with arcades, there is a free communication round this part of the cupola; and the entablature of the peristyle supports a circular gallery, surrounded with a ballustrade. Above the colonnade, but not resting upon it, rises an attic story with pilasters and windows, from the entablature of which springs the exterior dome; this is »of a bold and graceful contour, covered with lead, and ribbed at regular intervals. Round the aperture, at its summit, is another gallery, or balcony, and from the center rises the stone lantern, which is surrounded
|with Corinthian columns, and crowned by the majestic ball and cross, that terminate the fabric.|
On viewing the interior of from the great west entrance, the eye dwells with much admiration on the grandeur of the perspective; though, on a more attentive examination, the ponderous masses of its vast piers are found to give a heaviness to the prospect, and the side aisles are discovered to be disproportionably narrow. In its interior form, the edifice is entirely constructed upon the plan of the ancient cathedrals, viz. that of a long cross, having a nave, choir, transepts, and side aisles; but, in place of the lofty tower, the dome in this building rises in elevated grandeur from the central intersection. The
The piers and arches which divide the nave from the side aisles, are ornamented with columns and pilasters, both of the Corinthian and of the composite orders, and are further adorned with shields, festoons, chaplets, cherubim, &c.
The vaulting of this part of the church merits great praise for its light and elegant construction: in this, each severy forms a low dome, supported by spandrils, the base of the dome being encircled by a rich wreath of artificial foliage. This peculiar disposition of the vaulting is noticed in the
which, after stating that sir Christopher chose hemispherical vaultings, as being
than diagonal cross vaults, proceeds thus:
The circular pannels, and the spandrils, of the vaulting of the aisles, are separated by shields, bordered with acanthus leaves, fruits, and flowers. The alcoves for the windows are finely disposed; and have their arches filled with sexagon, octagon, and other pannels. The whole church, above the vaulting, is substantially roofed with oak, covered with lead. The Morning-Prayer Chapel, on the south side, and the Consistory Court, on the north, occupy the respective extremities of the western transept, which is an elegant part of the building: these are divided from the aisles by insulated columns, and screens of ornamental carved work.
On proceeding forward, the central area below the dome next
| engages attention: this is an octagon, formed by massive piers, with their correllative apertures, of which being those which terminate the middle aisles, are feet wide, while the others are only feet; but this disparity only exists as high as the order of pilasters, at which level the smaller openings are expanded in a peculiar manner, so that the main arches are all equal. The cathedral of Ely is, perhaps, the only other church, in this country, in which the central area, being pierced by the side aisles, has openings, instead of , which is the usual number. |
The spandrils between the arches above, form the area into a circle,
Whispering Gallery. At this level commences the interior tambour of the dome, which consists of a high pedestal and cornice, forming the basement to a range of (apparently) fluted pilasters of the composite order, the intervals between which are occupied by windows and niches, all corresponding in situation with the intercolumniations and piers of the exterior peristyle:
Above, from a double plinth, over the cornice of the pilasters, springs the internal dome; the contour being composed of segments of a circle, which, if not interrupted by the opening beneath the lantern, would have intersected at the apex.
The general idea of the dome was confessedly taken from the Pantheon at Rome, excepting, that in the latter,
It differs also in its proportions, both from the cupola of the Pantheon, and from that of ; the former of which is
The dome is
for greater security, also, in the girdle of Portland stone which encircles the lower part, and is of considerable thickness, an enormous double chain of iron, strongly linked together at every feet, and weighing cwt. qrs. and lbs. was inserted in a channel cut for the purpose, and afterwards filled up with lead.
In the crown of the vault of this cupola is a circular opening (surrounded by a neatly railed gallery) through which the light is transmitted with admirable effect from the cone and lantern above, which, in compliance with the general wish, the architect found it necessary to construct, in order to give a greater elevation to the fabric.
Both the cone and the lantern are very ingeniously constructed; and the mechanism of the roof which supports the outward covering of lead, is contrived with equal skill and judgment. The cone is bricks in thickness, and is banded at different distances by a girdle of stone, and iron chains: here ranges of small elliptical apertures, and semi-circular headed windows above, admit the light from the lantern and from the openings round its pedestal. Between the lower part of the cone and the outer wall, at intervals of about feet, are strong cross wedges of stone (pierced with circles, &c.) each of which
The ribs, which are about in number, are closely covered with oaken boards, and those again by the lead which forms the outward covering.
The choir is of the same form and architectural style as the body of the church. The east end is terminated by a bold sweep, or semi-circular apsis, with large windows below, and
|smaller ones above: the soffits of these windows, as well as those of the aisles, are ornamented with sculptured foliage, and have festoons over them.|
The prices that were paid for these, and for various other sculptures, in this part of the church, will be seen from the following particulars, extracted by Mr. Malcolm, from the books at .
The difference between the dimensions of , at Rome, and , in London, extracted from Wren's Parentalia.
In the Gentleman's magazine, the dimensions of the cathedrals are thus stated; but Mr. Brayley observes, with great truth, that there is evidently some mistake in respect to those of , as will be easily seen on comparing them with the measurements given above from the Parentalia.
From a printed sheet relating to , published in , by Mr. John Tillison, clerk of the works, it appears that the general depth of the foundations below the surface of the church-yard is feet, and in many places feet, that
beneath the church, are eighteen feet inches high from the ground to the crown of the arch; that each of the great piers that sustain the dome stands upon feet of ground. superficial measure, and each lesser upon feet; and that the whole space of ground occupied by the same piers, and covered by the dome itself,
It was the intention of sir Christopher
instead of having it decorated by painting, as it now is;
| but in this he was unfortunately over-ruled, though he had engaged to have procured of the most eminent artists from Italy to execute the work. This spacious concave has, in consequence, been separated into compartments, by |
serving as a frame to as many pictures, by sir James Thornhill, from the most prominent events in the history of the patron saint; which, however excellent they may have been in their original designs, are now, either through the damps or some other cause, in a most lamentable state of decay. The subjects are as follow: The Conversion of St. Paul; his Punishing Elymas, the Sorceror, with Blindness; his Preaching at Athens; his Curing the poor Cripple at Lystra, and the reverence paid him there by the priests of Jupiter, as a God; his Conversion of the Jailor; his Preaching at Ephesus, and the burning of the Magic Books in consequence of the Miracles he wrought there; his Trial before Agrippa; and his Shipwreck on the Island of Melita, with the Miracle of the Viper. For these performances, which seem to have been executed with much animation and relief, we are informed, by Walpole, that the artist could obtain only
All the lower parts of these paintings have utterly perished, through some cause which has affected the plastering in a deep circle round the whole of the concave. Mr. Malcolm supposes it to have arisen from the admission of the external damp,
yet, as we find from the
that, besides other precautions, the architect had all the joints
wherever he was obliged
this conjecture would seem to be incorrect. Mr. Brayley conceives that the vibrations given to the dome by the thundering sound produced by the violently closing the door of the whispering gallery (for the amusement of the numerous visitors to this fabric) has shaken the stucco into dust through the frequent repetitions of the concussion. It is to he regretted, says Mr. Aikin,
The best station for viewing the paintings and other decorations of the cupola, is the whispering gallery, the ascent to which is by a spacious circular stair-case, constructed in the south-west projection of the principal transept. This gallery encircles the lower part of the dome, and extends to the extreme edge of the great cantilever cornice, but is rendered perfectly safe by a strong and handsomely wrought gilt railing, that surrounds the inner circumference. Here the forcibly shutting the door causes a strong reverberating sound,
|not unlike the rolling of thunder, accompanied by a sensible vibration in the building; and a low whisper breathed against the wall, in any part of this vast circle, may be accurately distinguished by an attentive ear on the opposite side. Round the space between the railing and the wall are steps and a stone seat. The decayed state of the paintings, and the mutilations of the stucco-work, are very apparent from this gallery, but the dome itself is completely sound, not a single stone being either deranged or broken; a circumstance that must be regarded as demonstrative of the admirable manner in which it is constructed, particularly when considered in reference to the very considerable settlement that took place among the sustaining piers.|
From the gallery upward to the next range of cornice, the surrounding wall is quite plain and unornamented; the cornice is enriched with sculptures of shells, and acanthus leaves, most richly gilt, as are the bases and capitals of the pilasters above, which correspond with the outward colonnade. The pannels under the niches, and the compartments over them, are finely sculptured with festoons and foliage, well gilt; but the festoons beneath the windows, like the flutings of the pilasters, are only painted resemblances, and are now sadly decayed. The architrave and cornice which surmount the pilasters are superbly gilt; as also are the scrolls, festoons, wreaths, and other decorations of the fictitious frame-work to the paintings by sir James Thornhill. The ornamental pannels and roses above them, to the opening of the vault, and the cornice, festoons, shells, roses, &c. in the upper part of the cone which is seen through it, and terminate the view, are likewise highly enriched by gilding.
The circular stair-case, which leads to the whispering gallery, contracts on approaching it, to give room for various passages, through the apertures of which the immense buttresses of the dome may be seen. It communicates besides with the long galleries over the side aisles; these are paved with stone, and crossed at intervals by the enormous strong arches and buttresses which support the walls and roof of the nave.
From the end of the south gallery, the passage continues through the substance of the wall into the northern transept, in the south angle of which, and immediately over the consistory, is the library.
The north and south sides of this apartment are formed by strong piers or pilasters,
The cantalivers, and other ornaments of the oaken gallery in this room, were carved by Jonathan Maine, who was paid for each of the former. The ceiling is plain; but the floor, with more ingenuity than elegance, is entirely constructed with small pieces of oak, without either nail or peg, disposed into various geometrical figures. Over the chimney is a half-length portrait, said to be by sir James Thornhill, of Dr. Henry Compton, the worthy bishop who held this see during the principal part of the time of the erection of the cathedral. He is represented sitting, with flowing hair, and a grave countenance, and in his hand is a plan of . This prelate bequeathed his books to the library, which is not, however, valuable as a collection, and contains but few manuscripts; among them are several ancient calendars and missals, on vellum, and a curious, illuminated manuscript, or ritual, in old English, respecting the government of a convent, the performance of offices, &c. which belonged to the ancient catholic establishment of this church. The oldest printed books are, Here are also, Walton's
and eighteen English bibles, printed between the years and . of the latest works added to the library is the in folio volumes, interleaved, this was presented, in , by the Rev. Mr. Mangey, a prebendary of the church, and son to the learned doctor who made the notes and collections.
At the opposite extremity of the transept, and exactly corresponding in situation and dimensions with the library, is another spacious apartment, in which is kept the beautiful model constructed by sir Christopher Wren, and before noticed. Here, also, is the remains of a model, designed by sir Christopher for the altar-piece, but never executed.
Westward from the library is a door, communicating with the grand geometrical stair-case, which leads down to the lower part of the church, and appears to have been more especially intended for the use of persons of distinction, but is now seldom beheld, excepting by the eye of curiosity. This is, perhaps, the finest specimen of the kind in Great ; the stairs are in number, and go round the concave in a spiral direction; the base being formed by a platform, inlaid with black and white marble, to represent a star, inclosed by a circle. Here, facing the door that connects the lower part with the church, is a beautiful niche, decorated with grotesque pilasters, and rich iron-work.
In the south-western tower is the clock, and the great bell on
| which it strikes. The former is of great magnitude: it is wound up daily, and the outward dial is regulated by a smaller withinside. The length of the minute hand is feet, and its weight ; the length of the hour hand is feet inches, and its weight ; the diameter of the dial is eighteen feet inches; and the length of the hour figures is feet inches and a half. The great bell is sustained by a strong frame of oak, |
within a cylinder of stone, pierced with apertures. The diameter of this bell is about feet, and its weight is generally stated at tons and a quarter: in the direction of the wind its sound may be heard many miles; on it are the words,
The quarters are struck on smaller bells, that hang near the former . The great bell is never used, excepting for the striking of the hour, and for tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the royal family, the bishops of London, and the lord mayor, should the latter die in his mayoralty.
The ascent to the whispering gallery is sufficiently convenient, but the avenues contract on approaching the stone gallery which surrounds the exterior dome above the colonnade. The view from hence is extensive and impressive, yet by no means equals the prospect that is obtained at the superior elevation of the golden gallery, which crowns the apex of the cupola, at the base of the lantern. From this height, when the atmosphere is clear, the surrounding country, to a great extent, seems completely under the eye, and even the capital, extensive as it is, with all its dependant villages, appears to occupy but an inconsiderable portion of the vast expanse that lies spread out before the sight. This view, though, perhaps, the finest in all London, can seldom be enjoyed, owing to the clouds of smoke which, arising from the numerous coal fires, almost continually hang over the city; the best time is early on a summer morning.
The occasional gloom and partial inconvenience of the ascent to the golden gallery, which is carried up between the outward roof and the cone, by steep flights of stairs, is another cause of the prospect being seldom beheld; for many of the visitors to the cathedral cannot prevail on themselves to undergo the fatigue, and
|apprehended danger. Still fewer are induced to explore their way into the copper ball which crowns the lantern, though the additional exertion is sufficiently repaid to the curious, by the inspection of the ingenious contrivances and mechanism that may be seen in the ascent; this is principally by ladders, and a step or in of the enormous brazen feet that partly sustains the ball itself, which is capacious enough to contain persons without particular inconvenience. The weight of the ball is stated to be lbs.; and that of the cross, to which there is no entrance, lbs.; the diameter of the ball is feet inches. The entire ascent to this elevation is said to include steps; of which the lead to the whispering gallery, and the to the golden gallery.|
The choir and its aisles are separated from the body of the church by iron rails and gates, curiously and even elegantly wrought. The entrance to the choir is immediately beneath the organ gallery; this is supported by small Corinthian columns of blue and white veined marble, for each of which Mr. Edward Strong was paid In front is the following inscription (in gold letters) which formerly appeared only over the grave of the great architect whom it commemorates, but has been repeated here, as the more appropriate situation, in accordance with the suggestion of the late Robert Mylne, esq. clerk of the works to .
Beneath lies , the builder of this church, and of this city; who lived upwards of years, not for himself, but for the public good. READER! wouldst thou search out his monument?
The organ is of the finest instruments of the kind in the kingdom: it was constructed by a German, named Bernard Smidt, or Schymdt, (Smith) who, in , entered into a contract with the commissioners to erect the great organ, (and a choir organ) for and, so faithfully was his engagement performed, that it is supposed that a similar could not now be built for less than double that sum. The pipes, the original gilding of which appears perfectly fresh and brilliant, are preserved from dust by a heavy-looking case, with old-fashioned sashes; the glazing of which cost and is formed by
* The caryatides, fruits, flowers, and other figures which adorn the organ-case, are admirably carved, but the sashes have the effect of impeding the sound. The organ was entirely taken to pieces and repaired in the year , by a Swedish artist and his partner, and the tones are said to have been improved
The choir was completed about the year . On each side is a range of stalls, independent of the bishop's throne on the south side, and the lord mayor's on the north. These, though not remarkable for their elegance of design, are most beautifully ornamented with carvings, by Grinling Gibbons, of whose unrivalled excellence Walpole thus eloquently speaks:
The sums paid to Gibbons are thus stated in extracts from the books at , made by Mr. Malcolm.
Payments to Grinling Gibbons for the carvings inside the choir.
For upper cimas of the great cornice, carved with leaves, at per foot, over the prebends' stalls.
The chaptering of the parapet, upper cimas, and member of the corona, with lace and leaves, at per foot.
The moulding in the cistals, member enriched, per foot.
Coping on the cartouches, member enriched, per foot.
The small O. G. on the corona of the bishop, and lord mayor's thrones, per foot.
For the lower cima in the bottom of the -inch cornice, at per foot.
The cima and casements round the stalls, per foot.
The small cima on the top of the imposts over the prebends' heads, per foot.
The hollow of the impost leaves, per foot.
The swelling friezes, with grotesque enrichments, per foot; and the grotesque enrichments round the openings in the women's gallery, per foot.
The scrolls in the partition pilasters in the stalls, per foot.
The leaning scrolls, or elbows, each; the frieze on the thrones, per foot; pedestals, grotesque in the front, each.
The great modillion cornices, members enriched, . per foot.
The leaved cornice on the stone pilasters, per foot.
The Corinthian quarter capitals, each; the whole ones, each.
Grotesque capitals in the choir, each.
The general effect on entering the choir is magnificent; yet the interest is partially destroyed by the insignificance of the altar, and the want of grandeur in the chancel; for though the original decorations were showy, they were not impressive, and are now disfigured. The railing which encloses the chancel is
the ceiling has been painted in imitation of veined marble, as well as the semicircular recess, excepting the pannels below the windows, which are of white marble, set in dark variegated borders; but these are now much corroded, and have lost their polish. This is also the case with the chancel-pavement, which is also laid in geometrical figures, with porphyry and other rich-coloured marbles. The altar-piece is decorated with fluted pilasters, painted with ultra-marine and veined with gold, in imitation of lapis lazuli, and their capitals are richly gilt: the foliage of the frieze, the palm and laurel branches, &c. are also resplendent with gilding. The marble pannelling between the intercolumniations consists of squares, under each window.
The model here spoken of was that of which a part is now remaining in the trophy-room, as before mentioned. The present pulpit was designed by the late Mr. Mylne, and erected about years ago; it is a costly fabric, and not inelegant in parts, yet rather heavy; the rich carving is by Wyatt and an ingenious Frenchman. The reader's desk, which is a fine example of its kind, is entirely of brass, richly gilt, and consists of an eagle, with expanded wings, supported by a pillar, and inclosed within a handsome gilt brass railing.
The pavement, as well of the choir as of the body and aisles of the church, is of black and white marble, neatly disposed, and
|particularly so in the area below the dome: here, round a brass plate in the centre, pierced (to throw light into the vaults) with lyre-shaped openings, and otherwise ornamented, a large diamond star, of points, is formed with black and variegated marble; this again is surrounded by a double circle, inclosing lozenge-shaped squares, and more outward to the extremity of the area, extensive circle of black marble bounds the whole; the systematic arrangement is continued by smaller circles and other figures.|
as it has been aptly styled, of the interior of , is not in any degree to be attributed to sir Christopher Wren, who was fully sensible of its deficiency in ornament, and greatly wished to have relieved the architectural masses both by sculptures and by paintings; but being subjected to
he was unable to carry his intentions into practice. An attempt to remedy this objectionable destitution was made, about the year , by the president and principal members of the Royal Academy, who most liberally offered to paint various pictures, without charge, to fill some of the vacant compartments. This offer, however, was not solely made through the wish of supplying the want of ornament in the cathedral, but partly from a feeling that the art of painting
The dean and chapter highly approved of the offer, which was communicated to bishop Newton by sir Joshua Reynolds; his majesty also concurred with the proposal. The then archbishop of Canterbury, however, and Dr. Terrick, who was promoted to this see in , thought proper to discountenance the whole plan (which fell to the ground in consequence of their opposition) on the futile principle, that popular clamours would be excited by the idea that
Within the space of years after the above period, another scheme was suggested, and has happily been carried into effect, for breaking the monotonous uniformity of the architectural masses. This was the admission into the cathedral of those monuments of the great deceased, which may, with strict propriety, be denominated national; not altogether from their being always executed at the public expense, and thus announcing the admiring veneration of a grateful country, but from their being raised in commemoration of characters either eminent for their virtues, for their
|talents, or for their heroism; and long, very long, may the time be distant, when the mere circumstance of rank or of office shall be judged sufficient to give the privilege of monumental record in this sacred fane!|
The decease of Howard, the philanthropist, who expired at Cherson, in Russian Tartary, in , was the immediate event that led to the erection of monuments in this church. It was then suggested by the late Rev. John Pridden, of the minor canons of , that the dean and chapter should be solicited for permission to erect a statue of this excellent man in the cathedral; a requisition which, with the according consent of the late bishop, Dr. Beilby Porteus, was readily granted; but it was at the same time intimated, that as this would become a precedent for future applications,
a determination which has been hitherto strictly abided by; though it was very early seen, that from the influence of some unexplained , the ultimate decision was not intended to be given to the committee.
Though the permission for Howard's statue was granted, that of the celebrated Dr. Johnson was erected. This was executed by the late excellent artist John Bacon, esq. R. A. in the year . In this figure the sculptor has acknowledgedly aimed at
that should accrue with the masculine sense and nervous phraseology which characterizes the writings of our great moralist. He is represented in a Roman toga, with the right arm and breast naked, and in an attitude of intense study. The expression of his countenance is mingled with severity, as being most suitable to his vigour of thinking, and the complexional character of his works; and he appears leaning against a column, to express the firmness of his mind, and the stability of his maxims. The inscription on the pedestal was written by Dr. Parr; it is as follows:
The statue of Howard, which occupies a situation corresponding with that of Dr. Johnson, viz. an angle in front of of the smaller piers of the dome, is also from the chisel of Bacon, who agreed to execute it for the sum of guineas. The Roman costume is again
| employed in this figure; the attitude is intended to give the idea of motion, by the body being advanced upon the right foot, which is placed considerably forward: in hand is a key, to |
and in the other a scroll of papers, with the words-
written on ; and on the corner of a , the word
Under the feet of the statue are chains and fetters, and behind another paper, with the word
on the pedestal in front, is a bas-relief, representing
Over the bas-relief is ; and on the left of the pedestal the following inscription, from the pen of the late Samuel Whitbread, esq.
In another correspondent angle below the dome is a statue by Bacon, erected in the year , to the memory of sir William Jones,
where he died on the . This, like the former, is a standing figure (having in the left hand a roll of paper, inscribed,
and in the right a pen,) resting upon a volume, inscribed
which is placed, with others, on a square pedestal, sculptured with a lyre, armillary sphere, compass, sword and scales, &c. all intended as emblems of the various acquirements of this learned man. In front of the pedestal is a bas-relief, representing Study and Genius unveiling oriental science; on the right, is the following inscription:
The base of the north-west pier is occupied by the statue of sir Joshua Reynolds, the president of the royal academy, in the doctor of law's gown, his right hand holding his
and his left resting on a pedestal, attached to which is a medallion of M. Angelo.
Sir Joshua Reynolds was buried in the crypt of this cathedral, A. D. .
At corner of the ledge above the pedestal
The monumental honours for lord Nelson, by Mr. Flaxman, occupy a distinguished place against of the great piers between the dome and the choir.
The statue of lord Nelson, dressed in the pelisse received from the Grand Signor, leans on an anchor. Beneath, on the right of the hero, Britannia directs the attention of young seamen to Nelson, their great example. The British lion on the other side guards the monument.
The figures on the pedestal represent the North Sea, the German Ocean, the Nile, and the Mediterranean. On the cornice are the words Copenhagen, Nile, Trafalgar.
In a pannel above this monument is a mural tablet in commemoration of captain Duff, who was killed in the same battle. It is by J. Bacon, jun. and consists of a small antique sarcophagus (on the front of which is a sculptured medallion of the deceased) a figure of Britannia on the right, holding a wreath of laurel over the sarcophagus, and on the left asailor, relieved from a naval flag, reclining his head, in sorrow, upon the edge of the pedestal.
Opposite to lord Nelson's monument, is that to the memory of Marquis Cornwallis, by Mr. Charles Rossi.
The design consists of a pyramidical group. On a circular pedestal (or rather a truncated column) is placed the figure of lord Cornwallis standing in the robes of the most noble order of the garter. The principal figures forming the base of this group, are personifications of the British empire, in Europe and in the east; represented, not as mourners, but as doing honour to the memory of a faithful servant of the state, whose virtues and talents, during a long life, had been so eminently useful to his country.
The figure of the group is the Bagareth, of the great rivers in India; and the small on his right hand is the Ganges, being the right branch of the Bagareth. The Ganges is seated on a fish and a calabash.
In the pannel above is an alto relievo by Mr. Westmacott, to the memory of captain John Cooke, of the Bellerophon.
Britannia mourning her hero, is consoled by of her children bringing her the trident; while another is playfully bearing her helmet. In the back ground is the prow of a vessel, to mark the work as a naval monument.
In the south transept, against the south-west pier, is a monument by Mr. Banks in memory of captain Burgess, who gloriously fell in the battle fought with the Dutch, off Camperdown, by admiral Duncan. The faults and the excellences of this expansive piece of sculpture are singularly blended; yet it must be confessed that the former affect the conception or invention more than the execution; which, generally speaking, is deserving of high praise. The principal figures are those of Victory and the deceased, both of whom are standing on the opposite sides of a cannon, near which are coils of rope, balls, &c. Victory, who is a meagre and insipid figure, is in the act of presenting a sword to the brave Burgess, whose statue is finely expressive of heroic animation, but almost literally naked, a slate by far mote befitting the goddess herself than the representation of a naval officer. On the circular base or pedestal, in front, beneath the pannel with the inscription, is an aged captive, with a log-line and compass, sitting between the prows of ships, of which is antique, the other modern. At the sides are other figures, male and female, beautifully sculptured, and in a classical
| taste, expressive of disgrace, discomfiture, and captivity; and in the spaces are antique shields, clubs, &c. All these figures are in bold relief, and their actions and attitudes finely indicative of defeat and shame. The inscription is as follows:--
Above this monument, on a pannel, is a group of sculpture to the memory of captain Hardinge.
The sanguinary and successful action which this monument records, having taken place in the East Indies, where the captain died, the Indian warrior bearing the victorious British standard, is seated by the side of the sarcophagus, while Fame, recumbent on its base, displays her wreath over the hero's name.
This monument was the work of the late Mr. Charles Manning.
Against the opposite pier is another large monument, by Mr. C. Rossi, commemorating the fate and gallant exploit of the lamented captain Faulknor, who fell in battle in the West Indies. This intrepid officer (who is very injudiciously represented with a Roman sword in his right hand, and a Roman shield on his left aim, as if intended for a gladiator) is exhibited as in the moment of death, and falling into the arms of Neptune; the latter is a gigantic figure seated on a rock, with a slight portion of drapery thrown over his left knee and middle, and occupying the most central and prominent place in the composition; his form appears somewhat uncouth and his attitude ungracious: below him is a dolphin, and on his left the goddess Victory with a palm branch in her left hand and a wreath in her right, which she holds over the head of the dying hero. The lassitude resulting from the approach of death is well expressed in the figure of the captain; and the statue of Victory has merit. On the pedestal is the following inscription:--
The pannel above contains a tabular monument by Mr. Flaxman, in which Britannia and Victory unite in raising captain Miller's medallion against a palm tree. The head of the Theseus, in which vessel the captain died off the coast of Acre, is by the side of Victory. On the palm tree under the medallion are the following words,
Round the head represented on the medallion, is written,
Against the south side of this pier is the statue of lord Heathfield, by Mr. Rossi. It represents the hero in a standing attitude, resting; in the uniform of the times, and wearing the order of the bath. In front of the pedestal, in alto relievo, is represented the British power at Gibraltar, by the warrior and the lion reposing, after having defended the rock, and defeated their enemies.
The female figure, holding wreaths in her right hand, and a palm branch in her left, presenting them to the hero, represents Victory and Peace.
The monument to earl Howe, by Mr. Flaxman, is under the east window of the south transept. Britannia is sitting on a rostrated pedestal, holding the trident in her right hand; the earl stands by her, leaning on a telescope; the British lion is watching by his side.
History records in golden letters the relief of Gibraltar, and the defeat of the French fleet, . Victory (without wings) leans on the shoulder of History, and lays a branch of palm on the lap of Britannia.
Against the south wall of the same transept is a monument erected in memory of lord Collingwood, by Richard Westmacott, R. A.
The moment for illustration chosen in this composition is the arrival of the remains of lord Collingwood on the British shores. The
|body, shrouded in the colours torn from the enemy, is represented on the deck of a man-of-war; in the hands of the hero is placed the sword, which he used with so much glory to himself, and to a grateful country.|
On the foreground, attended by the genii of his confluent streams, is Thames, in a cumbent position, thoughtfully regarding Fame, who from the prow of the ship reclines over the illustrious admiral, and proclaims his heroic achievements.
The alto-relievo on the gunwale of the ship illustrates the progress of navigation. The genius of man discovering the properties of the nautilus, is led to venture on the expansive bosom of the ocean: acquiring confidence from success, he leaves his native landmarks, the stars his only guide. The magnet's power next directs his course; and now, to counteract the machinations of pirates and the feuds of nations, he forges the instruments of war.
Adjoining the south door is a monument by Mr. Westmacott to the memory of and , who were killed at the battle of New Orleans. They are represented in their full uniforms, the arm of the resting on the shoulder of the other.
The statue of general Gillespie is on the other side of the door. He is represented in full military uniform, hand resting on a sword, and the other holding a roll of paper. The figure is very commanding, and was executed by Mr. Chantrey.
The monument of sir John Moore, by Mr. Bacon, represents his interment by the hands of Valour and Victory, while the genius of Spain (distinguished by the shield bearing the Spanish arms) is planting the victorious standard on his tomb. Victory lowers the general to his grave by a wreath of laurel.
Under the west window of this transept is the very noble equestrian monument of sir Ralph Abercromby, who was mortally wounded in Egypt, soon after the landing of the British troops in that country, in the year . This was erected in consequence of a vote of parliament, by R. Westmacott, R. A. about . The brave and able general, who is the subject of this memento, is represented as wounded, and falling from his horse into the arms of an attendant Highlander. Both figures are arrayed in the proper costume of their respective stations: and below the fore-feet of the horse, which is springing forward in a very spirited attitude, is the naked body of a fallen foe. The position of the Highland soldier is well conceived and judiciously balanced, so as to sustain the additional weight of the general without exhibiting any indication of weak or inefficient power. The countenance of the immortal Abercromby, though languid, displays a placid dignity, highly expressive of the strength of mind and undaunted heroism which distinguished his character. Upon the freestone plinth of this monument, and on each side of the principal group, is a large figure of the Egyptian sphinx; and the following inscription is on the circular base, below the principal figures--:
In the western ambulatory of the south transept is a tabular monument to the memory of sir Isaac Brock, by Mr. Westmacott: it represents a military monument, on which are placed the sword and helmet of the deceased; a votive record, supposed to have been raised by his companions to their honoured commander.
His corpse reclines in the arms of a British soldier, whilst an Indian pays the tribute of regret his bravery and humanity elicited.
In the east ambulatory of the same transept, over the door leading to the crypt, is a tabular monument, by Mr. J. Kendrick, to the memory of , who was killed at Baltimore in the last American war. The design represents Valour laying an American flag upon the tomb of the departed warrior, on which Britannia is recumbent in tears; while Fame is descending with the laurel to crown his bust.
The monument, executed by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of colonel Cadogan, occupies the opposite pannel. The design is historical. When colonel Cadogan was mortally wounded at the battle of Vittoria, he caused his men to place him on an eminence, whence he might contemplate the victory he had assisted to achieve. He is here represented borne off in the arms of his soldiers with his face to the enemy; his troops having broken the enemy's ranks with their bayonets. of the enemy's eagles, with its bearer, is represented as trodden on the ground, while another standard bearer is turning to fly. The soldiers who support their leader appear waving their hats in the moment of victory.
Against the east pier of the north transept is a magnificent group of sculpture, in commemoration of major-general Thomas Dundas, who died of the yellow fever in the West Indies, on the . It was executed in , by J. Bacon, jun. and is a very fine and spirited performance. Britannia, with her attendant lion couchant, is here represented in the act of encircling the bust of the deceased with a laurel wreath, whilst at the same time she
another full-length female figure
having a youthful form, and a countenance expressive of sensibility. At her feet is an infant boy with an olive branch, and behind a trident. The bust is sustained on a circular pedestal, on which is a bas-relief of Britannia giving protection to a fugitive female against the pursuit of other figures representing Deceit and Oppression.
Above this a tabular monument to generals Mackenzie and Langworth. Victory laments the loss of her heroes, while the sons
|of recount their valiant achievements. Against the tomb are wreaths, intimating the fall of warriors. of the boys bears the broken French imperial eagle, which he is displaying to the other. The helmet on the boy, and the wreath of oak on the head of the other, imply the military service, connected with its honours and rewards in the sons of .|
This monument was executed from a design by the late Mr. Charles Manning.
Immediately opposite is a monument by the late J. Banks, R. A. executed , to the memory of Captain Westcott, who was killed in the battle of the Nile. The dying hero, a fine figure, in a falling attitude, is here supported by Victory; whose own position, however, is apparently very unstable, and excites the idea of comparative weakness. On the basement, in the centre, is a bas-relief of a gigantic figure intended for the god Nilus, with numerous naked boys, indicative of the various streams of the river Nile; and on each side are basso-relievos, representing the explosion of the L«Orient, and a vessel under sail.
Above this monument is a tablet to the memory of generals Crauford and Mackinnon, by Mr. Bacon, junior.
The sculpture represents the hardy Highlander weeping over the tombs of his fallen commanders, while planting the standard between them. Victory alights, and places her wreath on the top of the standard, to mark the spot as sacred to the ashes of successful valour. The British lion, the imperial eagle, and the shield on which is embossed the arms of Spain, denote that the talents and operations of the generals when they fell, were directed against the French power in the Spanish dominions.
Against the same pier, on the north side, is a colossal statue by Mr. Baily, of the late earl of St. Vincent, in full uniform, standing on a pedestal, and resting on a telescope. The bas-relief represents History recording the name of the deceased hero on a pyramid, while Victory laments his loss.
The recess under the west window of the north transept is occupied by a group in honour of lord Rodney, by Mr. Charles Rossi.
The principal figure is standing on a square pedestal, while Clio, the historic muse (who is seated), instructed by Fame, records the great and useful actions of this naval hero.
On the north side of this transept is a monument to general Picton. It is by Mr. Gahagan; the design represents Genius and Valour rewarded by Victory. The group is surmounted by a bust of the general.
Near the north door is a monument by Mr. H. Hopper, to the memory of major-general Andrew Hay. He is represented falling into the arms of Valour, while a soldier stands lamenting the loss of his commander.
On the opposite side of the north door of the cathedral is a monument by Mr. Chantrey, in honour of and . The design by the late Mr. Tollemache, represents Fame consoling Britannia for the loss of her heroes.
The monument to the honourable sir William Ponsonhy was designed by William Theed, R. A., and since his death executed by Mr. E . H. Baily, A. R A. The composition represents the hero receiving a wreath from the hand of Victory in the moment of death.
The recess under the east window of the north transept is occupied with a monument to the memory of captains Mosse and Rion, by Mr. Charles Rossi. An insulated base contains a
| sarcophagus, on the front of which, Victory and Fame place the medallions of the deceased officers.
Immediately opposite, a monument has been lately erected to the memory of lord Duncan, by Mr. Westmacott.
This tribute consists simply in a statue of the admiral, with his boat cloak or dreadnought thrown around him: his hands being engaged in holding his sword, which rests across his body.
On the pedestal to the statue is an alto relievo of a seaman with his wife and child, illustrative of the regard in which lord Duncan's memory is held by the poor but gallant companions of his achievements.
In the eastern ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Bowes. The design represents the general storming the forts of Salamanca; a shattered wall presents a steep breach crowded with the enemy, and covered with their slain. The general conducts his troops to charge its defenders with the bayonet; the French standard and its bearer fall at his feet, and victory is already secure, when he receives a mortal wound, and falls into the arms of of his soldiers.
The opposite pannel is filled with a monument to major-general Le Marchant, designed by the late James Smith; and executed alter his decease by Mr. Rossi.
The figure of Spain is represented placing the trophies of victory on the tomb of the warrior, at the same time she mourns his fall.
Britannia, seated, is pointing to the monument raised to his memory by a grateful nation, and is instructing her youth, a military cadet, to emulate his brave example.
In the western ambulatory of the north transept, is a tabular monument erected by Mr. Chantrey, to the memory of major-general Hoghton.
The design is simple, and arises out of the peculiar circumstances of the event it celebrates.
General Hoghton, while leading his troops to a successful charge on the French at Albuera, received a mortal wound; but lived for a moment to witness the total defeat of the enemy. The design, therefore, represents general Hoghton starting from the ground, eagerly stretching out his hand, directing his men, who are rushing on the enemy with levelled bayonets; while Victory, ascending from the field of battle, sustains with hand the British colours, and with the other proceeds to crown the dying victor with laurel.
The opposite pannel is to the memory of sir William Myers.
The design is intended to represent the union of wisdom and valour in the deceased, whose bust is placed on the top of the tomb. The figures introduced are Minerva for wisdom, and Hercules for valour, who points with hand to the bust, while the other clasps that of wisdom.
This monument is the performance of Mr. Kendrick.
The entrance to the vaults is by a broad flight of steps in the south-east angle of the great transept. In these gloomy recesses, which receive only a partial distant light from
the vast piers and arches that sustain the superstructure, cannot be seen without interest. They form the whole space into main avenues, the principal inner under the dome being almost totally dark.
Here, in the very centre of the building, repose the mortal remains of the great lord Nelson, a man whose consummate skill and daring intrepidity advanced the naval superiority of the British nation to a height and splendour before unparalleled. The funeral of this hero has been amply described in another portion of the work. The colours of the Victory, the ship which he commanded were deposited with the chieftain who so gloriously fell under them, and whose revered reliques have since been inclosed within a base of Scotch granite, built upon the floor of the vault, and supporting a large sarcophagus, formed of black and dark-coloured marbles, brought from the tomb-house of cardinal Wolsey, at Windsor. Near the tomb of Nelson, the remains of his gallant and much-esteemed friend and companion in victory, Cuthbert lord Collingwood, have since been interred.
Of the other persons buried in the vaults, the priority of notice is certainly due to sir Christopher Wren, whose low tomb in the south aisle of the crypt, is supposed to mark the spot where the high altar formerly stood.
On the adjacent wall, at the head of the tomb, within a border
| of ovals, is the inscription, |
, &c. a repetition of which is over the entrance to the choir.
Near the tomb of sir Christopher is a monumental tablet, sculptured with flowers, and cherubim withdrawing a curtain, inscribed in memory of the Rev. Dr. William Holder, a residentiary of this church, and Susannah his wife, the daughter of dean Wren, and sister to the architect.
Against the opposite pier a small tabular monument commemorates his only daughter.
And adjoining to it is the following memorial for the wife of Christopher Wren, esq.
Nearly adjoining sir Christopher's tomb a flat tomb bears this inscription:
The great painters, sir Joshua Reynolds, Barry, Opie, and West, are buried near the same spot.
Within the recess of the window in the south aisle is an altar tomb, inscribed,
On an altar-tomb of beautiful polished Peterhead granite is the following inscription to the late John Rennie:
Under the middle aisle of the crypt is a slab for the Lord Chancellor Rosslyn.
The following memorial is placed over the grave of Dr. Boyce:
At a short distance is a neat tabular monument to the memory of
The learned but eccentric Abraham Badcock, who died in , at the age of , and the yet more eccentric John Benoist de Mainaudoc, M. D. the upholder of animal magnetism, who died in , Bloomsbury, at the age of in the year , are also buried in these vaults in that part appropriated to the parish of St. Faith.
In the nave of , and round the area of the dome, are displayed numerous flags or colours, that have been taken at different periods by our brave seamen and soldiers from the discomfited foes of Old England. Those captured by our land forces were won from the French, at Louisbourg, Martinique, and Valenciennes: and are generally in a most shattered and decayed state. Formerly, there were several large naval colours, consisting of
|flags, trophies of the signal victories obtained by the fleets commanded by the lords Howe, St. Vincent, and Duncan, during the revolutionary war; of them were French, Spanish, and Dutch. They were brought to the cathedral with much solemnity, on the , by detachments of seamen and marines, that day having been appointed for the celebration of a general thanksgiving for the great triumphs of the British arms by sea. On this occasion, their majesties and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, many admirals, and other naval officers, the lord mayor and corporation of London, &c. were present in at the celebration of divine service; and the colours having been placed upon the altar, in acknowledgment of the protection afforded by the Deity, were afterwards suspended around the dome. The whole of the large flags were removed on cleaning the church in .|
There are annual celebrations in this cathedral, of an imprsssive and important nature: these are the anniversary meetings of the sons of the clergy, and of the charity children of the metropolis and its vicinity. The former had its origin in the year , when a worthy divine, the Rev. G. Hall, preached on to an assembly of the sons of the clergy, whose fathers or whose families had been reduced to indigence through the sequestrations made in consequence of non-conformity with the ordinations of parliament. The relief obtained on that occasion, suggested the propriety of an annual sermon; and the promoters of the institution were afterwards incorporated by a charter granted by Charles the , , under the title of
a further license was granted in , to extend to the additional sum of above
The anniversary meetings were chiefly held at Bow church, , till , since which time they have been at ; and the governors, as a means of rendering the receipts more extensive, have, for upwards of a century, had the service combined with a grand performance of sacred music, principally Handel's: this performance is also preceded by a rehearsal. The collections are generally from to : the meetings are held in the beginning of May.
The assembly of the charity children generally takes place in the month of June. The entire circle beneath the dome is by temporary seats and scaffolding converted into an amphitheatre, where between and children, boys and girls, are stationed during the ceremony, and occasionally join in the singing and hallelujah chorusses. The seats in the area, and along the nave of the church to nearly the great west door, are appropriated to the society of patrons of the anniversary, the society for promoting
Christian Knowledge, and the public generally; but none are admitted without tickets. Independently of the higher feelings which such a congregation is calculated to excite, the whole scene is strikingly beautiful, especially when beheld from the elevation of the Whispering Gallery. On occasion, the children were expressly assembled here by royal command; this was on the , the day of the general thanksgiving for the king's recovery. Their majesties, and the royal family, with both houses of parliament, the lord mayor and corporation of London, the chief officers of state, and most of the dignified clergy, were at the same time present; and the whole ceremony was of the most solemn and affecting description.
The cathedral font is of veined alabaster, standing under the arch from the west door between the nave and the south aisles. It is very large, and in form like an oval vase, fluted, with a cover of the same character. It should have been mentioned, in the account of the paintings of the dome, that the highly finished sketches made for them in oil, by sir James Thornhill, to shew to queen Anne, are now in the possession of the dean and chapter, and hang in the chapter room; and that others on paper, in bistre, are preserved in the dean's vestry.
In the area before the west front, within a circular railing, is a statue of queen Anne, in her regal robes, standing upon a sculptured pedestal, at the lower angles of which are figures, representing Britannia, Hibernia, America, and France. This is a very indifferent performance of Bird's, (who received for the queen's statue, and for the whole).
The whole extent of the area upon which stands, is stated to contain acres, perches, yards, and foot. The entire expense of erecting the cathedral was exclusive of the charge for the iron balustrade, which stands upon the dwarf wall surrounding the church-yard. This balustrade, which is very strong and well-wrought, has iron gates, and altogether weighs tons and : it cost
Though was intended to be the grand ornament of the metropolis, there is not, unfortunately, a single point of view from which it can be seen in its entire proportions; and it is from this cause that its effect is much less imposing than it would otherwise be, and that the comparison which travellers make between this edifice and at Rome, is so greatly to the advantage of the latter. The houses surrounding the church are in general lofty dwellings, and so nearly contiguous to the cathedral, that they completely prevent the spectator from viewing it as a whole. The most adjacent spot from which it may be be held with any thing of its due grandeur, is from near the end of , in , but by far the best view is obtained from about the centre of Blackfriars-bridge, whence it appears to rise in all its majestic elevation
| and dignity, yet even in this prospect all the lower part of the edifice is excluded from sight by intervening buildings. In the approach from , the west front is seen under much disadvantage, as the avenue is not only too contracted for the extent of the front, but the lines in respect to each other have an oblique direction. A right line drawn east and west with , would cross , near . The height of the ground, combined with the altitude of the building, is such, that this edifice, as the |
has remarked, may
 See vol. 1, page 22.
 Sur. of Lon. p. 270-273.
 Besides the gift of Tillingham, in Essex, granted by the first charter of king Ethelbert, he also gave to this church twenty-four hides of land near London, (dedit viginti quatuor Hidas terra juxta Londonium) all of which, with the exception of Norton Folgate, reserved for the dean and chapter, were divided into the prebends of More, Finsbury, Old-street, Wenlock's-barn, Hoxton, Newington, Islington, St. Pancras, Kentish-town, Tottenham, Ragener, Holbourn, and Portpool. The gifts made by king Athelstan consisted of 106 farms, messuages, etc, at various places, chiefly in Essex; king Edgar gave three-score marks, and twenty-five mansions at Nasingstoke, king Canute granted the church of Lambourne, in Berks, pro victu Decani qui pro tempore fuerit; Edward the confessor gave eight messuages, &c. at Berling, and five at Chingford, in Essex; and also confirmed the gift of West Lee, in the same county, made by a religious woman, named Ediva. Divers other manors were also granted to St. Paul's before the conquest, as Kensworth, Caddington, &c. The conqueror, besides the castle of Stortford, in Herts, gave the land of William, the Deacon, and Ralph, his brother, held of the king; William Rufus confirmed all his father's donations and privileges, and freed the canons of St. Paul's from all works in respect to the Tower; two hundred acres of wood in Hadley and Thundersey, in Essex, with fourscore acres of arable land and a brewhouse, were afterwards given by Peter Newport; Draton was given by sir Philip Basset, knt. and Hayrstead by his executors; the executors of John of Gauntgave the manors of Bowes and Peeleshouse, in Middlesex; the churches of Willesdon, Sunbury, Brickesley, Rickling, and Aveley, were impropriated to the dean and chapter by divers bishops; and numerous houses within the city were granted to the cathedral establishment under different forms. Weever states, that among many deeds relating to the latter which he had seen, was one dated in the year 1141, and fastened by a label to the end of a stick, of what wood I know not; howsoever it remains to this day free from worm-holes, or any the least corruption, not so much as in the bark, upon which the following words were fairly written: Per hoc lignum oblata est terra Roberti fillij Gousberti super altare Sancti Pauli in festo omnium Sanctorum. Fun. Mon. p. 356. Edit. 1631. A great variety of particulars relating to numerous other grants that have been made to this church, may be seen in Mal. Lord. Red. vol. iii. p. 35-44.
 See Strype's Stow, Vol. ii. p. 638. This charter must have been given either in or after 1070, as Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas, archbishop of York, are among the attesting witnesses, and both those prelates were not appointed to their respective sees till that year.
 Sur. of Lond. p. 262; fist Edit.
 Previously to this, however, the cathedral again suffered by fire, though to what extent is questionable; for Stow, in his annals, has given two accounts, which are contradictory to each other. Under the date, 1132, he records, that a fire, beginning at Gilbertus house, in West Cheap, burnt, eastward, a great part of the city to Aldgate, with the priory of the Holy Trinity, and westward, to Ludgate; consuming the great church of St. Paul. Yet, in the next place, he mentions another fire, which kindled at the house of one Ailward, neare London Stone, and consumed eastward, to Aldgate, and westward, to St. Erkenwald's Shrine in Paules church. This second fire he has also mentioned in his Survey of London (First Edit. p. 117.) with the additional sentence, in the which fire the Priorie of the Holy Trinitie was brent. Now, had the former fire actually consumed the church, the shrine of St. Erkenwald would, most probably, have been destroyed with it; and if it had not, there is the greatest incongruity in supposing, that the vast fabric of St. Paul's could have been restored within the short space that had elapsed between the above dates, when we have seen, that nearly fifty years had been passed since its foundation by Maurice, and that it was still incomplete. The priory of the Holy Trinity, also, is said, to have been burnt in each conflagration; yet, it is almost equally incredible if that edifice was really destroyed by the first fire, that it could have been rebuilt so early as the occurrence of the second.-Brayley, ii. p. 208.
 Hist. St. Paul's p. 6.
 Sir Christopher Wren imagined that the choir was added in after times, to give a greater length eastward and that the original termination of the presbyterium was semicircular. Among the foundations of the choir he found nine wells in a row, which he conceived to have anciently belonged to a street of houses, that crossed obliquely from the High-street, then Watling street, to the Roman Causeway, now Cheapside. Parentalia, p. 272.
 Hist. St. Paul's, p. 12.
 Whar. Hist. de Episc.
 Howes Stow's Chro. p. 191.
 Leland says, that the Lady chapel was built on ground that had been obtained of king John for a market place.
 Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 384.
 Stow's Lond. p. 264. First edit.
 Ibid. 264.
 Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646.
 Howe's Stow's Ch. p. 646.
 Strype's Stow, vol. i. p. 646.
 Chronicle of London, Notes 181.
 A letter is preserved in Rymer's Foedera, vol. in. p. 1033, which was sent by Edward II. to Bishop Stephen de Gravesend, forbidding him to suffer the continuance of the devotion that was accustomed to be paid to the picture of the earl of Lancaster, which was hung up, among many others, in St. Paul's church; this letter bears date in June, 1823. The earl was grandson to Henry III, and having been engaged in rebellion against the reigning monarch, was beheaded at Pontefract; but he was honoured by the people as a martyr, and was subsequently canonized, in 1398.-Brayley, vol. ii. p. 224.
 This was done in commemoration of St. Nicholas, who, according to the Romish calendar, was so piously fashioned, that even when a babe in his cradle, he would fast both on Wednesdays and Fridays, and at those times was well pleased to suck but once a day. However ridiculous it may now seem, the Boy Bishop, who was chosen from among the choristers, is stated to have possessed episcopal authority during the above term; and the other children were his prebendaries. He was not permitted to celebrate mass, but he had full liberty to preach; and however puerile his discourses might have been, we find they were regarded with so much attention, that Dean Colet, in his Statutes of St. Paul's School, expressly ordains that the scholars shall on every Childermas daye, come to Paule's churche, and beare the chylde bishop's sermon, and after be at the hygh masse, and each of them offer a penny to the chylde bishop; and with them the maisters and surveyors of the stole. Probably these orations, though affectedly childish, were composed by the more aged members of the church. If the boy bishop died within the time of his prelacy, he was interred in pontificalibus, with the same ceremonies as the real diocesan; and the tomb of a child bishop, in Salisbury cathedral, may be referred to as an instance of such interment. An article in the Wardrobe Accompts of Edward I. evinces that the episcopus puerorum had the honour of singing vespers before the king.
 Howe's Stow, p. 591.
 Howe's Stow, p. 593.
 Howe's Stow, p. 608.
 Ibid, p. 609.
 Ibid, p. 628.
 Howe's Stow. p 625
 Brayley's Hist. of London, ii. p. 235.
 Howe's Stow, p. 659.
 Ibid, p. 769.
 Vol. III p. 71.
 On the disgraceful uses to which these chapels were placed, Mr. Malcolm makes the following sapient remark!- Shade of Elizabeth! how were these things kept from your notice, when you visited St. Paul's? That you did not see them, I firmly believe. If she did, (and it is highly probable,) she would have cared as much about the desecration as her father did, when he turned the monasteries and churches into warehouses for stolen goods.
 This practice of converting church vaults into wine cellars, it may be remarked, is not yet worn out. Some of the vaults beneath Winchester cathedral are now, or were lately, used for that purpose.
 Malcolm, vol. iii. p 71-73.
 The young gallants from the inns of court, the western and the northern parts of the metropolis, and those that had spirit enough to detach themselves from the counting-houses in the east, used to meet at the central point, St Paul's; and from this circumstance obtained the appellation of Paul's Walkers. However strange it may seem, tradition says, that the great lord Bacon used in his youth to cry, Eastward, ho! and was literally a Paul's Walker.Moser, in Eur. Mag. July, 1807.
 Brayley, ii. p. 237.
 The shrine of this bishop was in great repute. Matthew Paris records, that miracles were frequently wrought at it.
 Considerable remains of this monument now lie dispersed in the crypt of the present church.
 The statue of Dr. Donne was sculptured by the celebrated Nicholas Stone, and cost 120l. When near death, the doctor is said to have wrapt himself in a shroud as a corse, and to have had a likeness of himself painted whilst so enveloped, and standing upon an urn; from that painting the statue was executed, and it is still preserved in the vaults of St. Faith's church.
 This nobleman greatly distinguished himself in the Welsh wars, in the time of Edward the First. He contributed towards the building of the New Work, or Lady Chapel, in which he was buried, after his decease, at the age of threescore, at his house called Lincoln's Inn. The Book of Dunmow gives him this character: Vir illustris in consilio, strenuus in omni guerra et prelo, princeps militie in Anglia, et omni regno ornatissimus.
 Dugdale's St, Paul's, p. 23.
 The subscriptions received are particularized in large vellum books, which stand in a press, over the dean's vestry. The total amount was 101,330l. 4s. 8d.
 Mal. Lond. Red. Vol.. iii p. 77.
 The rubbish removed on laying the foundation of the portico was conveyed to Clerkenwell fields.
 Parentalia, p: 258-9.
 Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii. p. 85.
 Ibid. p. 86.
 Ibid. p. 104.
 Ibid. p. 99.
 Parentalia, p. 282
 Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 87. The model which sir Christopher best approved of was for many years kept under a shed in the office of the works at St Paul's; but on the completion of the building, it was deposited in a large apartment on the north side, over the morning prayer chapel, where it yet remains, and it is with the strongest feelings of indignation, that the Editor of this work, notices the disgraceful condition of this exquisite model; not alone is it kept so filthy and dirty, that it is almost impossible to make out any of the ornaments that adorn it, but the most reprehensible system of plunder has been permitted, the whole of the columns forming the western portico, which were of the Corinthian order, are gone, and all the caps of the pilasters. Surely some of the establishment of this cathedral, if they must turn exhibitors, ought to preserve and protect such an exquisite specimen of art: it is not decay but wilful destruction that has made so dreadful a havoc, in sir C. Wren's original design.
 Parentalia, p. 283.
 Parentalia, p. 202.
 Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 99. The gunner was paid 4l. 10. for placing the powder, laying the train, and setting fire to it.
 Parentalia, p. 284.
 Mal. Lond. Red vol. iii, p. 101.
 Parentalia, p. 284.
 Robert Trevet, a painter of architecture, and master of the company of painter-stainers, was employed in the same year, by the commissioners, to make drawings and engrave them, of the outside and inside views of the church and the choir, representing the time when the queen and parliament were present, for which he received 300l.
 Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 170.
 Why Bird was employed to decorate the west front in preference to C. G. Cibber, who was a much superior sculptor, is now, probably, inexplicable; yet the circumstance is the less to be lamented, when we refer to the sooty and discoloured aspect, which the combined effects of smoke and weather has given to the building. All the natural lights and shades in the sculptures are completely destroyed by the clouds and streaks of black arising from the soot; and even the great architectural masses of the front itself, are deprived of their due effect, through the accumulated blackness that overwhelms them. The abilities of a Praxiteles would have been exerted in vain, to render art triumphant over evils like these. For the Sculpture of St. Paul's Conversion, Bird received 650l. The space it occupies is sixty-four feet in length, and seventeen in height. It contains eight large figures, six of which are on horseback: and several of them are imbost two feet and a half. The bas-reliefs, in the panels over the door-ways beneath the portico, were also executed by this artist; and are all designed from the life of the patron saint. That over the great west door, or principal entrance, represents St. Paul preaching to the Beraeans; and the figures are from nine to eighteen inches in relief: for this the artist was paid 300l. for the two others 75l. each. The pines for the towers, and the scrolls, ball, and cross, for the lantern of the cupola, were all of them modelled by Bird; and these generally speaking, are in a good taste, and well designed. The great capitals for the west portico were sculptured by Samuel Fulks, who had 60l. for each. See Mal. Lond. Red. pp. 107-109.
 Fine Arts of the English School p. 11.
 Ibid, p. 10.
 Ibid. p. 11.
 Fine Arts, &c. p. 11.
 Ibid. p. 12.
 Parentalis, pp 290, 291.
 Fine Arts of the English School, p. 14.
 Parentalia, p. 291
 Parentalia, p. 291.
 Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii. p. 116.
 Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 100, 103, and 104.
 Vol. xx. p, 580.
 Parentalia, p. 292, note.
 Fine Arts, &c. p. 14.
 Anec. of Painting, vol. iv, p. 43.
 Fine Arts, p. 14.
 The arch which crosses the north aisle at the east end, says Mr. Malcolm, is two feet three inches in thickness, yet such is the derangement occasioned by the settling, that two of the twenty great stones composing the arch have yawned asunder full an inch and a quarter, and the great stones of the wall of the nave, ten paces westward, are rent in their joints, and three are broken. A person standing on the great cornice of the nave will perceive that the north-west pier has sunk at least four inches; the sinking of the other is discernible on the side next the choir, in the two transepts, and in the wall of the stair-case, from the top to the bottom. The fissures are almost wholly confined to the junctions of the choir, nave, and transepts, with the dome. Lond. Red. Vol. iii p. 115.
 Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. III. p. 126.
 From the small apertures pierced through the circumference of the west dial the motion of this hand is plainly visible. Though the clock is here described as having only a single dial, there are, in fact, two, one on the west side, and the other on the south; but the dimensions of both are similar.
 In a pamphlet sold at the cathedral, the weight is said to be only 11,474 pounds; and that of the clapper 180 pounds. Mr. Malcolm has given the following extract from the Protestant Mercury of July the thirty-first, 1700; yet as the bell itself has the date of 1716, it would argue that it must have been afterwards re-cast. The great bell, formerly called Tom of Westminster, was new cast by Mr. Philip Wightman, at his melting-house, and proves extraordinary well. It weighs about five tons, having an addition made to it of the weight of a ton. It will be erected again at St. Paul's cathedral in a short time. Brayley, ii. p. 271.
 Mal. Lond. Red. Vol. iii. p. 105.
 Anec. of Paint. Vol. iii. p. 149.
 See Lond. Red. Vol. iii. pp. 104, 105.
 The gilding round the altar cost 1681. the glory 3l. the foliage 30l. and the palm and laurel branches 5l. the painting of the pilasters cost 160l. and the painting of the east end, &c. in resemblance of veined marble, 4s. per square yard. Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, p. 105.
 The names of those who were foremost in this meritorious design are deserving of the lasting estimation of every admirer of art and superior talents, they are here recorded:--Sir Joshua Reynolds, Angelica Kaufman, and Messrs. West, Barry, Cipriani, and Dance.
 Brayley, in. p. 278.
 See Barry's Letter to the Dilettanti Society, p. 47; and Bacon's Letter to Mr. J. Nichols, in Gent.«s Mag. for the year 1796.
 Brayley, ii. p. 285.
 Ibid, p. 286.
 Vol. ii. p. 153.
 Mal. Lond. Red. vol. iii, pp. 145, 146.