The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 3
The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London.
The site, extent, buildings, population, commerce, and a view of the progressive increase of London.
The geographical situation of London, in respect to its position on the globe, is in latitude degrees, minutes, north; and in longitude, degrees, minutes; or minutes, seconds west, from Greenwich. Its distance from the principal cities of Europe is as follows: from Edinburgh miles south; from Dublin miles south-east; from Amsterdam, miles west; from Paris, miles north north-west; from Copenhagen, miles southwest; from Vienna, miles north-west; from Madrid, miles north-east by east; from Rome, miles north north-west; from Constantinople miles north-west; and from Moscow, miles east south-east.
The immediate site of London is about miles from the sea, westward, in a pleasant and spacious valley, stretching along the banks of the Thames; which river, as it flows through the town, forms a bold curve or crescent. On the northern side, the ground rises with a quick ascent, and then more gradually, but unequally, heightens to the north-west and west, which are the most elevated parts. On the south side, the ground is nearly level, and was
|anciently an entire morass of several miles extent, but was reclaimed through the artificial embankment of the river. The present average breadth of the stream, in this part of its course, is from to yards; its general depth, at low water, is about feet, but at spring tides it rises from to , and sometimes to or feet above that level. The tides commonly flow to the distance of miles above , and would probably extend yet further, but from the stoppage of the water by that ponderous fabric.
The general soil of the valley in which the metropolis is situated, is gravel and clay, with loam and sand intermixed. The clay predominates in most parts of the town; and to this circumstance, combined with the facility with which the clay is converted into brick, the vast augmentation of buildings in London is partly to be attributed. From the neighbourhood of Tuthill Fields, on the south, to that of the Tower on the east, the buildings, following the natural bend of the river, rise in a sort of amphitheatric form, and are defended from the bleak winds of the north, by the rising grounds about and Highbury, and the hills of Highgate and Hampstead. Below the Tower, and extending to the extremity of the county along the river Lea, in the vicinity of , &c. the ground is in general flat, and the houses are exposed to the chilling blasts of the east. The western and higher parts of the metropolis, stand pleasantly open to the genial breezes of that quarter. The southern, or Surrey side, lies low and level, and is still marshy, particularly in the neighbourhood of , and Fields; of late years, however, as the population of these districts has advanced, greater attention has been given to the drainage, and the whole is now in a state of great improvement.
The extent of what is commonly called the metropolis, from west to east, or from to Poplar, is full miles and a half; its breadth, from north to south, is very irregular, but may be described as varying from to miles. The outward line, or circumference, of the contiguous buildings, allowing for the numerous inequalities of breadth, may be computed at about miles; and the area of the whole comprehends between and square miles. The principal mercantile streets range from west to east, and in that direction the metropolis is intersected by great thoroughfares; the , which is most adjacent to the Thames, and may be called the southern line, commences on the , at Hyde-Park Corner, and under the successive names of , , , Charing-cross, Strand, , , Church-yard,
|, , , and , connects with ; and thence extends to , about miles further, through , Radcliff Highway, Upper and Lower , &c. The northern line begins on the Uxbridge and , and under the different appellations of , , , , , , , , , , and Whitechapel, leads by the Mile-End road into Essex: from this latter line, at , Whitechapel, the branches off south-eastward, and goes on to the West-India Docks, a distance of about miles. The principal thoroughfare which crosses London from north to south, enters from the at Kingsland, and continues along , Norton-Falgate, , , Fish-street-hill, Londonbridge, the , , and , to the Brighton and other roads. Besides this, there are other main avenues into Surrey and Kent, over the bridges of Blackfriars and , by spacious roads, which meet at the Obelisk in Fields, and again diverge near the wellknown inn of the Elephant and Castle.
Independent of its various local and municipal divisions, London may be considered as divided into grand portions, of which the city, commonly so called, is to be considered as the nucleus, and the remaining as so many suburbs; forming altogether probably the largest assemblage of human habitations ever known; certainly the most extensive now existing in the world.
The metropolis is computed to contain about squares, and streets, lanes, courts, &c.; the whole formed by upwards of buildings of various descriptions, as public structures, churches, dwelling-houses, warehouses, shops, &c. The churches and other principal edifices are mostly built of stone; the dwellings, with the exception of some of the mansions belonging to the nobility, also of stone, are almost wholly built with brick; but few wooden houses are now to be seen, and those are principally of a date anterior to the great fire of . Many of the squares are extremely spacious, and the central area of most of them is inclosed by an iron pallisade, and laid out in graveled walks and shrubberies, for the recreation of the inhabitants of the surrounding houses. The principal streets are also spacious and airy; and in most of the new parts of the town, the buildings are respectable and uniform; yet the continuity of line which results from the regularity, renders them by far less picturesque than the old houses, which were constructed with projecting porticos, over-hanging windows, gable-ends, &c. and of which some specimens may yet be found.
Through the numerous improvements that have been made in the course of the last years, the inhabitants of London enjoy greater conveniences than those of any other city in Europe All the streets are regularly paved, and divided into a carriage-way and a footpath on each side. The carriage-way is either paved with small square blocks of Scotch granite, or pebbles, so disposed as to rise with a small convexity in the centre, and having a continued channel, or kennel, on each side, at a short distance from the foot-pavement, or laid with small irregular pieces of Scotch granite upon the plan of Mr. M«Adam; the latter, though it answers well on country roads, is generally disliked in the metropolis from its accumulating mud and filth. The foot-paths are in general laid with large thick flags, or slabs, either of Yorkshire free-stone, moorstone, or lime-stone, and are finished with a regular kirb, raised a
|few inches above the carriage-way; their breadth varies from about to or feet, in proportion to the width of the avenue. The mud and soil which accumulate in the streets, are taken away at stated intervals by scavengers employed by the different parishes; and the waste water, &c. runs off through iron gratings, fixed in the kennels at proper intervals, into arched sewers or drains constructed beneath the streets (and communicating by smaller drains with the houses), and having various outlets through larger sewers into the Thames. Through these means, and from the ample supply of water which the inhabitants derive from different sources, the general cleanliness is very considerable, and greatly contributes to the present salubrity of the metropolis.
The charges of constructing and keeping in repair the sewers, drains, &c. and of paving the streets, are defrayed by levies of a small sum per pound on the rents of all inhabited houses; and the expences of lighting and watching are likewise discharged in the same manner. The sewer tax is collected every or years under the direction of the commissioners of sewers; the taxes for paving, lighting and watching are, in general, assessed by the authority of magistrates and other officers, acting in the different districts and parishes, under the express regulations of various acts of parliament, obtained for local purposes.
Among the recent improvements of the metropolis, none, perhaps, merit greater celebration than the present brilliant mode of lighting the churches, theatres, public streets, shops, printing-offices, &c. with gas. This beautiful substitute for the former imperfect plan of securing a public light is rapidly extending its benefits, in consequence of the incorporation of the
on the . station of their operations is in , , and another at the corner of and the Curtain-road. Their charter was granted for years; but, having been retarded by many obstacles and difficulties, they applied to parliament for an extension of their powers; which amended act received the royal assent in . The capital of the company was originally , and divided into shares; but permission was subsequently obtained to raise an additional Another company is established in Dorset Gardens, adjoining to the river Thames, near Blackfriars. The great advantage of this mode of lighting is now shown by its every where extending itself; the whole of the metropolis, its bridges and roads being nightly illuminated by means of gas.
The guardianship of the metropolis at night is chiefly entrusted to aged men, who are mostly hired at small weekly salaries by the different parishes, and provided with a great-coat, a lanthorn, staff, rattle, and a watch-box. Each watchman has a regular beat, or walk, which it is his duty to go twice round every hour during the
|night, and to proclaim aloud the time and the state of the weather. The whole number of these watchmen, including the patroles (who are much fewer, but are armed with cutlasses, fire-arms, &c.) does not exceed .
The width of the streets, and the moderate height of the buildings, which are hardly ever run up into , or , and even more stories, as in some other cities, highly contribute to the healthfulness of London. Few of the streets are so narrow as to prevent carriages from passing, and many others, especially in the new parts of the town, are wide enough for or to pass without inconvenience. The general width of the principal trading streets may be stated at from to and feet; others, particularly westward, measure from to a feet and upwards: the width of , at the Treasury, is about feet; and that of Portland-place somewhat more than .
Of the relative extent of the principal streets and other avenues in London, some estimate may be formed from the following table:--
Notwithstanding the sudden and strongly contrasted changes of the weather in London, compared with the state of the atmosphere in other climes, and although multitudes of its poorer classes live in squalid poverty and wretchedness, the general healthiness of this capital may be deemed fully equal to that of any other in the world. In this respect considerable improvements have taken place since the times of the great plague and fire, and contagious disorders are now but of rare occurrence, at least to any extent. The annual mortality at the present period may be averaged at about in ; the number of deaths is greatest in infancy, and about - of the whole are of children under years of age.
The temperature of the air in London and its vicinity is sensibly affected by the influence of the coal fires, which warm and dry the atmosphere; and it is a remarkable fact that vegetation is earlier by days or a fortnight on the west and south-west sides of the metropolis, than on the northern and eastern sides. This is to be attributed to the severity of the north and north-east winds being mitigated in their passage over London by the warmth of the air arising from the fires. The more prevalent winds blow from the north-east and south-west; and these, with little variation, occupy about or months in the year. The westerly winds are generally pregnant with rain, the greatest falls coming from a few points west of the south; the easterly winds are sharp and piercing, but almost always dry. The heat of the atmosphere is very variable, it seldom remaining equal for many days; and every year differing from the preceding , as well in respect to heat and cold, as to moisture and rains.
On the , the thermometer, in the open air, in the shade, and with a northern aspect, near , rose to °; and in various parts of London, in the shade also, it varied from that degree, upwards, to . On the same day, in particular local situations in the sun, the quicksilver rose to the extraordinary height of from to degrees! The contrast between this day and that of the , is most striking; on the latter, the thermometer fell to degrees below zero!
The situation of London is so favourable, that springs, which might yield large quantities of water, are found on digging almost
|every where, yet the main sources of that plentiful supply which the inhabitants receive, are the Thames and the ; this arises from the comparative cheapness with which those waters are conveyed into the very houses themselves, and which is effected by means of iron or wooden pipes laid beneath all the streets, from to feet below the surface, and having small bores connected with leaden pipes, that lead to the kitchens and cisterns. In these pipes also, at convenient distances in the streets, plugs are lived to be opened in case of fires; and occasionally to give issue to the water in times of frost, when the smaller pipes become frozen. Invarious parts of the town, also, over the ancient wells that have been preserved, pumps are fixed, for the convenience of the populace.
The population of the metropolis has nearly doubled within the last years. The number of its settled inhabitants, including those of the contiguous parishes are given in the annexed table.
London is generally acknowledged to be the commercial city in the world; and its manufacturing importance is but little, if at all, inferior to any. It is the centre, indeed, of European traffic, and every article, whether of necessity, convenience, comfort, or luxury, may be here obtained.
as actually occupied by shipping, extends from London-bridge to Deptford, being a distance of nearly miles, and is from to yards in average breadth. It may be described as consisting of divisions, called the Upper, Middle, and Lower Pools, and the space between and Deptford; the upper pool extends from to Union hole, about yards; the middle pool from thence to , yards; the lower pool from the latter place to Horse-ferry tier, near , yards; and the space below to Deptford about yards. The number of vessels belonging to this port in , was ascertained, by the official documents laid before parliament, to be , carrying tons, and men. Comparing this number with the number returned in -, the increase will be seen to be astonishing. At that period, the vessels amounted only to , carrying tons, and men. On the quantity of tonnage, it is nearly in the proportion of to , and on the amount of men and ships, as upwards of to . The East India company's ships alone carry more burthen by tons than all the vessels of London did a century ago. The average number of ships in the Thames and Docks is ; together with barges employed in lading and unlading them; small craft engaged in the inland trade, and wherries for the accommodation of passengers; revenue officers are constantly on duty in different parts of the river; labourers are employed in lading and unlading; and watermen navigate the wherries and craft. The aggregate value of the goods shipped and unshipped in the course of a year, in the river Thames, has been computed at millions sterling. The vast system of plunderage that was formerly carried on with impunity, in consequence of the crowded state of the river, led to the construction, in the early part of the present century, of those grand deposits of commercial wealth, the West India, East India, London, and . The present annual value of the exports and imports may be stated at upwards of millions, and the annual amount of the custom and excise duties at more than millions sterling.
The vast consumption of provisions in this immense capital must excite surprise, when duly considered, as to the means by which it is so regularly supplied. There are, however, no particular laws to effect this purpose; but all is left to the simple mechanism put in force by the expectation of profit, and the assured certainty with which every dealer can dispose of his goods.
The consumption of animal food is very great; but, to form a proper idea of its extent, the average weight, as well as the number of the animals, must be ascertained. About the year , the average weight of the oxen sold in the London market was lbs.; of calves lbs., of sheep lbs., and of lambs lbs.: the present average weight is, of oxen lbs, of calves lbs., of sheep lbs., and of lambs lbs. The number of oxen annually consumed in London has been estimated at , calves , sheep , lambs , hogs and pigs ; besides animals of other kinds. is the principal market for the above articles; and the total value of butchers' meat sold there annually is stated at
The quantity of fish consumed in the metropolis is comparatively small, on account of the high price which it generally bears; but this will probably be remedied, though some kinds of fish at particular seasons, are cheap, and of good quality. There are, on an average, annually brought to market cargoes of fish, of tons each, and about tons by land carriage: in the whole tons. The supply of poultry being inadequate to a general consumption, and the price consequently high, that article is mostly confined to the tables of the wealthy. Game is not publicly sold, yet a considerable quantity, by presents, and even by clandestine sale, is consumed by the middling classes. Venison is sold, chiefly by pastry-cooks, at a moderate rate, but the chief consumption, which is considerable, is amongst the gentry, and proprietors of deer-parks.
The annual consumption of wheat, in London, may be averaged at quarters, each containing Winchester bushels; of porter and ale barrels, each containing gallons: spirits and compounds gallons, wines pipes, butter lbs., and cheese lbs. The quantity of coals consumed is about chaldrons of bushels, or a ton and a half to each chaldron. About cows are kept in the vicinity of London, for supplying the inhabitants with milk, and they are supposed to yield nearly gallons every year; even this great quantity, however, is considerably increased by the dealers, who adulterate it, by at least -, with water, before they serve their customers.
It is a remarkable fact, that the Domesday-book, which is usually so minute in regard to our principal towns and cities, is wholly silent in respect to London. It only mentions a vineyard in , belonging
and acres of land
| nigh Bishopsgate, belonging
The best way of accounting for this omission is, perhaps, to imagine that there was a distinct account taken of the city, which has been lost or destroyed. was then only a few houses, near , on the banks of the Old-bourne, which flowed into Fleet-ditch. William of Malmsbury, who concludes his with the reign of king Stephen, calls London
he adds, that,
William Fitz-Stephen, a monk of Canterbury, in a curious Tract written about , intituled, has given an interesting picture of the metropolis and its customs, as they existed in Henry the 's reign. According to this author, the city was then bounded on the land-side by a high and spacious wall, furnished with turrets, and double gates; and had, in the east part,
and, in the west, castles well fortified. Further westward, about miles, on the banks of the river, was the royal palace (at ),
Between this and the city was a continued suburb, mingled with large and beautiful gardens and orchards belonging to the citizens, who were themselves every where known, and respected, above all others, for their
The number of conventual churches in the city, and its suburbs, was , besides
On the north side were open meadow and pasture lands; and beyond, a great forest, in whose woody coverts lurked
With the principal churches were connected,
and other schools had been established in different parts: upon holidays the scholars,
were accustomed to argue on different subjects, and to exercise their abilities in oratorical discourses. The handicraftsmen, the venders of wares, and the labourers for hire, were every morning to be found at their distinct and appropriated places, as is still common in the bazaars of the East; and on the river's bank was a public cookery and eating-place belonging to the city, where,
and however daintily inclined, might be supplied with proper fare. Without of the gates also, in a certain plain field (), on every Friday, unless it be a solemn festival, was
To this city
continues Fitz- Stephen,
Henry the , whose great exactions have already been alluded to, has, in a few words, given a curious illustration of the affluence of the citizens in his days. The parliament, discontented at the lavish grants he had made to foreigners, refused him aid, and he was obliged to sell his jewels and plate. Being afterwards told that the Londoners had purchased them, he exclaimed passionately,
So angry indeed was the king with those
(as he termed them)
that he granted a days fair to the abbot of , to be held annually in Tothill-fields; and strictly commanded that, during that time,
This injustice, combined with the rebuilding of , by the same sovereign, led to the great extension of that quarter of the metropolis.
In the year , on the petition of the
&c. the Parliament
The tenants of the precinct of the chapel
|of , in London, were exempted from the operation of this act; as they were also from all acts containing restraints upon trade made about this period. From this curious document we not only learn the general nature of the manufactures of England, in the century, but likewise that various articles were then made here, the introduction of which into this country has been assigned to a date far subsequent.
The progressive increase of London was, in queen Elizabeth's time, somewhat checked by a proclamation, dated on the , prohibiting all persons from building houses within miles from any of the city gates: and various other regulations were ordained, to prevent any further resort of people to the capital, from distant parts of the country. The new lord mayor was strictly enjoined by lord Burleigh to enforce this proclamation, when he took the official oaths at , in the following autumn.
The dissolution of the monasteries which effected so great a chance in the metropolis occurred between the years and . Previously to this era, the various religious edifices and their respective appendages, within the walls of London, occupied nearly -thirds of the entire area; and about - of the whole population is supposed to have been associated in the numerous communities and brotherhoods which then separated
It must be remembered also, in respect to the ground covered by monastic foundations, that the bishops of almost every see, and the superior of every principal religious house in England, had a residence either within the city, or in its vicinity.
Independently of the more extensive and splendid establishments of and , the metropolis and its suburbs, at the time immediately prior to the Reformation, contained all the variety of ecclesiastical institutions and buildings enumerated in the following list.
When a comparison is made between the extent of ground thus occupied by religious and ecclesiastical foundations, and that covered with merchants' warehouses, mansions, and cottages, or assigned to the purposes of trade and commerce, as wharfs, quays, shops, &c. the difference appears so striking, that a person unacquainted with its history, would at once infer that London had been a city of priests and monks rather than a commercial city: and that from the great number of holidays for legendary saints, fasts, vigils, processions, &c. enjoined by the Rubric, the inhabitants
says Mr. Brayley,
worse than Gothic barbarity,
The liberation of so many thousands from the seclusion of the cloister, quickly led to an increased bustle and traffic, which called for new improvements in the avenues to the city.
From the very curious plan and view of London, intituled , by Ralph, or Radulphus Aggas, made soon after the accession of Queen Elizabeth, which is yet extant, though extremely scarce, a variety of interesting particulars of the state of
|the capital at that period, may be derived. From this document it appears, that the most crowded part of the city, was then, as at present, on the south side, extending from , , and , to the banks of the Thames; and that besides the small bay at , there were lesser ones above bridge, at Ebgate and . Beyond , from Basinghall-lane to Bishopsgate, a great portion of the ground, with the exception of , and the houses adjacent to St: Augustine's church, was uncovered, and apparently occupied for gardens.
Similar void spaces, but separated by buildings, occurred between and the , at the extremity of which, next , stood a cross. was only an extensive inclosure, and , and seem to have extended but very little beyond Tower. From the gardens and inclosures immediately attached to the north side of Whitechapel and , the ground was only shaded with trees; the Spital Fields lying entirely open from the back of St. Mary Spital, which gave them name. was only a single line of buildings, extending from St. Botolph's, , to Bishopsgate Without: from thence a pretty regular street, but interspersed with openings and detached edifices, extended to church, which terminated the avenue. Westward from Bishopsgate, a few buildings, the principal of which was a long range named the Dogg-house, with gardens and inclosures intermingled, reached to Moorfield and Finsbury Field, both of which, from the Dogg-house to Finsbury-court, were completely open; and on Finsbury Field, where the handsome square of that name, and the houses beyond, extending to , now stand, were several windmills. In itself, from the spot now occupied by to , was not a single house, and only or detached buildings stood in the fields beyond. The mansion called Finsbury-court, was near the upper end of , between which and , the houses were very few. was merely indicated by a road described as
and was hardly to be seen in the distance. Clerkenwell, with the exception of the houses in and Cow-cross, was mostly occupied by the precincts of the monastery and the church; and only a few detached buildings stood on the road beyond the latter edifice. From the back of Cow-cross towards the , and beyond that towards Ely-house, and Gray's-inn-lane, the ground was either entirely vacant or occupied in gardens; and Gray's-inn-lane only extended to a short distance beyond the inn. From Holborn-bridge to the vicinity of the present , the houses were continued on both sides, but further up to about , the road was entirely open; a garden-wall there
| commenced, and continued to near Broad , and the end of , where a small cluster of houses, chiefly on the right, formed the principal part of the village of St. Giles; only a few other buildings appearing in the neighbourhood of the church and hospital, the precincts of which were spacious, and surrounded with trees. Beyond this, both to the north and west, all was country, and the Oxford and other main roads were distinguished only by avenues of trees. From the Oxford-road, southward, to , called the
and thence along the highways, named the and Hedgelane, to the vicinity of the Mews, not a house was standing; and St. James's hospital, and or small buildings near the spot recently occupied by Carlton-house, were all that stood near the line of the present . The limits of the Mews were the same as now; but and all its neighbourhood were completely open fields. had only a few houses beyond the church, abutting on the Convent-garden (now Covent-garden), which extended quite into , and had but buildings within its ample bounds. Not a house was standing either in , or in the now populous vicinage of Dials; nor yet in , from near Broad , to Drewry-house, at the top of . Nearly the whole of the Strand was a continued street, formed, however, in a considerable degree by spacious mansions, and their appropriate offices, the residences of noblemen and prelates; those on the south side had all large gardens attached to them, extending down to the Thames, and have mostly given names to the streets, &c. that have been built on their respective sites. The were literally gardens, reaching as far as the present Admiralty; and further on, towards the Treasury, were the Tilt-yard and Cockpit; opposite to which was the extensive palace of . Along to and the abbey, the buildings were nearly connected; and from to Palace-yard, they were also thickly clustered on the bank of the Thames. Adjacent to , the site of which was then a part of the demesne attached to the palace at , were several buildings; and some others stood opposite to the archbishop of Canterbury's palace in Surrey.
On the Surrey side, the plan exhibits only a single house that stood anywise contiguous to ; but more northward, near a road that took the same direction from as the present bridge road, and almost opposite to which was a kind of stage landing-place, were or buildings. All beyond these, to the banks of the Thames opposite to Whitefriars, was entirely vacant: there, a line of houses, with gardens and groves of trees behind them, commenced, and was continued with little intermission along to the vicinity of the Stews, and Winchester-house. of the most noted places in
|this line was the theatre and gardens, called Paris Gardens, the site of which is now occupied by , and its annexed parish. Further on, but behind the houses, and nearly opposite to and , were the circular buildings and inclosures appropriated to bull and bear-baiting, amusements to which queen Elizabeth seems to have been very partial. , as far as appears in the plan, which only extends to a short distance down the , was tolerably clustered with houses, and was completely encumbered with them. Along to Battle-bridge, and down to the river, the buildings were closely contiguous; but along Horslydown they stood much thinner, and were intermingled with gardens to where the plan terminates, nearly opposite to St. Katherine's.
Such then, and so constructed was London about the period of Elizabeth's accession; yet the reign of that princess forms a splendid epoch in its advancing growth, and notwithstanding the
proclamations of the years , , and , both the population and the buildings continued to keep pace with the extension of commerce, and the increase of the working classes, whose numbers had been greatly augmented by the multitudes redeemed by the reformation from the idleness of the cloister.
The great augmentation in the buildings of the metropolis, which had taken place during the reign of queen Elizabeth, may be seen from the following passages, selected, with a few verbal alterations for the better connection, from
St. Katherine's, below the Tower, has
On the bite of New Abbey, , of
In place of
The Ditch, without the walles of the citie, on the other side of that streete,
Eastward from St. Botolph's church
From north-west to Bishopsgate, on the outer side of ,
In place of
About this time also
On the high street of
From this descriptive outline of , it is evident that the buildings on this side the Thames, had not kept pace with the increase on the northern bank, although various additions had been made, as will be shown hereafter.
The augmented population of the metropolis requiring fresh supplies of water, several new conduits were erected during Elizabeth's reign; of the principal of these was on , where a ruinous conduit was rebuilt, and had water conveyed to it through leaden pipes, from a reservoir of the waters of several springs made in the fields, near the extremity of the present (where also a conduit was formed), so named from the patriotic citizen, William Lamb, esq. (some time a gentleman of the chapel to Henry the ), at whose sole charge the work was executed. Conduits for the conveyance of Thames water were built also at Dowgate, Leadenhall, and ; and at Broken-wharf a vast engine was constructed in the year , for supplying the western parts of the city.
Howe, speaking of the foreign commerce of the city in the year , has this passage:--
Among the strange commodities here alluded to, was doubtless that of tobacco, which had been introduced in , and was now become a considerable article of import, notwithstanding that James himself had written a pamphlet, entitled against its use.
During the early years of Charles I., the commerce of this metropolis still continued to make a rapid progress; and though the civil wars, for a time, had a very contrary operation, yet in the end
| they certainly proved beneficial. The energies of the mind were more awakened; the habits of thinking, and modes of action, which then became general, taught man to feel his dignity as an individual; the different ranks of society were more closely drawn together; the exertions of industry were better directed, and the means of acquiring wealth greatly augmented. The injurious tendency of the numerous monopolies which had been granted by the crown, was eminently counteracted; for, though never abolished by any direct statute, yet many persons, regardless of the prerogative whence they were derived, gradually invaded the privileges they conferred, and commerce was increased by the increase of liberty. In the year , the king commanded his
to open a regular communication by running posts between the metropolis and Edinburgh, Ireland, and various other places.
Many extensive improvements were effected in the rebuilding of the city;
Nearly the whole of what is now called Spital-fields was completed after the fire, together with all the streets between Bricklane and . A similar increase also took place towards Goodman's-fields, , and , which, with nearly all the ground beyond to , had previously been open fields. The western side of the was built over the ditch, which had surrounded the ancient city wall, and had been filled up. was also commenced, and the unfortunate duke of Monmouth began a splendid house on the south side, where Bateman's-buildings now stand, and was so named from respect to his memory.
In the reigns of William the and queen Anne, the buildings and population considerably increased, particularly in the parishes of St. Andrew, St. James, Clerkenwell, and .
The increase in the -mentioned parish was principally made on acres and rood of meadow-land, which had been purchased in the reign of queen Elizabeth, for , by sir William Harpur, knt., lord mayor of London in , and invested by him in the corporation of Bedford, for the support of a school, &c. in that town, of which he was a native. The annual rental of the devised land, till the year , was about ; but the corporation then let it on lease for the term of years, at the yearly rent of ; and years afterwards a reversionary lease was granted, for the further term of years, at the improved rent of per annum. In consequence of these leases, a great number of houses were erected, and the following streets, &c. were all formed on the land above-mentioned:--, , Bedford-court, , Theobald's-road, , , , , , , , Boswell-court, Richbell-court, Hand-court, Gray's-inn-passage, -cups-yard, and some other contiguous places. The present rental of this estate amounts to upwards of annually. The neighbourhood of Soho was also much augmented.
About , the globular glass lamps, with oil burners, were introduced, under a patent granted to a person named Michael Cole, but these were in laid aside for gas-lights.
At the commencement of the last century the village of St. Mary-le-bone was nearly a mile distant from any part of London, the most contiguous street being , which scarcely extended to the present . Soon after the accession of George the , however, some extensive plans were formed for increasing the buildings of this vicinity, and , , , &c., were erected on part of a large tract of land, called Conduit Mead, belonging to the city of London; and upon which, near the present Stratford-place, , the lord mayor's banqueting-house formerly
|stood. and were open fields in the year , and almost the whole north side of Oxford, or Tyburn-road was in a similar state; yet both those squares, and various adjacent streets, are named in maps of the date of , though they were not completely built till several years after that time. As an inducement to proceed, the erection of Oxford-chapel and Oxford-market was projected, and those buildings were completed about ; but the latter was not opened till , in consequence of the opposition of Lord Craven, who feared that it would affect the profits of Carnaby-market, which had been built a few years previously, on the western part of the Pesthouse-fields, so called, from having been a burial-place during the dreadful plague in . The north side of Oxford-road, to the vicinity of St. Mary-le-bone-lane, was pretty generally built on about the years and , and this avenue was then named . About the same period most of the streets connecting with and Oxford-market were erected, and the ground was also laid out for several others; yet there still remained a considerable void between the new buildings and the village of St. Mary-le-bone, which stood contiguous to the church: this space was occupied as pasture-fields. The buildings in , and of several streets in its vicinity, which had been commenced in the time of queen Anne, were carried on progressively throughout the whole reign of her successor. Several of the new churches also, which had been voted by parliament, in , to be built in London and its vicinity, were raised about the same period: among them were those of St. George, Bloomsbury; St. Anne, ; and St. Paul, Deptford; the population of which neighbourhoods was so much increased, as to occasion them to be erected into parishes. The reign of George the was equally productive of new buildings and improvements. , and various streets in its vicinity, were built; Westminster-bridge was erected, and its avenues enlarged; Bethnal-green was created a parish, and the houses on London-bridge were pulled down; a new road was made from to Paddington; and numerous other alterations effected to increase the conveniency of the inhabitants.
The erection of Blackfriars-bridge, between the years and , led to the building of that noble avenue, , and Chatham-place, and to numerous streets on the Surrey-side of the Thames. In , the new paving of the metropolis, according to the present mode, was commenced in ; and the enormous signs, which, hanging across the streets and foot-paths, prevented the free circulation of the air, were removed under the authority of Parliament. In , another important act was passed, for regulating the construction of new buildings, and party-walls, so as to prevent
|&c. The removal of projecting water-spouts, pent-houses, and other obstructions, and the lessening of protruding cellar-windows, were also enacted, as well as many other regulations for the general comfort. About , the buildings of St. Mary-le-bone were much increased; was commenced, and , , and , were in progress, as well as other streets in those neighbourhoods.
About , that noble pile of building, the , was begun by the brothers, John, Robert, James, and William Adams; and, within a year or afterwards, the same ingenious architects commenced the building of that grand avenue called Portland-place. The streets adjoining, together with Bentinck chapel, were raised about the same time; and, between and , Stratford-place, Titchfield-chapel, Portland-chapel, Fitzroy-chapel, Portman-chapel, and parts of , and Cumberland-place, were built. St. Mary-le-bone-gardens were shut up about , and the site was soon occupied by , and parts of Devonshire-place and Mews; the stables of the latter stand on the site of the ancient manor-house of St. Mary-le-bone parish.
From the year , till the breaking out of the revolutionary war, and, generally speaking, with the exception of a few years at intervening periods, till the present time, the outskirts and suburbs of London have continued to increase with astonishing rapidity; the extension, indeed, has far exceeded all prior example. Contiguous villages have been connected, and, as it were, incorporated with the metropolis; masses of buildings, sufficiently large to bear the name of towns, have sprung up in its vicinity, and are now all but united with it; elegant squares and stately streets have added to its splendor; and new institutions, combining science with utility, and commercial advantage with architectural adornment, have, at the same time, augmented its extent, and increased its riches and magnificence.
The extensive chapelry of was begun about the year , and is now united with , which has also been greatly extended in many parts. Somers-town was commenced about , and Camden-town about . Since that period, almost the entire mass of buildings which constitutes the upper part of Tottenham-court-road, has been built, together with its wide-spreading neighbourhood on the west. Even the distant village of Paddington, by the increase of buildings in this direction, has been completely united with the metropolis, and is itself in a state of very rapid enlargement. The new buildings along Hampstead-road, and on the east and west sides of the Regent's-park, are also rapidly augmenting; but the grandest features in the northern quarter of the town are to be found on the estates of the duke of Bedford and the . Here several magnificent squares have been built, or are now in progress; together with many respectable leading
|streets. Nearly the whole space, indeed, between the Paddington-road and the back of , , and the , on the north and south, and Gray's-inn-lane and Tottenham-court roads, on the east and west, has been covered with buildings within the last years. Bedford House, which formed the northern side of , was pulled down in the year , and Bedford-place, , &c. were erected on its site and gardens within years afterwards. About the same time the erection of was completed, and various new streets and avenues were built in its vicinity; many others also have been since raised along the line of the City-road, and eastward from thence, to the Curtain-road and . The large plot of ground, that formed the only remaining vestige of (which, long within memory, was a place for mountebanks, and assemblies of idle and disorderly vagrants), called the Quarters, is now formed into an elegant square, of which the forms the north side. There, also, spacious Scotch chapels have been recently built, on a part of the site of Bethlehem Hospital; and a large and splendid chapel for Roman Catholics. The upper parts of the and roads have likewise been much increased; and the whole of the Spa-fields are now covered with buildings, which were began in . A vast accession to the suburbs has also been made, and is now in progress, in the vicinity of Hackney, Bethnal-green, Whitechapel, Mile-end, Stepney, and in the East. At , the New have greatly added to the security of commerce, since they were opened for public use in . Great improvements have also taken place in the very heart of the metropolis; a new and wide avenue has been made from to Holborn-bridge; the Strand, near Temple-bar, has been much widened; the and Waterloo bridges have been erected; the neighbourhood of Westminster-abbey has been cleared of several of its narrow streets and lanes, and a new and spacious thoroughfare, skirted with handsome buildings, is now formed from Pall-mall to the Regent's-park.
On the Surrey side of the Thames the improvements and increase of buildings have been equally rapid, though not on so important a scale. A new road has been opened from the to connect with the , and St. George's-fields are mostly covered with buildings. A new road from Waterloo-bridge across Lambeth-marsh to the Obelisk, is also completed; and various collateral streets and avenues have been planned, and are now in progress, to fill up the extensive intermediate space between the Thames and the roads from Blackfriars and bridges, which also meet at the Obelisk.
Friaries and Abbeys and Abbeys.-Black Friars, between Ludgate and the Thames; Grey Friars, near old Newgate, now Christ's-hospital; Augustine Friars, now Austin Friars, near Broad-street; White Friars, near Salisbury-square; Crouched, or Crossed Friars, St. Olave's, Hart-street, near Tower-hill; Carthusian Friars, now the Charter-house, Charter-house-square; Cistercian Friars, or Newabbey, East Smithfield; Brethren de Sacca, Old Jewry.
Priories.-St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell; Holy Trinity, or Christ-church, within Aldgate; St. Bartholomew the Great, near Smithfield; St. Mary Overies, Southwark, near London-bridge; St. Saviour's, Bermondsey.
Nunneries.-Benedictine nunnery, Clerkenwell; St. Helen's, Bishopsgate-street; St. Clare's, Minories; Holywell, between Holywell-lane and Norton Falgate.
Colleges, &c.-St. Martin's-le-Grand; St. Thomas of Acres, Westcheap; Whittington's college and hospital, Vintry Ward; St. Michael's college and chapel, Crooked-lane; Jesus Commons, Dowgate.
Chapels, &c.-St. Stephen's, Westminster; Our Lady of the Pew, Strand; St. Anne's, Westminster; St. Esprit, or the Holy Ghost, Strand; Rolls chapel, or Domus Conversorum, Chancery-lane; St. James in the Wall, chapel and hermitage, Monkwell-street; Mount Calvary chapel, near Goswell-street-road; St. Mary's chapel, and Pardon chapel, in St. Paul's church-yard, and two other chapels also; Guildhall chapel; Chapel of our Lady, Barking parish; Corpus Christi, Poultry; St. Anthony's chapel, hospital and school, Threadneedle-street; chapel and almshouses in Petty France; Lady Margaret's almshouses, Almonry, Westminster; Henry the Seventh's almshouses, near the Gatehouse, Westminster; St. Catherine's chapel and hermitage, near Charing-cross; Pardon chapel, Wilderness-row, St. John's-street.
Hospitals, having resident brotherhoods or sisterhoods.--St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, near St. Giles's church; St. James's, now St. James's palace; Our Lady of Rounceval, Charing-cross; Savoy, Strand; Elsing Spital, now Sion college; Corpus Christi, in St. Lawrence Pountney; St. Papey, near Bevis Marks; St. Mary Axe; Trinity, without Aldgate; St. Thomas, Mercer's chapel; St. Bartholomew the Less, near Smithfield; St. Giles and Corpus Christi, without Cripplegate; St. Mary of Bethlehem, near London Wall; St. Mary Spital, without Bishopsgate; St. Thomas, Southwark; the Lok Spital, or Lazar-house, Kent-street, Southwark; St. Katherine's below the Tower.
Fraternities, &c.-St. Nicholas, Bishopsgate-street; St. Fabian and St. Sebastian, or the Holy Trinity, Aldersgate-street; St. Giles, Whitecross-street; the Holy Trinity, Leadenhall; St. Ursula-le-Strand; Hermitage, Nightingale-lane, East Smithfield; Corpus Christi, St. Mary Spittle; Corpus Christi, St. Mary Bethlehem; Corpus Christi and St. Mary, Poultry.
Archiepiscopal and Episcopal Residences.-Lambeth palace; York-place, Whitehall; Durham-house, Strand. Inns of the Bishops of Bath, Chester, Llandaff, Worcester, Exeter, Lichfield, and Carlisle, all in and near the Strand; Bishop of Hereford's Inn, Old Fish-street; Ely-house, Holborn, now Ely-place; Bishop of Salisbury's Inn, Salisbury-square; Bishop of St. David's Inn, near Bridewell-palace; Bishop of Winchester's house, Southwark, near St. Mary Overies; Bishop of Rochester's Inn, adjacent to ditto.
Residences of Abbots and Priors, mostly called Inns--Abbot of St. Alban's, near Lothbury; Abbot of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, in St. Olave's Southwark; Abbot of Battle, Southwark, near London bridge; Abbot of Bury, near Aldgate, toward Bevis Marks; Abbot of Evesham, near Billiter-lane; Abbot of Glastonbury, near St. Sepulchre's, Smithfield; Abbot of Hyde, within the Tabard inn, immortalized by Chaucer, in Southwark, and afterwards at St. Mary Hill; Prior of Hornchurch, Fenchurch street; Abbot of Leicester, near St. Sepulchre's, Smithfield; Prior of Lewes, in Southwark; Abbot of St. Mary's, York, St. Peter's place, near Paul's Wharf; Prior of Necton Parke (suppressed by Henry V.), Chancery-lane; Prior of Okeburne, Castle-lane, Upper Thames-street; Abbot of Peterborough, at Peterborough-place, near St. Paul's; Abbot of Reading, near Baynard's-castle; Abbot of Ramsay, Beech-lane, Whitecross-street; Abbot of Salop, in Smithfield; Prior of Sempringham, Cow-lane, Smithfield; Prior of Tortington, in St. Swithin's-lane; Abbot of Vale Royal, Fleet street; Abbot of Waltham, at Billingsgate.
 See volume i, p. 4.
 About one-twelfth part of the water, at ordinary spring tides, is computed to be denied a passage by the piers and starlings of the old bridge, and through this impediment, the tide rises nineteen inches higher on the east side than on the west.
 Brayley's London, ii, p. 6.
 Brayley's London, ii, p. 7.
 Fordyce, p. 8.
 The waters of these springs contain a small portion of a salt, and a larger quantity of magnesia vitriolata, so as to be sensible to the taste, and so as, in some places, to act as a purgative. They also contain gas, sometimes in quantity sufficient to give them briskness, and render them agreeable to the taste. The Thames water is very pure some miles above the town; near the town it is mixed with sand, and contains a sufficient quantity of mucilaginous matter to purity. When preserved in casks, it purifies itself by putrefaction, and remains afterwards more pure, but it never purifies sensibly in the river, nor in the cisterns in which it is sometimes kept a few days for use. At the lower part of the town it contains a little sea salt when the tide is at its height. Its specific gravity is nearly the same with that of distilled water; and the New River water is of similar quality. This is likewise pure, unless alter heavy rains; and is bright and clear, and does not putrify on keeping. --Fordyce.
 Vestiges, Europ. Mag. vol. ii, p. 172.
 Vestiges, Eu. Mag. vol. 1, 427.
 Brayley's London, ii, p. 42.
 Aggas's original plan was first reduced and copied, with some additions, into Braun's Civitates, between the years 1752-3 and 1584. In 1748, it was re-engraved, by Vertue, in six sheets, who annexed to it the date 1560. The original plan is printed on six sheets, and two half-sheets, and measures six feet three inches, by two feet four inches.
 Brayley ii. p. 49.
 Sur. of Lond. p. 89.
 Ibid p. 90.
 Ibid p. 91.
 Sur. of Lond. p. 92. The streets leading to Whitechapel and its neighbourhood were ordered to be paved, by act of parliament, in the thirteenth year of Elizabeth, viz. 1571.
 Sur. of Lond. p. 92, 93.
 Sur. of Lond. p. 127.
 Ibid, p. 128.
 Ibid, p. 129.
 Ibid, p. 354.
 Sur. of Lond. p: 355.
 Ibid, p. 361.
 Ibid, p. 374.
 Vestige, &c. Eur. Mag. vol lii. p. 341, 342. After the fire, the streets of the city may be said to have been raised out of their own ruins: the accumulation of rubbish was immense; this it was found much easier to spread over in order to level, in some degree, the ground-plot which devastation cleared, than to cart away the ashes it had left. Upon this made ground the houses that formed the new streets were erected; and, it is a curious circumstance, that the workmen, in digging through it, in order to form their foundations, found three different streets above each other; and that at more than twenty feet under the surface, they discovered Roman walls and had tessellated pavements. --Ibid.