The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3

Allen, Thomas


Winchester House.

It occupies the south west angle of , from which it is separated by a small court-yard, bounded by a high brick wall, in which is a large arched entrance, with plain doors, surmounted by a heavy shell formed pediment, richly carved in the taste of the latter part of the century. The remains of the building, now partly occupied by a warehouse and partly by a dwelling-house, shew a portion of the original structure, built in the commencement and subsequently altered and modernized about the latter half of the century.

The northern front, which is all that is not concealed by adjacent structures, is built with a dark red brick with stone dressings; the original windows project slightly from the main wall; the openings are spacious and rectangular, and are made by uprights and transoms into various lights partaking of the same form as the windows. The doorway on the basement is concealed to about a of its height, by the raising of the earth of the court-yard; the arch is circular, with a key-stone surmounted by a square-headed sweeping cornice. The various angles are strengthened with rustics. Near the old doorway is a spacious lintelled entrance, the jambs and architrave being ornamented with foliage in relief, which is still in use as an entrance to the dwelling-house. The upper story with its high roof and dormer-windows, in a style not at all assimilating with the portion described, is an addition of the latter part of the century. The interior appears to be entirely refitted at the latter period, and has since been so much mutilated to suit the mechanical uses to which it is now put, that little of the original work


appears. The spacious staircase, with its heavy ballustrade, is of the earliest introductions of the Italian style of building. On the floor is a large and once handsome chimney-piece; the fireplace is spacious, and its jambs sustain on trusses the remains of a handsome composition in oak, carved and painted; Ionic columns sustaining an entablature, still remain. In the windows is several times repeated in stained glass the motto ; amongst the wainscotting still remains some of the archformed pannels richly carved in relief, which are evidently portions of the original structure.

On the north side of the same street still exist of the earliest specimens of Italian architecture in the metropolis. The in point of antiquity is, like the opposite mansion, built with dark red brick, but with this difference, that all the mouldings are worked in the same material. It has pilasters with capitals of the Ionic order, having masks introduced into the latter just below the egg and anchor moulding. The shafts are broken at about a of their height by small tablets. The specimen is more costly, the dressings being stone. The pilasters are of the Corinthian order, the coronet and feathers of the prince of Wales being introduced into the capitals. The windows are inclosed within heavy frontispieces of stone, the jambs being ornamented with eagles, sustaining in their beaks wreaths of foliage.

Probably it was of those houses which Strype notices as a

great messuage, called the Spanish ambassador's house, of late inhabited by sir James Houblon, knt. and alderman of London.

Adjoining to the south-west side of the marquis of Winchester's garden was another large house and garden that reached into , on the site of which Drapers'-hall and gardens now stand. This was the residence of lord Cromwell, earl of Essex, vicar-general to king Henry VIII.

Stow makes great complaints of this lord's ill usage of his father, who had a garden and summer-house joining to the north pales of my lord's garden: this summer-house was loosed from the ground, and carried on rollers into his father's garden, feet, without any warning given to him, or being able to obtain any other answer, when he spoke of it to the surveyors of the work, than that their master had commanded them so to do.

And more to the west in was another noble mansion, belonging to the abbot of St. Alban's.

On the south side of , in this ward, is


[] John, fifth marquis of Winchester, the nobleman who so bravely defended Basing house,(the family seat in Hampshire), against the parliamentarians in the reign of Charles I. caused the motto of Aimez Loyaulté to be written with a diamond in every window of the house, and it is probable the same orders were given respecting this house.

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 Title Page
 CHAPTER I: The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London
 CHAPTER II: List of the parishes and churches in London, with their incumbents, &c
CHAPTER III: History and Topography of Aldersgate Ward
CHAPTER IV: History and Topography of Aldgate Ward
CHAPTER V: History and Topography of Bassishaw Ward
CHAPTER VI: History and Topography of Billingsgate Ward
CHAPTER VII: History and Topography of Bishopsgate Ward, Without and Within
CHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of Bread-street Ward
CHAPTER IX: History and Topography of Bridge Ward Within
CHAPTER X: History and Topography of Broad-street Ward
CHAPTER XI: History and Topography of Candlewick Ward
CHAPTER XII: History and Topography of Castle Baynard Ward
CHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of Cheap Ward
CHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of Coleman-street Ward
CHAPTER XV: History and Topography of Cordwainer's-street Ward
CHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of Cornhill Ward
CHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Ward Within
CHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of Cripplegate Yard Without
CHAPTER XIX: History and Topography of Dowgate Yard
CHAPTER XX: History and Topography of Farringdom Ward Within
CHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of Farringdon Ward Without
CHAPTER XXII: History and Topography of Langbourn Ward
CHAPTER XXIII: History and Topography of Lime-street Ward
CHAPTER XXIV: History and Topogrpahy of Portsoken Ward
CHAPTER XXV: History and Topography of Queenhithe Ward
CHAPTER XXVI: History and Topography of Tower Ward
CHAPTER XXVII: History and Topography of Vintry Ward
CHAPTER XXVIII: History and Topography of Wallbrook Ward