The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 4

Allen, Thomas

1827

South Transept.

Generally termed

the Poet's Corner.

The monument is to the memory of Mr. John Dryden. It is handsome, of the Ionic order, and beneath an arch is his bust.

The inscriptions are as follow:--

J. DRYDEN,

NATUS

1632

: MORTUUS MAIJ

1

,

1700

.

On the base:--

JOANNES SHEFFIELD, DUX BUCKINGHAMIENSIS POSUIT,

1720

.

On a pillar is a very neat table monument, to the memory of Mrs. Martha Birch, who, as appears by the inscription, was

117

daughter of Samuel Viner, esq. Died , in the year of her age.

The monument of Abraham Cowley is very plain, but expressive: it consists of a pedestal supporting a vase. The inscription, in Latin, on the pedestal, is thus rendered into English:

Near this place lie Abraham Cowley, the Pindar, Horace, and Virgil of England: and the delight, ornament, and the admiration of the age.

He died in the year of his age, and was carried from Buckingham House with great and honourable pomp, being attended by illustrious characters of all degrees, and buried . This monument was erected by his grace the duke of Buckingham. His grave is just before the monument.

John Roberts, esq. This gentleman, as we gather from the inscription, was the faithful secretary of the right hon. Henry Pelham, minister of state to king George II. This marble was erected by his surviving sisters, Susannah, Rebecca, and Dorothy, . Neither his age, nor the time of his death, is mentioned. Over the inscription is his profile, and at the top sits a weeping figure by the side of an urn.

The monument of Geoffrey Chaucer, at the north end of a magnificent recess, formed by obtuse foliated arches, is very well executed: it is a plain altar, with quatrefoils, and as many shields, but is now much defaced, and is often only very slightly glanced at. Geoffrey Chaucer is styled the father of English poets, and flourished in the century. He was son of sir John Chaucer, a citizen of London, and employed by Edward III. in negociations abroad, relating to trade. He was a great favourite at court, and married John of Gaunt's wife's sister. He was born in , and died .

On a corner pillar of St. Benet's chapel hung a leaden plate with his epitaph, composed by Surignius, a poet of Milan; round the verge of the tomb were these verses :--

Si Rogitas quis eram forsan te fama docebit; Quod si fama neget mundi quia gloria transit Hec Monumenta lege

On the inside of his tomb were his arms per pale, and a bend countercharged, now gone, but painted over it, under the arch of the church wall. The inscription put up by Brigham runs thus:

M. S. Qui fuit Anglorum vatester maximus alim; Galfridus Chaucer, conditur hoc tumulo, Annum si quaeras Domini si tempera mortis, Ecce note subsunt quae tibi cunctae notant

25

Octobris

1400

Aerumnarum requies mors. N. Brigham hos fecit musarum nomine sumptit

1556

.

Mr. John Phillips. This gentleman's bust is represented as in an arbour, interwoven with laurel branches, entwining an apple-tree, on account of his poem on

Cyder,

and this motto over: ; alluding to the high qualities ascribed to the apple in that excellent poem of his, called

Cyder.

Sir Simon Harcourt, knt. with a generous friendship, encouraged and countenanced him amply when living, and extended his regard for him, even after his death, by causing this monument to be erected to his memory. The inscription invokes the shade of Chaucer to permit the name of Phillips to be placed near him, and numerous bards around.

Barton Booth, esq. This is a neat, elegant, and well-executed monument, consisting of a sarcophagus, bust, and infants, holding a crown and a scroll, on which is inscribed his descent; his admission into school, under Dr. Busby; and his qualifications as an actor. He died in , in the year of his age; and this monument was erected by his surviving widow, in . On the base the dramatic insignia lie neglected and broken.

Next to this is the last memorial on this eastern wall: it is Michael Drayton's monument; but it does not appear by whom it was erected. The inscription and epitaph were formerly in letters of gold, but now nearly obliterated, and are here preserved:

Michael Drayton, esq. a memorable poet of his age, exchanged his laurel for a crown of glory, anno

1631

.

Do pious marble! let thy readers know

What they, and what their children owe

To DRAYTON'S name, whose sacred dust,

We recommend unto thy trust:

Protect his mem'ry and preserve his story;

Remain a lasting monument of his glory;

And when thy ruins shall disclaim

To be the treasurer of his name :

His name, that cannot fade, shall be

An everlasting monument to thee.

The monument to the memory of Ben Jonson, is of fine marble, very neatly cut and ornamented with his bust, and emblematical figures; by some supposed to allude to the malice of his contemporaries. His epitaph is quaint:

O RARE BEN JONSON

and was engraved by direction of sir William Davenant, who has on his tomb-stone, in the pavement on the west side of the cross,

O rare sir William Davenant.

He died , aged .

The tablet and bust have a festoon of masks. His epitaph is repeated on a stone in the north aisle, where, it is said, he was buried in an erect posture, because the stone is about eighteen inches square, and for no other reason.

Samuel Butler. It appears by the inscription on this tomb, that it was erected by John Barber, esq. lord mayor of London, that he who was destitute of all things when alive, might not want a monument when dead. He was author of Hudibras, a man of consummate learning, pleasantry, and wit, and peculiarly happy in his

119

writings. He lived to a good old age, and was buried at the expense of a private friend, in the church-yard of St. Paul, Covent-garden. He was born at Sternsham, in Worcestershire, in , and died in London in . This monument consists of a base, a pyramid, pedestal, and bust.

Beneath Mr. Butler's, there was a rough decayed tomb of Purbeck stone, to the memory of Mr. Edmund Spencer, of the best English poets, which being much dilapidated, a subscription was set on foot by the liberality of Mr. Mason, in , to restore it. The subscription succeeded, and the monument was restored as nearly as possible, but in statuary marble. On his monument is the following inscription:

Here lies, (expecting the

second

coming of our Saviour Christ Jesus,) the body of Edmund Spencer, the prince of poets in his time, whose divine spirit needs no other witness than the works which he left behind him. He was born In London in

1553

, and died in

1598

.

John Milton, author of Paradise Lost. He was born at London in , and died at Bunhill in . It is by Rysbrack, and consists of a tablet surmounted by a bust of the poet.

In the year of our Lord Christ

1737

, this bust of the author of Paradise Lost was placed here by William Benson, esq.

one

of the

two

auditors of the imprests to his Majesty king George the

Second

, formerly surveyor-general of the Works to his Majesty king George the

First

.

Underneath is an elegantly executed monument to the memory of Mr. Gray. This monument seems expressive of the compliment contained in the epitaph, where the lyric muse, in alto relieve, is holding a medallion of the poet, and at the same time pointing up to the bust of Milton.

No more the Grecian muse unrivall'd reigns;

To Britain let the nations homage pay:

She felt a Homer's fire in Milton's strains,

A Pindar's rapture in the lyre of Gray.

Died July 30, 1771, aged 54.

A neat piece of sculpture has the following inscription, by bishop Hurd:

Optimo viro Gulielmo Mason, A. M. Poetae sigius alius, culto, casto, pro sacrum. Ob.

April 7, 1797

, aet.

72

.

A medallion of the deceased is held up by a figure of Poetry bemoaning her loss.

Above is the marble monument of Thomas , ornamented with a fine mantling urn and bust, and crowned with a chaplet of bays. It was erected by Dr. John , to the memory of his deceased father. He was descended from an ancient family in Staffordshire; was poet-laureat and historiographer in the reign of William and Mary, and died , in the year of his age, at , by taking opium, to which he had been long accustomed, and was there buried.

The stately monument of Matthew Prior next attracts attention.

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It is a bust and pediment, over a sarcophagus. On side the pedestal stands the figure of Thalia, with a flute in her baud: and on the other History, with her book shut: both miserable productions: between, the bust of the deceased, upon a raised altar of fine marble; on the outer side of which is a Latin inscription, importing, that while he was busied in writing the history of his own times, Death interposed, and broke the thread of his discourse and of his life, , in the year of his age. Over the bust is a pediment, on the ascending sides of which are boys, with an hour-glass in his hand, run out, the other holding a torch reversed; on the apex of the pediment is an urn; and on the base of the monument a long inscription, reciting the principal employments in which he had been engaged, all of which he executed with uncommon address and ability; and had retired from public business, when a violent cholic, occasioned by a cold, carried him off.

The next is a neat bust and tablet to the memory of Charles de St. Denis, lord of St. Evremond. This gentleman was of a noble family in Normandy, and was employed by the army in France, but retiring to Holland, he was invited by king Charles II. into England, where he lived in the greatest intimacy with the king and principal nobility, more particularly with the duchess of Mazarine. He lived to the age of , and was carried off at last by a violent fit of the stranguary, .

Nearly adjoining is a neat tablet, with a profile bust, to the memory of Granville Sharp, who died , aged .

Immediately contiguous is a large, but neat marble tablet, to the memory of Christopher Anstey, esq. a very elegant poet. He died, in the year , at the advanced age of .

On the left is a tablet to the memory of Mrs. Pritchard, inscribed as follows:--

To the memory of Mrs. Pritchard. This tablet is here placed by a voluntary subscription of those who admired and esteemed her. She retired from the stage, of which she had long been the ornament, in the month of

April, 1768

, and died at Bath in the month of August following, in the

57th

year of her age.

Her comic vein had every charm to please, 'Twas Nature's dictates breath'd with Nature's ease. E'en when her pow'rs sustained the tragic load, Full, clear, and just, the harmonious accents flow'd; And the big passions of her feeling heart Burst freely forth, and sham'd the mimic art. Oft on the scene, with colours not her own, She painted Vice, and taught us what to shun. One virtuous track her real life pursu'd, That nobler part was uniformly good; Each duty there, to such perfection wrought, That, if the precept fail'd, th' example taught. W. WHITEHEAD, P. L.

William Shakespeare. The design and workmanship of this monument are peculiarly elegant. The figure of Shakespeare,

121

his attitude, his dress, shape, genteel air, and fine composure, so forcibly expressed by the sculptor, create universal admiration. The following lines appear upon a scroll :--

The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces,

The solemn temples, the great globe itself,

Yea, all which it inherits, shall dissolve,

And, like the baseless fabric of a vision,

Leave not a wreck behind.

A tablet behind the monument is inscribed:--

Gulielmo Shakspeare, anno post mortem CXXIV. amor publicus posuit.

This monument was designed and executed by Kent and Scheemakers.

Next is a monument erected to the memory of James Thomson, author of the

Seasons,

and other poetical works. The figure of Mr. Thomson leans its left arm upon a pedestal, holding a book in hand, and the cap of liberty in the other. Upon the pedestal, in basso-relievo, are the Seasons; to which a boy points, offering him a laurel crown, as the reward of his genius. At the feet of the figure is the tragic mask, and the ancient harp. The whole is supported by. a projecting pedestal; and in a pannel is the following inscription :--

James Thomson, aetatis

48

, obit

27 August, 1748

.

Tutored by thee, sweet poetry, exalts her voice to ages, and informs the page

with music, image, sentiment, and thought, never to die!

This monument was erected .

Nicholas Rowe, esq. A very well executed monument to the memory of this gentleman and his only daughter. On the pedestal, which stands on an altar, is a most beautiful bust; near it is the figure of a lady in the deepest sorrow; and between both, on a pyramid behind, is a medallion, with the head of a young lady in relievo.

On the front of the altar is the following epitaph ;--

To the memory of Nicholas Rowe, esq. who died in

1718

, aged

45

: and of Charlotte, his only daughter, the wife of Henry Fane, esq. who, inheriting her father's spirit, and amiable in her own innocence and beauty, died in the

22nd

year of her age,

1739

.

Thy relicks, Rowe, to this sad shrine we trust,

And near thy Shakspeare place thy honour'd bust

Oh! next him skill'd to draw the tender tear,

For never heart felt passion more sincere;

To nobler sentiment to fire the brave,

For never Briton more disdain'd a slave;

Peace to thy gentle shade! and endless rest,

Blest in thy genius, in thy love too blest;

And blest that timely from our scene remov'd,

Thy soul enjoys that liberty it lov'd.

To these so mourn'd in death, so lov'd in life,

The childless parent and the widow'd wife,

With tears inscribe this monumental stone,

That holds their ashes, and expects her own.

Mr. Rowe was poet laureat, and author of several fine tragedies.

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On the left hand of the door is a monument to the memory of Gay; consisting of a pyramid, medallion, and boy, on a pedestal.

Life is a jest, and all things show it, I thought so once, but now I know it. Of manners gentle, of affections mild, In wit a man, simplicity a child. With native humour temp'ring virtuous rage, Form'd to delight at once and lash the age. Above temptation in a low estate, And uncorrupted ev'n among the great. A safe companion, and an easy friend, Unblam'd thro' life, lamented in thy end. These are thy honours! not that here thy bust Is mix'd with heroes, or with kings thy dust; But that the worthy and the good shall say, Striking their pensive bosoms, here lies Gay.A. POPE.

Here lye the ashes of Mr. John Gay, the warmest friend, the gentlest companion, the most benevolent man, who maintained independence in low circumstances of fortune integrity, in the midst of a corrupt age; and that equal serenity of mind, which conscious goodness alone can give; through the whole course of his life a favourite of the muses, he was led by them to every elegant art, refined in taste, and fraught with graces all his own. In various kinds of poetry superior to many, inferior to none. His works continue to inspire what his example taught, contempt of folly, however adorned; detestation of vice, however dignified; reverence for virtue, however disgraced. Charles and Catharine, duke and duchess of Queensbury, who loved this exellent person living, and regret him dead, have caused this monument to be erected to his memory.

Nearly under the clock is the monument of Oliver Goldsmith, on which is represented the doctor, in profile. Underneath is the following inscription:--

Olivarii Goldsmith, poetae, physici, historici, qui nullum fete scribendi genus non tetigit, nullum, quod tetigit non ornavit: sive risus essent movendi, sive lacrimae, affectuum potens, at lenis dominator: ingenio sublimis, vividus, versatilis, oratione grandis, nitidus, venustus: hoc monumento memoriam coluit sodalium amor, amicorum fides, lectorum veneratio. Natus in Hibernia Forneiae Longfordiensis, in loco cui nomen Pallas,

Nov. 29, 1731

; Eblanae literis institutus; obiit Londini,

Apr. 4, 1774

.

John duke of Argyll and Greenwich. This lofty and highly-finished monument is enclosed with rails, and decorated with figures as large as life. An epitaph, said to be written by Paul Whitehead, esq. is on the pyramid:--

In memory of an honest man, a constant friend, John, the great duke of Argyll and Greenwich. A general and orator, exceeded by none in the age he lived. Sir Henry Fermer, baronet, by his last will left the sum of

500l.

towards erecting this monument, and recommended the inscription. Born

Oct. the 10th, 1680

: died

Oct. the 4th, 1743

.

Briton behold! if patriot worth be dear,

A shrine that claims thy tributary tear.

Silent that tongue admiring senates heard,

Nerveless that arm, opposing legions fear'd.

Nor less, Campbell! thine the pow'rs to please,

And give to grandeur all the grace of ease.

Long from thy life let kindred heroes trace,

Arts, which ennoble still the noblest race.

Others may owe their future fame to me,

I borrow immortality from thee.

A table is affixed to the wall, inscribed:

To the memory of Mary Hope, who died at Brockhall, in the county of Northampton, on the

25th of June, 1767

, aged

25

; and whose remains (unnoticed) lie in the neighbouring church at Norton. This stone, an unavailing tribute of affliction, is by her husband erected and inscribed. She was the only daughter of Eliab Breton, of

Forty

-hall, Middlesex, esq. and was married to John Hope, of London, merchant, to whom she left

three

infant sons, Charles, John, and William.

Tho' low in earth, her beauteous form decay'd,

My faithful wife, my lov'd Maria's laid:

In sad remembrance the afflicted raise

No pompons tomb, inscrib'd with venal praise.

To statesmen, warriors, and to kings, belong

The trophied sculpture, and the poet's song.

And these the proud expiring often claim,

Their wealth bequeathing to record their name.

But humble Virtue, stealing to the dust,

Heeds not our lays or monumental bust.

To name her virtues ill befits my grief,

What was my bliss, can now give no relief!

A husband mourns! the rest let friendship tell:

Fame! spread her worth: a husband knew it well.

Immediately underneath is a medallion and inscription to the memory of the right hon. James Stuart Mackenzie, lord privy seal of Scotland, a man whose virtues did honour to humanity. Died , in the d year of his age.

A beautiful monument next strikes the eye, sacred to the memory of general sir Archibald Campbell, knight of the Bath, M. P. colonel of the regiment of foot, &c. He departed this life , aged .

Several appropriate devices ornament the monument with the profile bust of the deceased'in a medallion.

Below is an elegant monument of particularly rich marble, inscribed:--

To the memory of sir Thomas Atkyns, one of the barons of the exchequer, in the reigns of king Charles the First and Second. He was a person of such integrity, that he resisted the many advantages and honours offered him by the chiefs of the grand rebellion. He departed this life in 1669, aged 82 years.

Of sir Robert Atkyns, his eldest son, created knight of the Bath at the coronation of king Charles the Second; afterwards lord chief baron of the exchequer under king William; and speaker of the house of lords in several parliaments. Which places he filled with distinguished abilities and dignity, as his learned writings abundantly prove. He died 1709, aged 88 years.

Of sir Edward Atkyns, his youngest son, lord chief baron of the exchequer, which office he discharged with great honour and integrity; but retired, upon the Revolution, from public business to his seat in Norfolk, where he was revered for his piety to God, and humanity to men. He employed himself in reconciling differences among his neighbours. in which he obtained so great a character, that few would refuse the most difficult cause to his decision, and the most litigious would not appeal from it. He died 1698, aged 68 years.

And of sir Robert Atkyn, eldest son of sir Robert above mentioned, a gentleman versed in polite literature and in the antiquities of this country, of which hi History of Gloucestershire is a proof. He died in 1711, aged 65 years.

In memory of his ancestors who have so honourably presided in the courts of justice in Westminster-hall. Edward Atkyns, esq. late of Ketteringham, in Norfolk, second son of the last named sir Edward, caused this monument to be erected. He died Jan. 20, 1750, aged 79 years.

Joseph Addison, esq. This monument, which reflects great credit on the artist, was erected in . A fine statue of the deceased is seen standing on a circular basement, about which are small figures of the muses. He was born in the year : died in the year of his age, the honour and delight of the British nation.

The last monument which that eminent statuary, Roubiliac, lived to finish, is erected to the memory of George Frederick Handel. The figure is very elegant, and bears a strong likeness to the original. Beneath is this inscription:--

George Frederick Handel, esq. born

Feb. 23, 1684

. Died

April 14, 1759

.

Above, on a plain tablet, is inscribed:

Within these sacred walls the memory of Handel was celebrated, under the patronage and in the presence of his most gracious majesty George the Third, on the 26th and 27th of May, and on the 3rd and 5th of June, 1784.

The music performed on this solemnity was selected from his own works, under the direction of Brownlow earl of Exeter, John earl of Sandwich, Henry earl of Uxbridge, sir Watkin William Wynne, baronet, and sir Richard Jebb, bart. The band, consisting of five hundred and twenty-five vocal and instrumental performers, was conducted by Joah Bate, esq.

Near this is a neat pedestal with busts to the memory of the dowager baroness Lechmore, eldest daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Carlisle, and widow of Nicholas, lord Lechmore, afterwards married to sir Thomas Robinson, of Rookby Park, in the county of York, bart. who ordered this monument to be erected, with particular directions that his own bust should be placed by her's. She was born , and died , age . Sir Thomas died , aged .

William Outram, D. D. An accomplished divine, and a nervous and accurate writer. Died , aged .

Over Dr. Outram's is a monument with a profile medallion erected to the memory of that eminent divine and philosopher, Dr. Stephen Hales. Died , in the year of his age.

The monument of Isaac Barrow has a remarkably fine bust on the top of it. His works have been extravagantly called the foundation of all the divinity that has been written since his time. Died May, , aged .

Over Barrow's is a neat monument for Dr. Wetenhall, an eminent physician, son of bishop Wetenhall. Died .

Adjoining is an elegant monument to the memory of sir John Pringle, bart. Born in Scotland, . Died in London, .

Next is a monument of beautiful marble, to the memory of sir

125

 

Robert Taylor, knt. Died on the , aged years. An urn surmounts a tablet, on which is the following inscription:--

Sacred to the memory of sir Robert Taylor, knt. whose works entitle him to a distinguished rank in the

first

class of British architects. He was eminently useful to the public as an active and impartial magistrate. He rendered himself deservedly dear to his family and friends, by the uniform exercise of every social and domestic virtue.

Thomas Triplett. This great divine was born near Oxford, and educated at , where he was esteemed a wit, a good Grecian, and a poet. He died at a good old age, , much beloved and lamented.

Adjoining is a table monument of white marble, erected to the memory of sir Richard Coxe. He died a bachelor in the year of his age, .

Beneath is a neat marble tablet to the memory of James Wyatt, esq. surveyor to this church, and surveyor-general of his majesty's board of works. He died .

Isaac Casaubon. This monument was erected by the learned Dr. Moreton, bishop of Durham, to his memory. He was a profound scholar. Died , aged .

John Ernest Grabe. Over Casaubon's is a curious figure, as large as life, representing this great man sitting upon a marble tomb, contemplating the sorrows of death and the grave. He was a great Oriental scholar. Died , aged , and was buried at Pancras, near London, This monument was erected by Robert Harley, earl of Oxford and Mortimer.

Over the last is a monument representing Garrick in an ancient habit, pushing aside a veil which hung before a medallion of Shakspeare, on the top of a pyramid. Lower down are the tragic and comic muses. The figures are all graceful in their motion, but rather disproportioned; the thought deserves praise. It is by Webber:--

To the memory of David Garrick, who died in the year

1779

, at the age of

63

.

To paint fair nature by divine command, Her magic pencil in his glowing hand, A Shakspeare rose: then to expand his fame Wide o'er this breathing world, a Garrick came. Though sunk in death the forms the poet drew, The actor's genius bade them breathe anew. Though like the bard himself in night they lay, Immortal Garrick call'd them back to day: And till eternity with power sublime Shall mark the mortal hour of hoary time, Shakespeare and Garrick like twin stars shall shine, And earth irradiate with a beam divine. S. T. PRATT.

This monument, the tribute of a friend, was erected in

1797

.

Near the above is a monument to the memory of that great recorder of our antiquities, William Camden, who is represented in a half-length within a pointed niche, in strict costume, with his left

126

hand resting on a book, and in his right his gloves, on the body of which is an inscription, in Latin, setting forth his indefatigable industry in illustrating the British antiquities, and his candour, sincerity, and pleasant humour in private life. Born ; and, in , he fell from his chair, at his house in Chisselhurst, Kent, and never recovered, but lingered till , and then died, aged .

In Poet's Corner there are many names to be met with on the pavement, too considerable to he passed over in silence. Among these are to be found Thomas Parr, of the county of Salop, born in . He lived in the reign of princes. Died, aged years, and was buried in this place November l, . He did penance for bastardy at the age of .

Not far from Parr, distinguished by a small white stone, thus inscribed:--

O Rare Sir William Davenant!

lie the remains of that once celebrated poet, who, upon the death of Ben Jonson, succeeded him as poet-laureat to Charles I. He was a vintner's son at Oxford, whose wife being a woman of admirable wit, drew the politest men of the age to the house, among whom Shakspeare is said to have been a frequent visitor. Died , aged .

Near him lies sir Robert Murray, a great mathematician, He was of the founders of the Royal Society, of which he was the president. He died suddenly, , in the garden at , and was buried at the king's expense.

Under the pavement, near Dryden's tomb, lie the remains of Francis Beaumont, the dramatic writer, who died in London in , and was buried here, ,--without tomb or inscription.

About the middle of the transept are large slabs, inscribed to the memory of sir R. Chambers, and William Adams, both eminent architects. Another is inscribed to Dr. Johnson, adjoining whose tomb Garrick was buried without an inscription.

A few feet east of Camden's monument is interred the remains of William Gifford, esq. editor of the Quarterly Review. He died , aged .

Abbot Curtlington, who died , had a figure on brass on a stone near Mr. Camden's monument; this has been removed.

Affixed to the pillars in this place are table monuments, to the memory of Dr. Samuel Barton, and the other to Dr. Anthony Horneck.

Before we finally quit Poet's Corner, we must not omit to take some notice of the present vestry, called the

Chapel of St. Blase.

127

 

It is entered by a strong wooden gate immediately under the great south window, and is a dark, damp, and gloomy chamber, in great part filled by large wooden presses used to hold the surplices of the choristers, &c.

St. Blase was a bishop and martyr, and had his anniversary on the . The indulgence granted at his altar, marks of which are still visible, was for years and days.

At the east end of the chapel is a strong plain pointed arch, about feet in depth, painted in alternate red and white zigzags. The ground of the back part is a dark olive, on which is a painted niche of deep red, formed by ill-shaped pillars supporting a light blue angular canopy, edged with yellow, as are the pinnacles. On the capital of a pillar stands a female saint, coroneted, whose under vestment is blue, and the outer purple. Her right hand,

holding a book, crosses her breast, with the fore-finger pointed to a square, crossed by

five

bars held in her left by a ring on a line with the book. I cannot decide who this figure is intended to represent; nor can I suppose it designed for the blessed Virgin. Though there are many faults in the drawing and in the proportions, there is still an air of graceful dignity throughout the figure, improved by the correct folds of the drapery. It is much injured by the darkness and dampness of the situation. An oblong compartment crosses the arch at her feet, formed into

four

lozenges of yellow within squares; in the centre is the painting of the crucifixion, with the Virgin and Mary Magdalen on the sides. The figure of the Saviour is a true representation of a lifeless body, and the linen round it is formed into very correct folds. The figure on the right hand is far superior to that on the left: her under garment is green, and the outer purple; the colours of the vestments on that of the other Mary are the same. The artist seems to have failed most in the hair of the heads. On the left side of the

arch, a little higher than the altar, is a praying Benedictine monk, from whose mouth issues an address to the saint, in Saxon characters, now nearly illegible. steps of coarse stone to the altar remain; the lower projects into a semicircle. is of small red tiles. In the south wall, near the altar, is a deep recess, and over it large windows, now dark. They have each mullion and a quatrefoil in the arch. A vast pier, carried into a strong arch, --crosses the roof; and from hence westward it is higher than the rest. The ribs spring from capitals on heads of rude workmanship and ghastly effect, but are extremely firm and strong. A fence of deal boards defaces the west end of the chapel. Over it, high in the wall, is an iron-grated window, which opens into a space of considerable width; and in the wall of that is a smaller glazed window.

The chapel is destitute of any other light than what streams through it. There are recesses in the north wall, like that over the altar, and another flatter, with pillars and mouldings. An

128

ancient oaken pulpit, with a diminutive sounding-board, stands on the south side; the only furniture of the place besides are the plain presses, already mentioned. Abbot Littlington, who died , was buried near the door of the porch, and against the altar of this chapel, his brass statue and inscription have been long since removed.

Proceeding from what is strictly called Poet's corner to the south aisle, the monument of Sophia Fairholm strikes the eye. It is a sarcophagus, over which is a wreath of flowers, surmounted by the family arms. We are informed, by the inscription, that she died , aged .

A small oval tablet is affixed to the wall, to the memory of Ann Wemyss, daughter of Dr. Lodowick Wemyss, some time prebendary of the cathedral; and of Mrs. Jane Bargrave, his wife, who departed this life , in her year.

Under is a neat tablet to the memory of William Dalrymple, midshipman, eldest son of sir John Dalrymple, bart. of the barons of the exchequer in Scotland, and of Elizabeth Hamilton Mackgill, representative of the viscounts of Oxford; who, though heir of ample estates, preferred the toilsome and perilous profession of a seaman to the indulgences necessarily attendant on opulence. At the age of eighteen he was killed off the coast of Virginia, in an engagement, in which captain Salter, in the Santa Margaretta, took the Amazone, a French ship, of superior force, almost in sight of the enemy's fleet; receiving in the public dispatches of his skilful and generous commander, every honorable testimony of his exemplary virtue and brave conduct. Obit .

Over the last-mentioned monuments are tablets, in quatrefoil, to the memory of rear-admiral John Harrison.. Died .

Sir John Burland, knt L.L.D. This is a neat pyramidal monument to his memory, on which is a medallion, ornamented by the scales of justice, and a caduceus, expressive of justice and wisdom, surmounted by the family arms. He died suddenly, , aged years.

Sir Cloudesly Shovell, knt. This monument is of the composite order. Sir C. is represented as reclining on a cushion, under a canopy of state, surmounted by his crest; an angel on the top of each pillar bears heraldic emblems of the family. Behind the pillars, between pilasters, are sea-weeds, &c. In the base is finely represented a storm, and the ship striking on a rock. He was shipwrecked on the rocks of Scilly, on his voyage from Toulon, d of , at night, in the year of his age.

Next is a very neatly executed monument to the memory of William Wragg, esq. consisting of a tablet of while marble, crowned with a fascia, supporting the figure of Memory in a musing attitude, over an urn, enriched by marine ornaments; in the centre is a

129

representation of the fatal accident that happened, when he, with many more, was drowned . His son, who accompanied him, was miraculously saved on a package, supported by a black slave, till he was cast on shore on the coast of Holland.

Adjoining is a monument to the memory of Thomas Knipe, S. T. P. erected by Alice, his wife. He was employed years in school, whereof as head master. He was also a prebendary of this cathedral. Died , aged .

Underneath is the grave of his affectionate scholar, William King, LL. D. without any inscription. To which has been added an inscription to the memory of brothers, who both died in the service of their country; captain John Knipe, regiment, at Gibraltar, , in the d year of his age; captain Robert Knipe, light dragoons, at Villa Formosa, , aged . Both highly esteemed by their brother officers.

On a neat marble tablet surmounted by a bust, is an inscription in Latin to the memory of Charles Burney, LL. D. eighteen years master of Greenwich school, died , aged . This monument is by Gahagan.

Adjoining is the monument of George Stepney, esq, for which Gothic windows have been broken up. There are pilasters, a globe on the to the right, and has been broken off, that to the left; weeping figures and a bust, under a canopy of state; the arms are encircled by a wreath of laurel. He died at in .

Over Stepney's is a monument erected to the memory of John Methuen, esq. who died in the service of his country in Portugal, , and was interred here, .

Also to that of his son, the right honourable sir Paul Methuen, of Bishop's Canning, Wilts, of his majesty's most honourable privy council, and knight of the most honourable order of the Bath, who died , aged .

A neat small monument of white marble is erected to the memory of Dr. Isaac Watts. It is divided by a fascia, over which a bust of that eminent divine is exhibited, supported by genii. Underneath, in a circle, is a fine figure of the doctor, sitting on a stool, as in deep contemplation, which is finely expressed by an angel opening to him the wonders of creation, in hand he holds a pen, and with the other points to a celestial globe. His name and the dates of his birth and death, are inscribed on the plinth:--

Isaac Watts, D. D. born

July 17, 1674

, Died

Nov. 25, 1748

.

The whole is as fresh as if just erected. Either by design or accident, the head, and right hand of the angel, are broken off.

Sir Richard Bingham. On a plain marble stone, surmounted by the family arms, is an English inscription, reciting the military glories of the knight to whom it is inscribed. He died

130

at Dublin , aged ; from whence he was brought and interred here by John Bingley, some time his servant. Sir Richard was of the ancient family of the Binghams, of Bingham Melcomb, in Dorsetshire, and served in the reign of queen Mary, at St. Quintin's; in the reign of queen Elizabeth, at Leith, in Scotland; in the Isle of Candy, under the Venetians; at Cabo Chaio, and the famous battle of Lepanto, against the Turks; in the civil wars of France, in the Netherlands at Smerwick. After this, he was made governor of Connaught, in Ireland, where he overthrew and expelled the traitorous O'Rourke, suppressed the rebellion, and was finally made marshal of Ireland, and governor of Leinster.

Major Richard Creed. This is a table monument against the wall, to his memory, erected by his mother. He was the eldest son of John Creed, of Oundel, esq. and Elizabeth his wife, only daughter of sir Gilbert Pickering, bart. of Tithmarsh, in Northamptonshire, At the battle of Blenheim, in , he commanded those squadrons that began the attack; in several charges he remained unhurt; but in the , after receiving many wounds, still valiantly fighting, he was shot through the head.

George Churchill. A monument of the Doric order is erected to the memory of this great man, who was son of sir Winston Churchill, of Dorsetshire, knight, and brother of John, duke of Marlborough. He died , aged . Churchill was early trained to military affairs, and served with great honour by sea and land in the reigns of Charles II. James II. and William and Anne. He was a captain in the English fleet at the burning of the French at La Hogue in king William's reign; and for his bravery there was made of the lords commissioners of the Admiralty. In the succeeding reign he was made admiral in chief.

His monument consists of a flaming urn, on which recline cherubs, the weeping, the other in an expression of hope, surmounted by the arms and a crest, supported by variegated, marble pillars.

Over the last mentioned monument, is a Doric , erected to the memory of Martin Folkes, of Hillington, in the county of Norfolk, esq. He died on the , at the age of . He is represented sitting, with his hands resting on a book, shut, as if contemplating; above is an urn, surmounted by drapery, held up by a boy; there are more boys, of whom seems observing a microscope, with his eye several inches from the eye-glass! while the other, with a pair of compasses, is measuring the globe.

Captain William Julius, who commanded the Colchester man of war, and a weeping figure, to the memory of general Strode, died , in th year of his age. This is the last monument on the south side of this aisle, before we enter the gates, hereafter mentioned, into the nave. On the other side, but more easterly a door leads into the cloisters Scarcely a single arch on

131

this side remains perfect; some have been patched and mended. On the other side is

Thomas Thynne, esq. This is a fine piece of statuary, surmounted by an urn, on each side of which is a trumpet, with large rich drapery, side of which is entirely broken off; in the centre is the coat of arms. The principal figure is represented in a dying posture, and at his feet a weeping figure. It bears this inscription:

Thomas Thynne, of Longleate, in Co. Wilts, esq. who was barbarously murdered on Sunday, the

12th of Feb. 1632

.

Upon the pedestal, in relieve, the story of the murder is forcibly depicted; but the figures are shamefully mutilated.

The next is a neat tablet to general sir Thomas Trigge, who died , aged .

Thomas Owen, esq. On this monument is a fine figure of a judge in his robes, leaning with his right arm on a cushion; in his left hand was formerly a roll, and over him is an inscription shewing that he was son of Richard Owen, esq. that from his youth he made the law his peculiar study, and that he died .

Adjoining is a well executed bust of Pasquale de Paoli; an excellent likeness. He died in London, , aged years.

On the clustered pillar is an oval monument, to the memory of James Kendall, esq. supported by a death's head, and on the top a close helmet much broken. Died , aged .

Dame Grace Gethin. This lady, married to sir Richard Gethin Grot, in Ireland, (and famed for exemplary piety,) died , aged . Her figure is represented kneeling between angels, presenting a crown, and the other a wreath.

Elizabeth and Judith Freke. On the face of this monument, which is of the composite order, there is a long inscription, setting forth the descent and marriages of these ladies, whose busts, in alto relievo, ornament the sides. They were the daughters of Ralph Freke, of Hannington, in Wilts, esq. Elizabeth was married to Percy Freke, of West Balney, in Norfolk, and died , aged . Judith married Robert Austin, of Tenterden, in Kent, and died , aged . They were both examples worthy of imitation.

Sir Thomas Richardson. This is an effigy, in brass, of a judge, in his robes, with a collar of S. S. representing sir Thomas Richardson, knight. He died in , in his year.

William Thynne, of Botterville, esq. On this ancient monument of marble and alabaster, gilt, (now worn off) lies a warrior at full length, his head supported by a roll of matting, He died in .

At the western extremity the aisle is crossed by a large iron gale, which was formerly always open to the public; but is now opened

132

only during the cathedral service, or on the payment of threepence. The organ loft is on the north side.

The gate opens into the nave. The monument that strikes the eye on the left hand is the mutilated basso relievo to the memory of the unfortunate major Andre. The monument consists of a tomb, with Britannia and a lion mourning, on the front; the major is represented in the tent of general Washington, with a flag of truce, to solicit his pardon. The figures are most scandalously mangled and broken; and though, comparatively, a new monument, the head, hands, &c. of some of the most prominent figures are totally gone.

Sacred to the memory of major John Andre, who was raised by his merit at an early period of life to the rank of adjutant-general of the British forces in America; and, employed in an important but hazardous enterprise, fell a sacrifice to his zeal for his king and country, on the

2

d of October, A. D.

1780

, aged

29

, universally beloved and esteemed by the army in which he served, and lamented even by his foes. His gracious sovereign king George the

Third

has caused this monument to be erected.

The execution, by Robert Adams and P. M. Van Gelder is not of the rate.

The next is a clumsy tomb, with a long epitaph by Mr. Dryden, to the memory of sir Palmes Fairbourne, governor of Tangier, where he was killed by a shot from the besiegers, , aged . On a dome is the arms of the deceased.

The next is an exquisitely fine monument by Adams and Carter, to the memory of the honourable lieutenant-colonel Roger Townshend.

This monument consists of a pyramid of red and white marble, against which are caryatide Indians, in the complete costume of their country; the holding a gun, the other a tomahawk. These Indians support a ponderous sarcophagus, on which is a beautiful basso-relievo of a field of battle; in which, unfortunately for propriety, all the soldiers are Romans; as is also their general; the heads of are broken off.

This monument was erected by a disconsolate parent, the lady viscountess Townshend, to the memory of her

fifth

son, the honourable lieutenant-colonel Roger Townshend, who was killed by a cannon-ball on the

25th of July, 1759

, in the

28th

year of his age, as he was reconnoitring the French lines at Ticonderoga, in North America. From the parent, the brother, and the friend, his sociable and amiable manners, his enterprising bravery, and the integrity of his heart, may claim the tribute of affliction. Yet, stranger! weep not; for, though premature his death, his life was glorious, enrolling him with the names of those immortal statesmen and commanders, whose wisdom and intrepidity, in the course of this comprehensive and successful war, have extended the commerce, enlarged the dominions, and upheld the majesty of these kingdoms, beyond the idea of any former age.

Over this, in the window, is a large handsome tablet by Cheere, with a globe and mathematical instruments, &c. to the memory of sir John Chardin, bart. The globe exhibits a view of the different countries through which sir John had travelled. The motto

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beneath refers to the dangers he escaped, for which he ascribes glory to God :--

Nomen sibi fecit eundo

-

sir John Chardin

--

Soli Deo Gloria

--

Resurgam.

Near this, but lower down, in the corner to the west, is a tablet to Mrs. Bridget Radley, wife of Charles Radley, esq. (gentleman usher, daily wailer to James II ) who erected this monument to her memory. She died .

A fine bust, pedestal, and curtain, perpetuate the memory of Sidney, earl of Godolphin, lord high treasurer of Great , and prime minister in the reign of queen Anne. He died the , aged . The bust is richly attired.

A pair of tablets of sir Charles Harbord, knight, and Clement Cottrell, esq. is the next. They perished together during an engagement in the Royal James with the Dutch fleet, on the . They were faithful friends; and their pathetic story is told at full length in the inscription. Cottrell was a volunteer, and though but years of age, understood languages.

Over an old fashioned tablet to Diana Temple, and others of sir William Temple's family, in a window, is a curious monument, designed and executed by Roubiliac, to the memory of William Hargrave, esq. Mr. Malcolm is of opinion, that

Europe can barely shew a parallel

to this monument, which, however, is placed in a bad light, and is seen to great disadvantage from its height.

The following description is extracted from the Gentleman's Magazine.

The figure of the general is supposed to be just re-animated, and rising in an extacy of joy, from the tomb in which he had reposed; behind him a pyramid is tumbling into ruins; at his head and below him, Time has just thrown Death backward, and is in the act of breaking his dart. The expression in Hargrave's face is admirable; it is a mixture of wonder and joy : every limb seems to strain forward, and every muscle is exerted to break from the grasp of death. The truth with which the pyramid is executed deserves every praise; a plain surface is converted by the chisel into a vast mass of stone falling in every direction. The figure of Time is fine; and the old broken feathers of his wings, torn with age and long use, are well worth examination. The skeleton seems to hang in agony by his broken spear, which is snapped by Time on his knee. The skull and bones are wrapped lightly round with drapery, and a crown drops from the head.

In this description is omitted the figure of a cherub in the clouds sounding the last trumpet.

A little farther west is the tomb of John Smith, esq. It is a design by Gibbs, the architect, and consists of a weeping female on a sarcophagus, with a medallion of the deceased in her right hand.

On the base is a Latin inscription setting forth his descent from the Smiths in Lincolnshire, issue, &c. He died .

On side of this is a tablet of Anne Fielding wife of

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Samuel Morland, bart. who, it would seem, was a man of learning, by the Ethiopic and Hebrew inscriptions which he has made to the memory and virtues of his wife: the Hebrew is to this effect:

O thou fairest among women! O thou virtuous woman: the hand of the Lord bath done this. The Lord gave and the Lord bath taken away, and blessed be the name of the Lord!

Of the Ethiopic, the following is a translation;--

Come, lament over this monument with a beloved husband for thee; but in certain hope that thou art united with Christ.

This lady was truly religious, virtuous, faithful, mild as a dove, and chaste while she continued in life, she was honoured; and is happy, through mercy, in death.

Under this latter inscription is the following:

Anne, daughter of George Fielding esq. and Mary his wife, the truly loving (and as truly beloved) wife of Samuel Morland, knight and bart. died

February 20, 1679

-

80

, Aetatis

19

.

On the other side of Smith's monument is to the memory of another of sir Samuel Morland's wives: this, also, is much like the former, and has Hebrew and Greek inscriptions: this was the baronet's wife, Carola Harsnet. She died in child-bed of her son, , in the year of her age.

The Hebrew runs thus:

Blessed be the Lord, my wife was precious blessed be thy remembrance, O virtuous woman!

The Greek thus:

When I think of thy mildness, patience, charity, modesty, and piety, I lament thee, O most excellent creature! and grieve exceedingly; but not like such a have no faith, for I believe and expect the resurrection of those who sleep in Christ.

In the window, over these singular tablets, and above the monument of John Smith, are fine figures of Hercules and Minerva, ridiculously employed in binding a serpent and a glass, the emblems of Wisdom and Prudence to his club, designed, I suppose, as an emblem of Valour.

These figures are to perpetuate the memory of James Fleming, major general of his majesty's forces, and colonel of a regiment of foot, who having served years a commissioned officer, died , aged .

At the top is a medallion of the general in a marble pyramid, with the inscription. This is of Roubiliac's tombs; but is not equal, in design, to some of his other productions.

Over the centre is another of Roubiliac's monuments: Mr. Malcolm calls it

the

third

in the scale of merit

It is, however, a most stately monument, to the memory of general George Wade, field-marshal of his majesty's forces, &c. &c.

In this monument Fame pushes Time from a column, on which highly finished military trophies are suspended; on its base is the general's head in a medallion. A neat sarcophagus below is encircled with laurel, and contains the inscription.

On the right to the door is a monument to Robert Cannon, D.D.

135

dean of Lincoln, and prebendary of this church, who died , aged .

On the left of the door is a neat pedestal surmounted by a line bust, to the memory of Charles Herries, esq. colonel of the light horse volunteers of London and . He died , aged .

The adjoining arches are entirely demolished; the side ones have been attempted to be restored.

A neat design by Gibbs. In the centre is a monument erected by Mrs. Mary Pope to the memory of her friend Mrs. Katherine Bovey, who died -, aged . The principal figures are Faith with her book closed, and Wisdom lamenting the death of her patroness. Between these is a lady's head in an annulet of black veined marble. Over this the inscription.

Over Mrs. Bovey, in the window, is a figure of the imaginary genius of the province of Massachusetts Bay, lamenting the loss of George Augustus viscount Howe, brigadier-general of his majesty's forces in America, who was slain , on the march to Triconderoga.

As it was not possible the artist could rightly imagine the genius of a distinct province, and as this happened to be an American province, perhaps he would have been farther from the truth had his figure been more unlike

a representation of melancholy intoxication;

though certainly lord Howe merited a better companion to lament his loss.

Near to this is a bust of the rev. John Thomas, LL. D. bishop of Rochester, and dean of this collegiate church. The inscription is in Latin, and rather long; and, as usual, sets forth the worthy prelate's innumerable virtues, qualifications, and

profound learning.

The bust is very good; besides which there is a lamb bearing the cross, a chalice, sacramental bread, mitre, crosier, and books. This is of Bacon's productions. Dr. Thomas died , aged years.

Near this is an exquisite bust, by Tyler, of the truly learned Dr. Zachary Pearce. This bust stands on a pedestal, and the features are said to have a striking resemblance to those of the original. It is enough to say that this is the prelate who wrote the well known

Commentary on the holy Evangelists and the Acts of the Apostles,

a work of great learning and research, and highly esteemed among the orthodox. He died June , aged .

that remain under the next window are coloured black. They contain the monument of sir Samuel Robinson, bart. of Kentwell-hall, in Suffolk. He died , aged ; and another of porphyry, inlaid with white marble flowers, and foliage of great taste and beauty. On it very elegant children hold and read a label.

On the pedestal is an oval tablet adorned by inlaid scrolls, which contains a basso relievo of a north-west view of the Abbey,

136

apparently well done, and figures of Faith and Hope on each side. The inscription, which is in Latin, is to the memory of Dr. Joseph Wilcocks, bishop of Gloucester, and afterwards of Rochester, also dean of this church. He died , aged .

Near this is a monument, with a very long Latin inscription, to Dr. Thomas Sprat. He died , aged .

Above these monuments is of a most singular description, as far as concerns the design. It is to the memory of Richard Tyrrell, esq. vice-admiral of the white. Mr. Malcolm has conceived so very justly of the design of this monument, that I shall make no apology for the verbatim insertion of his description :--

To comprehend it,

says that able critic,

the spectator must suppose himself in a diving bell at the bottom of the sea. When he has shaken off the terrors of his situation, he will find on his right hand the Buckingham, of

sixty-six

guns, jammed in a bed of coral. Directly before him, he will perceive a figure pointing to a spot on a globe, either intending to shew where the deceased body was committed to the deep, or the latitude where an action, mentioned in the inscription, was fought.

Sacred to the memory of Richard Tyrrel, esq. who was descended from an ancient family in Ireland, and died rear admiral of the white, on the

26th day of June, 1766

, in the

50th

year of his age. Devoted from his youth to the naval service of his country, and being formed under the discipline, and animated by the example, of his renowned uncle sir Peter Warren, he distinguished himself as an able and experienced officer in many gallant actions; particularly on the

3

d of

November, 1758

, when commanding the Buckingham, of

66

guns, and

four hundred and seventy-two

men, he attached and defeated

three

French ships of war,

one

of which was the Florissant, of

74

guns, and

700

men; but the Buckingham being too much disabled to take possession of her after she had struck, the enemy, undercover of the night, escaped. In this action he received several wounds, and lost

three

fingers of his right hand. Dying on his return to England from the Leeward Islands, where he had for

three

years commanded a squadron of his Majesty's ships, his body, according to his own desire, was committed to the sea with proper honours and ceremonies.

The next arch is filled with a circular pedestal and bust, by Rysbrack, to the memory of John Friend, M. D. He died .

Near this, in an oval frame, is a half-length marble portrait of William Congreve, esq. placed on a pedestal of fine Egyptian marble, and enriched with dramatic emblematical figures. He died .

In the south-west corner is a fine monument of the right hon. James Craggs, secretary of war in , and secretary of state in the year following. The statue is as large as life, and leans on an urn, bearing in gilt letters the inscription. His epitaph, by Pope, is on the base of the monument.

It would be useless to particularize the demolition of every arch and carvings under the windows: all the windows are partly filled by stone-work, exclusive of the monuments in them. The great pillars for the towers are formed by small ones; and the

137

arches across the roof of the nave from these are extremely strong and massy. Under the last window of the south aisle is a door; over it a gallery of oak, pannelled, with small arches, and a range of quatrefoils; behind it a strong flat arch, in which is a door. At the west ends, under the towers of both aisles, are lancet-shaped windows; in the point of each arch blank trefoils; the lower part of that to the north is filled by a poorly executed figure in stained glass, of a bearded old man, in a crimson vest, and blue and yellow mantle: the colours, both of the drapery and ill-shaped canopy, are wonderfully clear and brilliant. Under him is a portcullis, and a double triangle: this is generally said to represent Edward the Confessor. In the south window is a king, completely armed, of the house of Lancaster, as appears by the red rose. Under him are the arms of Edward the Confessor. This is not by the same artist who stained the other, if we may decide from the colours; besides, the latter is a more finished performance, though rude. This window was probably made about the time when that part of the nave was completed, which has key-stones of the Lancastrian rose, that is, between the years and . If Islip had put them up, we should have had the red and white roses. After all, the king may be intended for Henry IV., V., or VI. The above figures are generally well imagined, and the colours of the drapery very clear. On the right side of the door is a pedestal and sarcophagus, with boys of bronze hanging a medallion on a pyramid, by Cheere, to the memory of John Conduit, master of the Mint. A stone arch has been turned over the west door, on which is erected a monument, voted by the parliament to the memory of the right hon. William Pitt, who died on the . This illustrious statesman is represented as he appeared in the British senate, habited in the robes of the chancellor of the exchequer. To the right of the base of this statue, History, in a reclined attitude, is recording the chief acts of his administration, whilst Anarchy, on the left, lies subdued and chained at his feet. The statues composing this group are of the proportions of feet in height, executed by Richard Westmacott, R. A.

On the left side of the door is a very good reclining figure with a boy weeping by an urn; but absurd, from the Roman costume: it has the usual accompaniments of a sarcophagus and pyramid on the pedestal, thus inscribed:

Sir Thomas Hardy, to whose memory this monument is erected, was bred in the royal navy from his youth, and was made a captain in

1693

. In the expedition to Cadiz, under sir George Rooke, he commanded the Pembroke; and when the feet left the coast of Spain to return to England, he was ordered to Lagos Bay, where he got intelligence of the Spanish galleons being arrived in the harbour of Vigo, under convoy of

seventeen

French men of war, by his great diligence and judgment he joined the English fleet, and gave the admiral that intelligence, which engaged him to make the best of his way to Vigo, where all the aforementioned galleons and men of war were either taken or destroyed. After the success of the action, the admiral sent him with an account of it to the queen, who ordered him a considerable present, and knighted him. Some years

after he was made a rear-admiral, and received several other marks of favour and esteem from her majesty, and from her royal consort, prince George of Denmark, lord high admiral of England. He died

August 16, 1732

, aged

66

.

The screen which formed the enclosure under the south tower has been removed for a magnificent monument, whose base and pyramid are of rich Sicilian jasper, feet high, designed and executed by Taylor, and erected by order of king George the , on the unanimous vote of the . On it is a double arched rock of white marble, with laurel and plants growing in the interstices, cannon, anchors, and flags at the sides. In the rock are cavities: in the a Latin epitaph is inscribed; in the other, is a view of the sea-fight off Toulon, in bas-relief, representing a fleet engaged, remarkably well done, both in the fore-shortening the vessels, and the construction of their rigging. On the fore-ground the Marlborough is seen fiercely engaged with admiral Navarre's ship, the Real, of guns, and her seconds, all raking the Marlborough fore and aft. On the rock stand figures, the represents Britannia under the character of Minerva, accompanied with a lion; the other figure is expressive of Fame; who having presented to Britannia a medallion of the hero, supports it while exhibited to public view: the medallion is accompanied with a globe and various honorary crowns, as due to valour. Behind the figures is a lofty-spreading palm-tree, whereon is fixed the hero's shield of arms, together with a laurel-tree, both of which issue from the natural barren rock, as alluding to some heroic and uncommon event. The marble is so strangely corroded, that little more of the inscription can be read than the name of James Cornwall, who commanding the Marlborough, a gun ship, lost his life in an engagement with the Spanish admiral's ship off Toulon, , in the memorable fight under Matthews and Lestock.

Under the north tower is the belfry, the ancient door of which remains, the rest of the screen is hidden by a circular pedestal, and behind it an Ionic tablet and pediment: Minerva is represented in the act of removing a curtain from a medallion, with books, square, and compass, at her feet; a boy holds the plan of a fortification, to the memory of William Horveck, esq.

Near the same is a tablet, with sarcophagus and flag:--

Sacred to the memory of the hon. George Augustus Frederick Lake, late lieutenant-colonel in his majesty's

29th

regiment of foot, who fell at the head of his grenadiers in driving the enemy from the heights of Rolera in Portugal, on the

17th of Aug. 1808

. This stone is erected to his memory by the officers, non-commissioned officers, drummers, and privates of the corps, as a testimony of their high regard and esteem.

In the centre of the belfry is a handsome monument to the memory of captain Montague. He is represented as large as life,

139

standing with his right hand resting on his sword, and his left on his hip; behind him is a figure of Victory, with a wreath and branch of laurel. On the pedestal on which he stands is a fine bas-relief of the action in which he fell, and beneath is the following inscription :--

Erected at the public expense to the memory of James Montagu, who was killed on board the Montagu, which he gallantly commanded in the memorable victory over the French fleet off Brest, on the

first of June, 1794

, in the

42nd

year of his age, and

28th

of his service.

On each side is a noble couching lion.

Near Horveck's monument is a marble tablet representing a shield with military trophies to the memory of Charles Banks Stanhope, son of the earl of Stanhope, who was killed at the battle of Corunna, .

Nearly adjoining is a monument with naval trophies inscribed as follows:--

Sacred to the memory of rear-admiral sir George Hope, K. C. B. Erected by several captains of the royal navy who served under him as midshipmen.

The architecture of the sides over the pillars is exactly the same with those of the north transept before described: many of the key-stones are adorned with rich foliage, iron keys, a Catharine wheel, and some other devices. Several of the pillars in the choir, to the in the nave, are filleted with brass; the remainder with stone. The gate of the choir is a flat arch, with an obtuse foliaged over it, and pinnacles on the side pillars: the spaces on the right and left are filled by the monuments of Newton and earl Stanhope; the former is on the left, and represents him leaning and reposing at full length, with books under his arm, in an antique robe. Upon a sarcophagus near him are -winged boys, with labels, who appear to be speaking. Hal buried in a dark pyramid behind hangs a celestial globe, on which is a golden line, with

Dec. 20, 1680

.

On the globe is a figure of Astronomy leaning on a book; and the tablet of the sarcophagus contains a bas-relief of infants making philosophical experiments: it is the joint production of Kent and Rysbrack, and, perhaps does but little credit to their talents.

On the pedestal is inscribed :--

H. S, E. Isaacus Newton, eques auratus, qui animi vi prope divina, planetarum motus, figuras, cometarum semitas, Oceanique aestus, sua Mathesi facem praeferente, primus demonstravit; radicorum lucis dissimilitudines, colorumque inde nascentium propietates, quas nemo antea vel suspicatus erat, pervestigavit. Nature, Antiqitatis, S. Scriptuarae, sedulus sagax, fidus interpres, Dei O M. Majestatem Philosophia asseruit, Evangelii simplicitatem moribus expressit. Sibi gratulentur mortales, tale tantumque extitisse HUMANI GENERIS DECUS. Nat.

25 Dec.

A. D.

1642

. Obiit

20 Mar. 1726

.

Directly before the tomb, on a blue stone, is

Hic depositum est quod mortale suit Isaici Newtoni.

On the right side of the gate is a large monument, on the sarcophagus of which reclines a Roman general under a most

140

diminutive canopy, hardly high enough indeed to admit the winged boy, who stands near it bearing a shield: the goddess Minerva has alighted upon the little cupola of it, and there maintains an uneasy seat, assigned her by Kent and Rysbrack. The pedestal is very handsome: on it are medallions, the inscribed,

Pugna equestris, Hispanis ad almenarem vict. Julii

16

,

1710

.

The battle is well grouped. On the is queen Anne: the represents a figure on a shell upon the sea, a palm branch in her right hand, and the British flag in her left:

Sardini et Belearis minor captae

1708

:

the has the queen seated under a canopy, an angel laying flags at her feet; the earl of Stanhope points to them. On the base:

Hocci monumentum. amoris conjugalis exiremum pignus, virique publica funeris pompa condecorati, parennem effigum adornaria moriens curavit uxor domina Lucia, tanto marito et amore et vertutibus conjunctissima.

On a smaller pedestal of the basement is,

Hic quoque memorandus est Georgus Stanhope, Jacobi comitis Stanhope felius secundus, qui tribunatu vicarie (quem animos tenuerat circiter quinque) abdicate anno

1747

-

8

. Privatus obiit

March 24, 1754

. Annum agens

37

, patria forsan desiderandus, amicis certe desiderattissimus, anno

1743

. Coram rege strenuus apud Dettingen, ano

1745

-

6

. Cladis depulsor apud Falkirk, anno

1746

. Victoriae particeps apud Culloden, anno

1747

. Honeste vulneratus apud Lafelot. Tocrens faciendum curavit frater P. C. S.

On another pedestal:

To the memory of Philip (

second

) earl of Stanhope conspicuous for universal benevolence, unshaken public integrity, and private worth: deep were his researches in philosophy, and extensive his ideas for his country's good: he was ever a determined supporter of the trial by jury, of the freedom of elections, of a numerous and well-regulated militia, and of the liberty of the press; on the

7th day of March, 1786

, (and in the

72

d year of his age) he terminated an honourable life, spent in the exercise of virtue, in the improvement of science, and the pursuit of truth: in respectful remembrance of him the above lines are inscribed by his affectionate son, Charles earl of Stanhope.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] The site of the old chapel of St. Blaze is occupied by the tomb of Shakespeare, &c. in poet's corner, says Mr. Malcolm, but on what authority I know not; neither do I think him correct in thus correcting his first statement, which is, that this vestry is in fact the site of that chapel.--Brayley.

[] This is the old pulpit from the choir.

[] Gent. Mag. vol. lxv. p. 389.

[] Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xxv. pp. 86, 90.

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 Title Page
 Dedication
CHAPTER I: Site, local divisions, and government of the City of Westminster; history of the Abbey; Coronation Ceremonies; and lists of the Abbots and Deans
CHAPTER II: Westminster Abbey, and Description of the Tombs and Monuments
CHAPTER III: History and Topography of St. Margaret's Parish
CHAPTER IV: History and Topography of St. John's Parish, Westminster
CHAPTER V: History and Topography of the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, Westminster
CHAPTER VI: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. James, Westminster
CHAPTER VII: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Anne, Westminster
CHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of the parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden
CHAPTER IX: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Mary-le-strand
CHAPTER X: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. Clement Danes
CHAPTER XI: History and Topography of the parish of st. George, Hanover Square
CHAPTER XII: History and Topography of the Precinct of the Savoy
CHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of the Inns of Court
CHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of the Precincts of the Charter-house and Ely Place, and the Liberty of the Rolls
 CHAPTER XV: Historical Notices of the Borough of Southwark
CHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Olave, Southwark
CHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of the parish of St. John, Southwark
CHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of the parish of St. Thomas, Southwark
CHAPTER XIX: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. George's, Southwark
CHAPTER XX: History and Topography of St. Saviour's Parish
CHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of the parist of Christ-church in the County of Surrey
 CHAPTER XXII: A List of the Principal Books, &c that have been published in Illustration of the Antiquities, History, Topography, and other subjects treated of in this Work
 Addenda et Corrigienda
 Postscript