The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 4

Allen, Thomas

1827

The North Transept.

The north wall is divided into compartments of unequal heights. A tall slender pillar separates the great doors. The tops are angular, and the mouldings adorned with roses, supported over the pillars by a head.

The transept is divided into the middle, east, and west aisles, by rows of pillars each. fillets bind small pillars to every column. , which are extremely pointed, are composed of a great number of mouldings. The ribs of the roof are supported by small pillars which ascend from the capitals. The ribs, the key-stones, &c. are richly gilt, and have a most beautiful appearance. A magnificent colonnade of double arches extends over the great arches; these inferior arches are in number, of them have their mouldings richly adorned with foliage. Every arch has pillar, and over it a cinquefoil with a circle. Above is a row of windows, having a single mullion and a cinquefoil.

71

 

The compartments of the north wall of this transept are filled with various ornaments, statues, and monumental inscriptions. Between the arches and the divisions are alto-relievos of Sampson tearing asunder the jaws of a lion; birds, other animals, and figures, branches of oak, and a statue of a man (whose head is now gone) treading on another; a female by him, and the bust of an angel. The monument is inscribed

To the memory of sir Charles Wager, knt., admiral of the white,

first

commissioner of the Admiralty, and privy counsellor. A man of great natural talents, improved by industry and long experience; who bore the highest commands, and passed through the greatest employments, with credit to himself, and honour to his country. He was in his private life humane, temperate, just, and bountiful. In public station, valant, prudent, wise, and honest. Easy of access to all, plain and unaffected in his manners, steady and resolute in his conduct; so remarkably happy in his presence of mind, that no danger ever discomposed him. Esteemed and favoured by his king, beloved and honoured by his country, he dyed on the xxiiii of

May, 1743

, aged

77

years.

On the pedestal is a bas-relief of the destroying and taking the Spanish galleons, A. D. , but poorly executed. On the basement,

This monument was erected by Francis Gashry, esq. in gratitude to his great patron, A. D.

1747

.

The sculptor was Scheemakers, and the background, is a pyramid with a statue of Fame mourning over the admiral's medallion, an infant Hercules admiring it.

The monument within the blank arches is composed of a double pedestal, supporting a good bust, over which Fame, at time suspended a laurel crown; but the crown is now almost gone. At her feet lie pieces of armour, cannon, and flags. This monument is

Sacred to the memory of Edward Vernon, admiral of the White squadron of the British Fleet He was the

second

son of James Vernon, who was Secretary of state to king William III.; and whose abilities and integrity were equally conspicuous. In his youth he served under the admirals Shovel and Rooke. By their example he learned to conquer; by his own merit he rose to command. In the war with Spain,

1739

, he took the fort of Porto Bello with

six

ships, a force which was thought unequal to the attempt. For this he received the thanks of both houses of Parliament. He subdued Chagre; and at Carthagena conquered as far as naval force could carry victory. After these services he retired without place or title, from the exercise of public to the enjoyment of private virtue. The testimony of a good conscience was his reward; the love and esteem of all good men his glory. In battle, though calm, he was active; and though intrepid, prudent. Successful, yet not ostentatious, ascribing the glory to God. In the senate he was disinterested, vigilant, and steady. On the

30th of October, 1757

, he died, as he had lived, the friend of man, the lover of his country, the father of the poor, aged

73

years. As a memorial of his own gratitude, and of the virtues of his benefactor, this monument was erected by his nephew, Francis Lord Orwell, in the year

1763

.

This monument is by Rysbrack.

A colonnade of arches, with black marble pillars, forms the compartment in height. This is part of the ancient communication round the church, through the piers. The spaces over the arches are carved into squares, having ornaments within them.

72

 

lancet-shaped arches, whose depths are sculptured with circles each of foliage, in which are busts of angels and saints, compose the compartment. The windows at the east and west ends have beautiful pedestals, on which are statues; the spaces round them filled with tracery.

The compartment is another passage in the walls, in which are arches, and within them cinquefoils. The pillars are clusters of ; and over them are foliage brackets with a head. Kneeling angels on the mouldings, performing on musical instruments, adorn both extremities of the wall. The most delicate scrollwork compose the spaces.

The , or last compartment, reaches to the painted roof. It contains a vast rose-shaped window, of large pointed leaves: those divided into as many smaller, all proceeding from a circle in which are leaves. In this centre lies an open book, on a ground of deep yellow, of painted glass. The divisions of the circle are straw colour. Beyond this a band of cherubim; and the large leaves filled with figures of the Apostles, &c. in colours of the most clear and durable nature. The date in the glass is .

The west aisle of this transept has a door, with an angular top at the north end. On its sides lancet-shaped arches, set with roses. On the left side a tablet and bust to sir William Sanderson, who died in . On the right is of Bacon's best efforts. It is a most beautiful monument, thus inscribed :

Sacred be the monument, which is here raised, by gratitude and respect, to perpetuate the memory of George Montagu Dunk, earl of Halifax, knight of the most noble order of the Garter; whose allegiance, integrity, and abilities, alike distinguished and exalted him in the reigns of king George the

Second

and of King George the

Third

. In the year

1745

(an early period of his life) he raised and commanded a regiment to defend his king and country against the alarming insurrection in Scotland. He was soon after appointed

first

lord of trade and plantations; in which departments he contributed so largely to the commerce and splendour of America, as to be styled the

Father of the Colonies.

At

one

and the same time he filled the great offices of the

First

Lord of the Admiralty, Principal Secretary of State, and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was afterwards appointed Lord Privy Seal; on resignation whereof he was recalled to the important duties of principal Secretary of State, and deceased in possession of the Seals.

June the 8th, 1771

. His worth in private life was eminent and extensive, and was but testified in the honour and esteem which were borne him when living, and the lamentations bestowed upon his ashes. Among many instances of his liberal spirit

ONE

deserves to be distinctly recorded. During his residence in Ireland, he obtained the grant of an additional

4000l.

per annum for all subsequent viceroys; at the same time nobly declining that emolument himself.

The tomb is formed of a pedestal, supporting a bust of the earl in his robes under a curtain, which is removed by a naked boy who treads on a mask, and holds the emblem of Truth. Another offers a star and ribband. On the pedestal is a silken bag, fringed and tasselled, extremely well executed; indeed, the whole

73

is a most exquisite piece of workmanship, bearing throughout that soft and delicate appearance, for which that artist's works are so conspicuous.

The colonnade over the door, of semi-quatrefoils, has its pillars cased with white marble, to represent palm-trees, whose foliage spreads across the arches. Within the arbours thus formed stands the almost naked statue of admiral Watson, holding a palm branch in his right hand, the left extended. In the niche at his left hand is a kneeling Asiatic female, of great beauty and elegance of drapery. In the opposite, chained to the foot of a tree, an East Indian. His hands are behind him, and his legs are crossed. It is a very fine figure. Under these statues are medallions, with bows, swords, and hatchets, behind them; inscribed

Ghereah taken

February 13, 1756

;

and

Calcutta

freed

January the 2

d,

1757

.

A shield fastened to the western tree has fleurs-de-lis, and

Chandernagore taken

March 23, 1757

.

Beneath is the following inscription:

To the memory of Charles Watson, Vice Admiral of the White, Commander in Chief of his Majesty's naval forces in the East Indies, who died at Calcutta the 16th of August, 1757, in the forty-fourth year of his age. The East India Company, as a grateful testimony of the signal advantages which they obtained by his valour and prudent conduct, caused this monument to be erected.

James Stuart, inv. Peter Scheemakers fecit.

The pointed roof is filled by the upper division, which commences on the capitals of the great pillars. This division is separated by columns into arches, the middle the highest, each forming a deep recess, with ribs; in the centre a pointed window. All the spaces are carved into roses, &c. Strong arches cross the aisles from every pillar. In the intersections of the ribs are representations of

; a seated figure, other seated figures, and a scroll.

In the western wall there are windows, having each mullion and a cinquefoil.

A seal or basement extends entirely round the church, and on it are placed small slender pillars, dividing every space, forming a beautiful continuation of arches, variously ornamented by figures on the mouldings. They reach in height to the sills of the windows. On the western wall of this north transept are St. Michael and the Dragon, an angel, and a broken figure falling, saints, fancied animals, a palm branch, and scrolls, all greatly decayed. Other ornaments decorate the rest of the arches.

In the north-west corner is a small door, which leads to the passages in the piers above. are in number, and are mostly filled by monuments.

74

 

The memorial consists of a plain slab of porphyry filling the arch. It is inlaid with a sarcophagus covered with military trophies, palm, and laurel, scrolls, and a skull. A very good bust finishes the design, which is by Taylor. This monument is

Sacred to those virtues that adorn a Christian and a Soldier. This marble perpetuates the memory of Lieutenant-General Joshua Guest: who closed a service of

sixty

years by faithfully defending Edinburgh Castle against the Rebels,

1745

. His widow (who lies near him) caused this to be erected.

The next arch contains a pedestal with naval trophies, a pyramid, and against it a sarcophagus, with an alto-relievo of a shipwreck. This is by Scheemakers. It has the following inscription:--

To the memory of Sir John Balchen, K. B. Admiral of the White Squadron of his Majesty's Fleet; who, in the year

1744

, being sent out Commander in Chief of the combined Fleets of England and Holland, to cruise on the enemy, was, on his return home in his Majesty's ship the Victory, lost in the Channel by a violent storm. From which sad circumstance of his death, we may learn that neither the greatest skill, judgment, or experience, joined to the most firm, unshaken resolution, can resist the fury of the wind and waves. And we are taught from the passages of his life (which were filled with great and gallant actions, but ever accompanied with adverse gales of fortune) that the brave, the worthy, and the good man meets not always his reward in this world.

Fifty-eight

years of painful services he had passed, when, being just retired to the government of Greenwich Hospital to wear out the remainder of his days, he was once more, and for the last time, called out by his king and country, whose interests he ever preferred to his own. And his unwearied zeal for their service ended only in his death. Which weighty misfortune to his afflicted family became heightened by many aggravating circumstances attending it. Yet, amidst their grief, had they the mournful consolation to find his gracious and Royal Master mixing his concern with the general lamentations of the public for the calamitous fate of so zealous, so valiant, and so able a commander, And, as a lasting memorial of the sincere love and esteem borne by his widow to a most affectionate and worthy husband, this honorary monument was erected by her. He was born

February 2, 1669

; and married Susannah, the daughter of Colonel Apriece, of Washingby, in the County of Huntingdon; died

October 7, 1744

, leaving

one

son and

one

daughter; the former of whom, George Balchen, survived him but a short time: for, being sent to the West Indies in

1745

, commander of his Majesty's ship, the Pembroke, he died at Barbadoes in December the same year, aged

twenty-eight

, having walked in the steps, and imitated the virtues and bravery of his good, but unfortunate father.

The next consists of figures, Faith, and an angel: the former rests arm on a rock, while she clasps a cross to her bosom with the other. It is to the memory of the right rev. John Warren, D.D. bishop of St. David's. He died , aged .

The next arch supports a pedestal, containing a bust of poor expression, and trophies, by Scheemakers.

Whilst Britain boasts her empire o'er the deep,

This marble shall compel the brave to weep.

As men, as Britons, and as soldiers mourn;

Tis dauntless, loyal, virtuous Beauclerks urn.

Sweet were his manners, as his soul was great:

And ripe his worth, though immature his fate

Each tender grace yt joy and love inspires,

Living, he mingled with his martial fires.

Dying, he bid Britannia's thunder roar,

And Spain still felt him, when he breath'd no more.

The lord Aubrey Beauclerk was the youngest son of Charles duke of St. Alban's, by Diana, daughter of Aubrey de Vere, earl of Oxford. He went early to sea, and was made a commander in

1731

. In the year

1740

he was sent upon that memorable expedition to Carthagena, under the command of admiral Vernon, in his Majesty's ship the Prince Frederick, which, with

three

others, was ordered to canonade the castle of Boca Chica.

One

of these being obliged to quit her station, the Prince Frederick, was exposed not only to the fire from the castle, but to that of fort St. Joseph, and to

two

ships that guarded the mouth of the harbour, which he sustained for many hours that day, and part of the next, with uncommon intrepidity. As he was giving his commands upon deck both his legs were shot off; but such was his magnanimity, yt he would not suffer his wounds to be drest till he had communicated his orders to his

first

lieutenant, which were, to fight his ship to the last extremity. Soon after this, he gave some directions about his private affairs; and then resigned his soul, with the dignity of a hero and a Christian. Thus was he taken off in the

31st

year of his age. An illustrious commander, of superior fortitude and clemency, amiable in his person steady in his affections, and equalled by few in the social and domestic virtues of politeness, modesty, candour, and benevolence. He married the widow of col. Fran Alexander, a daughter of sir Henry Newton, knt. envoy extraordinary to the court of Florence and the republic of Genoa, and judge of the high court, of Admiralty.

The next tomb is a pedestal and sarcophagus, with a bust, naked children, and military emblems, by Scheemakers:

Near this place lies interred the body of the Hon. Percy Kirk, esquire, lieutenant-general of his Majesty's armys, who died the

first of January, 1741

, aged

57

. He was son to the Hon. Percy Kirk, esquire, lieutenant-general in the reign of king James the II., by the lady Mary, daughter to George Howard, earl of Suffolk. In the same grave lies the body of Diana Dormer, daughter to John Dormer, of Rousham, in Oxfordshire, esquire, by Diana, sister to the

first

-mentioned lieutenant-general Kirk, who, being left sole heiress by her uncle, ordered this monument to be erected to his memory. Death snatched her away before she could see her grateful intentions executed. She died

Feb. 22

, A. D.

1743

, aged

32

.

Adjoining is a tomb by Rysbrack. It supports a good bust in armour, with flowing hair; and on a circular pedestal is this epitaph:

M. S. Ricardi Kane. ad arcem Balearicae Insulae Minoris, a S. Philippo dictam, depositi; qui an. Xti

1666

, Decemb.

20

, Dunanii in agro Antrimensi natus anno

1689

, in memorablli Derriae obsidione tyrocinium miles fecit: unde, sub Gulielmo tertio felicis memoriae, domi, ad subjugatum usque totem Hiberniam, foris, in Belgio, cum magno vitae discrimine, Namurci praesertim gravissime vulneratus, perpetuo militavit. Anno

1702

, recrudescente sub Annae auspiciis bello ad Canadanam usque cui intertuit expeditionem, in Belgio iterum castra posuit. Anno

1712

, sub inclyto Argatheliae et Grenovici duce, mox sub barone Carpenter, Balearicam minorem legatus administravit; ubi ad omne negotium tam civile quam militare instructus, et copiis maritimis aeque ac terristribus praefectus, quicquid insulae, in pace et bello, terra marive, conservandae, necessarium, utile, aut commodum foret, digessit, constituit, stabilivit: et viam vere regiam per totem insulam eatenus imperviam stravit, munivit, ornavit. Anno

1720

, a Georgio Primo evocatus, e Balearica in Calpen trajecit, Hispanisque arcem, ex improviso occupandam. meditantibus irrata reddidit consilia. Anno

1725

, per octodecim menses in eadem sudavit arena, hostesque peninsulam gravi obsidione prementes

omni spe potiundae exuit. Post tot autem tantasque res, legati nomine, strenue gestas, anno

1733

, Georgio Secundo jubente, ad istum, ut ad alios ubivis honores, nec ipse ambiens, nec dum sciens, evectus, Balearicae summo cum imperio praefuit. At, at, humana omnia quam incerta! Qui quatuor sub regibus, summa cum prudentia, fortitudine, et dignitate militaverat, qui nullis erga Deum oficiis defuerat, nec Christiani minus, quam militis boni, partes sutinuerat, fide pura, moribus antiquis, amicis charus, sociis jucundus, civibus mitis et comis, omnibus benificuset munificus, et per omnia, utilitati publicae magis quam suae consluens, triste sui desiderium Insulanis, tam Hispanis quam Britannis, reliquit; sextumque supra septuagesimum annum agens, anno

1736

, Decemb.

19

, diem obiit supremum.

A tablet by Chere, with a mitre and ornaments, and the following inscription :--

Ex adverso sepultus et Samuel Bradford, S. T. P. Sanctae Mariae de Arcubus Londini diu rector, collegii Corporis Christi apud Cantabrigienses aliquando custos, episcopusprimo Carleolensis, deinde Roffensis, hujusque ecclesiae et honoratissimi ordinis de Balneo decanus. Concionator fuit, dum per valetudinem licuit assiduus, tam moribus quam praeceptis gravis, venerabilis, sanctus, cumque in caeteris vite officiis, turn in munere praecipue pastorali, prudens, simplex, integer; animi constantia tam aequabili, tam feliciter temperata, ut vix iratus, perturbatus haud unquam fuerit. Christianam charitatem et hbertatem civilem ubique paratus asserere et promovere. Quaelpie, quae benevole, quae misericorditer, in occulto fecerit (et fecit multa) Praesul humillimus, humanissimus, et vere evangelicus; Ille suo revelabat tempore, qui, in occulto visa, palam remunerabitur. Oh

17

die Maii, anno Dom.

1731

, suaeq. aetatis

79

.

The last monument on this wall is also by Cheere; it consists of a sarcophagus, bust, mitre, crosier, a censer, books, anchor, scrolls, and festoons of oak leaves and acorns, to

Dr. Hugh Boulter, late archbishop of Armagh, and primate of all Irelaud; a prelate so eminent for the accomplishments of his mind, the purity of his heart, and the excellency of his life, that it may be thought superfluous to specify his titles, recount his virtues, or even erect a monument to his fame. His titles he not only deserved but adorned. His virtues are manifest in his good works, which had never dazzled the public eye if they had not been too bright to be concealed. And as to his fame, whosoever has any sense of merit, any reverence for piety, any passion for his country, or any charity for mankind, will assist in preserving it fair and spotless, that, when brass and marble shall mix with the dust they cover, every succeeding age may have the benefit of his illustrious example. He was born

January the 4th, 1671

. He was consecrated bishop of Bristol

1718

. He was translated to the archbishoprick of Armagh

1723

, and from thence to Heaven

Sept. 27, 1742

.

The monument of lord Chatham fills the space between the pillars on the left, entering the door at the western aisle.

Against its back is a monument by Banks: a basement supports an indifferent female kneeling, resting her elbow on, and weeping at the feet of a sarcophagus, which has a good bas relief on it, of a physician relieving a sick female surrounded by her children, and an old man on a bed of straw:

Memoriae sacrum Cliftoni Wintringham, baronetti, M.D. Qui, domi militiaeque, tam in re medica insignis, quam ob vitae innocentiam morumque suavitatem percharus, flebilis omnibus obiit

10 Jan.

A.D.

1794

, aet. suae

83

. Monumentum hoc, amoris quo vivum coluerat maritum, desideri quo mortuum proscuta est, indicium ut esset diuturnum, extrui curavit Anna Wintringham.

77

 

Above is a neat marble tablet, with an alto relievo of a female weeping, an urn, &c. to the memory of major-general Coote Manningham, who died , aged .

The next is-

Sacred to the memory of Jonas Hanway, who departed this life September the

5th

,

1786

, aged

74

; but whose name liveth and will ever live, whilst active piety shall distinguish the Christian, integrity and truth shall recommend the British merchant, and universal kindness shall characterize the citizen of the world. The helpless infant nurtured through his care, the friendless prostitute sheltered and reformed, the hopeless youth rescued from injury and ruin, and trained to serve and defend his country, uniting in

one

common strain of gratitude, bear testimony to their benefactor's virtue. This was the friend and father of the poor.

And such do the features of the venerable bust above shew him to have been. A sarcophagus, pyramid, his arms, and characteristic motto,

Never despair,

with a tablet, representing Britannia giving a naked boy clothing; another supplicating; and a in prosperity, leaning on a rudder, who points to the bust; a lion, cornucopia, ship, anchor, bales, &c. adorn the tomb, which is partly composed of fine variegated marbles. On the flags of England are displayed the words

Charity and Policy United.

It is the production of J. F. and J. Moore.

The next is by Bacon:--

To the memory of brigadier-general Hope, lieutenant-governor of the province of Quebec, where he died in

1789

, aged

43

years. To those who knew him his name alone conveys the idea of all that is amiable in the human character. Distinguished by splendour of family, a cultivated taste for letters, and superior elegance of manners, as a public character disinterested, and ever actuated by an unshaken regard to principle. The patron of die oppressed, the benefactor of the indigent. In the field, eminent for intrepid courage, tempered by unbounded humanity, In the civil service of his country he manifested the warmest zeal for its interests, and displayed such ability and integrity as were the pride and blessing of the people he governed. This monument was erected by his disconsolate widow S. H.

A beautiful weeping female hangs over the coffin-shaped sarcophagus. Near her is a beaver, emblematic of the country. There is besides a pyramid, and a cornucopia tied by a ribband to a rudder.

Against the pillar adjoining the last monument is a handsome marble pedestal, on which is a full length figure in a councillor's robes. On the base is the following inscription:--

To the memory of Francis Horner, who, by the union, of great and various acquirements, with inflexible integrity and unwearied devotion to the interests of the country, raised himself to an eminent station in society, and was justly considered to be

one

of the most distinguished members of the house of commons. He was born at Edinburgh in

1778

, was called to the bar both of England and Scotland, and closed his short but useful life at Pisa in

1817

. His death was deeply felt and publickly deplored in parliament: his affectionate friends and sincere admirers, anxious that some memorial should exist of merits universally acknowledged, of expectations which a premature death could alone have frustrated, erected this monument A. D.

1823

.

The sculptor was Chantrey.

78

 

In a pointed niche adjoining, is a bust of Warren Hastings, esq. who died . It was erected by his widow.

The interval between the next great pillars is occupied by a vast monument made by Banks, consisting of an ill-shaped sarcophagus, on which is a naked Asiatic, of excellent proportions and truth of figure, seated, weeping and resting on a cornucopia. The back of the tomb is a pyramid; before it a palm tree, on which is suspended a helmet, vest, shield, sword, arrows, colours, and laurel. A statue of Fame, whose attitude is forced and unnatural, and whose drapery is strangely tumbled, hangs a medallion over the trophies. Near her is an elephant.

This monument is erected by the East India Company, as a memorial of the military talents of lieutenant-general sir Eyre Coote, K. B. commander in chief of the British forces in India, who, by the success of his arms in the years

1760

and

1761

, expelled the French from the coast of Coromandel. In

1781

and

1782

he again took the field in the Carnatic, in opposition to the united strength of the French and Hyder Ally; and in several engagements defeated the numerous forces of the latter. But death interrupted his career of glory on the

27th day of April, 1783

, in the

58th

year of his age.

On a pedestal, on the south side of the last monument, is a figure of a woman with a child in her lap, apparently fatigued. This is Mr. Westmacotts well known group, entitled,

The Distrest Mother;

it is inscribed to the memory of E. Warren, widow of Dr. John Warren, D. D. late bishop of Bangor, who died , aged .

In the next intercolumniation is the earl of Mansfield's monument. Between the figures of Wisdom and Justice, is a trophy, composed of the earl's family arms, surmounted by the coronet, the mantle of honour, the rods of justice, and curtana, or sword of mercy. On the back of the chair is the earl's motto--

UNI AEQUUS VIRTUTI.

Enclosed in a crown of laurel, under it, is a figure of Death, as represented by the ancients, a beautiful youth, leaning on an extinguished torch; on each side of the figure of Death is a funeral altar, finished by a fir-apple.

This is a very fine monument, and is the that has been placed in an intercolumniation, so as it may be walked round, and seen on every side. The inscription is as follows :--

Here Murray, long enough his country's pride,

Is now no more than Tully or than Hyde.

Foretold by Alexander Pope, and fulfilled in the year

1793

, when William earl of Mansfield died full of years and of honours; of honours he declined many; those which he accepted were the following: he was appointed solicitor-general

1742

, attorney-general

1754

; lord chief justice and baron Mansfield

1756

, and earl Mansfield

1776

. From the love which he bore to the place of his early education, he desired to be buried in this cathedral, privately, and would have forbidden that instance of human vanity, the erecting a monument to his memory; but a sum, which, with the interest, has amounted to

2,500l.

was left for that purpose by A. Bailey, esq. of Lyon's-inn; which at least well-meant mark of his esteem he had no previous knowledge or suspicion of. He was the

fourth

son of David,

fifth

viscount Stormont, and married the lady Elizabeth Finch, daughter to Daniel, earl of Nottingham, by whom he had no issue; born at Scone,

2

d

March, 1704

: died at Kenwood,

20th March, 1793

.

79

 

The venerable judge, in the robes of office, by Flaxman, is placed on the top of the monument: On the right hand Justice holds the statera, or balance, equally poised; on his left hand Wisdom opens the book of law.

Against the south pillar is a full length statue of the late John Kemble, esq.; he is represented standing in a Roman toga, with a roll of paper or vellum in his hand; it is by the late John Flaxman, R. A.

Of the monuments whose backs are against those just mentioned, are the following, by Nollekins, has a well-proportioned basement in parts; and on the middle the following inscription:

Captain William Bayne, captain William Blair, captain lord Robert Manners, were mortally wounded in the course of the naval engagements under the command of admiral sir George Brydges Rodney, on the

9th

and

12th of April, 1782

. In memory of their services the king and parliament of Great

Britain

have caused this monument to be erected.

On each side, reliefs of an anchor, capstern, quadrant, globe, glass, block, and pennant, rudder, cannon, mortar, and powder casks. On the pedestal Neptune, reclining on a sea-horse, points to medallions of the captains, placed by a flying child on a rostral column with their ships. Fame, on the capital of the pillar, suspends a crown of laurel over them. Britannia stands on the left, attentively looking on the sea god. A lion rests on a shield behind her. A pyramid of blue marble relieves the figures. The horse's head is finely done, the waves are but tolerable. Britannia is a good statue. Fame is an exceedingly fine figure. The medallions contain the ages of the deceased:

Captain William Bayne, aged

fifty

.

Captain William Blair, aged

forty-one

.

Lord Robert Manners, aged

twenty-four

.

The next is the superb memorial

Erected by the king and parliament as a testimony to the virtues and abilities of William Pitt, earl of Chatham; during whose administration, in the reigns of George the

Second

and George the

Third

, Divine Providence exalted Great

Britain

to an height of prosperity and glory unknown to any former age. Born

15th of Nov. 1708

, died

11th of May, 1778

.

This monument is not only a national tribute to superior excellence, but a national momento to what a height her sons have carried the noble art of sculpture. It has been thought that England does not contain a finer specimen of sepulchral remembrance. Grand and appropriate are the figures, and all are grouped in a double pyramid, Neptune, Britannia, &c. &c. must give way to the overpowering efforts of the artist, in animating the block that now lives in every motion under the shape of the speaking earl. This figure is full of the grace and dignity of the greatest orator. He is in the dress of our times, and this contributes to bring the real character before us. It is by Bacon.

We now pass to the opposite side of the middle aisle, where the

80

monument is to John Holles, duke of Newcastle, marquis and earl of Clare, baron Houghton, and knight of the order of the Garter. His body lies with his ancestors the Veres, Cavendishes, and Holles, in this place. In the reign of queen Anne he was lord keeper of the privy seal, privy counseller, lord lieutenant of Middlesex and Nottingham, &c. &c. lord chief justice in Eyre, north of Trent, and governor of the town and fort of Kingston upon Hull. He was born the -, and died the . He married the lady Margaret, daughter and heir to Henry Cavendish, duke of Newcastle, by whom he had the lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles Harley, who erected this monument in .

It was designed by Gibbs, and is a beautiful pile of architecture, of the Composite order. The basement, columns, and pediments are finely proportioned; and the marble of which they are composed richly variegated. But what shall we say to the figures wrought by Bird in statuary marble Here we find neither grace, dignity, nor beauty. The armed duke leans in an awkward manner on his elbow, with his truncheon in hand, and his coronet in the other, upon a sarcophagus.

Near it is a tomb, likewise of the Composite order, with a basement covered with armour, on which is a handsome pedestal; reposing on a mat under a circular pediment lie the figures, in their robes, clumsily executed, of the duke and duchess of Newcastle. He was born in the year , and lived to the age of , dying on the . He held many great offices, was a faithful general to his unfortunate king Charles I.; and defended York against the Scotch. When the king's cause became hopeless, he fled, and continued a long time in exile. His wife shared in all his sufferings with the utmost fortitude. During his bannishment she wrote many pleasing works.

On a pillar are tablets, to Clement Saunders, , aged , and Grace Scott Mauleverer, , aged .

The next is a magnificent monument of white marble,

Sacred to the memory of sir Peter Warren, K. B. vice-admiral of the Red squadron of the British fleet, and M. P. for the city and liberties of Westminster. He derived his descent from an ancient family of Ireland; his fame and honours from his virtues and abilities.

How eminently these were displayed, with what vigilance and spirit they were exerted in the various services wherein he had the honour to command, and the happiness to conquer, will be more properly recorded in the annals of Great Britain. On this tablet affection, with truth, must say that deservedly esteemed in private life, and universally renowned for his public conduct, the judicious and gallant officer possessed all the amiable qualities of the friend, the gentleman and the Christian. But the Almighty, whom alone he feared, and whose gracious protection he had often experienced, was pleased to remove him from a life of honour to an eternity of happiness on the 29th day of July, 1752, in the 49th year of his age. Susannah, his afflicted wife, caused this monument to be erected.

81

 

Britannia with a withered laurel in her hand, inclines towards the bust of the admiral, which a fine figure of Hercules places on its pedestal. It is admirably executed, even to the marks of the small-pox on the face. Although the statue of Britannia is very excellent, it is objectionable on account of her wet garment. An ensign is the back ground; and the whole is worthy of its author, Roubiliac.

Adjoining is a tomb, consisting of a pedestal and Corinthian pillars, with a pediment, weeping children, cherubim, and a canopy, erected by Dame Elizabeth Campbell (who died , aged years) to her brother sir Gilbert Lort, bart. who died , aged years.

Over it a tablet and bust by Tyler:

To the memory of John Storr, esq. of Hilston, in the county of York, rear admiral of the red squadron of his majesty's fleet. In his profession, a brave and gallant officer; in private life a tender husband, an honest man, and a sincere friend. He was born

August the 18th, 1709

, died

January the 10

h,

1788

, and interred near this place.

Considerably higher up is a small neat tablet, with a Latin inscription: it was erected by the late dean of , Dr. Vincent, to the memory of his wife Hannah, who died .

Many of the inscriptions on the pavement are worn away, and there are numbers that have had brass inlaid, of which a few fragments remain.

In the north transept are large blue flag-stones, with inscriptions to the memory of the following illustrious personages: the right hon. William Pitt, the marquis of Londonderry, and the right hon. George Canning.

A few marks of the ancient screen, which passed north and south from pillar to pillar, forming the east aisle into chapels, remain at the back of sir Gilbert Lort's monument. This was part of

St. John the Evangelist's Chapel,

St. Michael's Chapel,

St. Andrew's Chapel.

Whose altar was the on entering the aisle. Those who heard mass at it were rewarded with an indulgence of years and days. A few yards farther stood the altar of St. Michael; and at the north end St. Andrew had an altar, accompanied by the same inducements to hear mass. Dart says, that the screens were very richly painted and gilt, but they are now entirely demolished, and the laid into .

On the east side is niche and several beautiful arches, part of the side of abbot Islips chantry.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] Malcolm, i. 101.

[] Mal. Lond. Red. i. 120.

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 Title Page
 Dedication
CHAPTER I: Site, local divisions, and government of the City of Westminster; history of the Abbey; Coronation Ceremonies; and lists of the Abbots and Deans
CHAPTER II: Westminster Abbey, and Description of the Tombs and Monuments
CHAPTER III: History and Topography of St. Margaret's Parish
CHAPTER IV: History and Topography of St. John's Parish, Westminster
CHAPTER V: History and Topography of the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, Westminster
CHAPTER VI: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. James, Westminster
CHAPTER VII: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Anne, Westminster
CHAPTER VIII: History and Topography of the parish of St. Paul, Covent Garden
CHAPTER IX: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Mary-le-strand
CHAPTER X: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. Clement Danes
CHAPTER XI: History and Topography of the parish of st. George, Hanover Square
CHAPTER XII: History and Topography of the Precinct of the Savoy
CHAPTER XIII: History and Topography of the Inns of Court
CHAPTER XIV: History and Topography of the Precincts of the Charter-house and Ely Place, and the Liberty of the Rolls
 CHAPTER XV: Historical Notices of the Borough of Southwark
CHAPTER XVI: History and Topography of the Parish of St. Olave, Southwark
CHAPTER XVII: History and Topography of the parish of St. John, Southwark
CHAPTER XVIII: History and Topography of the parish of St. Thomas, Southwark
CHAPTER XIX: History and Topogrpahy of the parish of St. George's, Southwark
CHAPTER XX: History and Topography of St. Saviour's Parish
CHAPTER XXI: History and Topography of the parist of Christ-church in the County of Surrey
 CHAPTER XXII: A List of the Principal Books, &c that have been published in Illustration of the Antiquities, History, Topography, and other subjects treated of in this Work
 Addenda et Corrigienda
 Postscript