Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 1
Lambe's Chapel and Alms-Houses: , Cripplegate.
Though a sequestered situation was originally an indispensable quality of the cells of those religious solitaries called hermits,—their habitations in later times were often of a more social character; and were frequently constructed in church-yards at chapels, at the ends of bridges and the gates of towns:[*] and the site of the present establishment once afforded a curious instance of a hermitage erected on a wall of the City of London. The founder of it is stated in a patent of Edward I. to have been Henry III., his father; but though it be in that, as well as in several other authentic instruments, always entitled only a hermitage, it appears to have been from the very , both in its appointments, and the importance attached to its advowson, in reality a small chantry-chapel, endowed for a single priest. It is accordingly so denominted in the following covenant, which is the earliest instrument relating to it now in print; and which was translated and published from the original in the possession of Sir Henry Spelman, in the
added to , , small folio, page .
A very ancient Deed to prove Lambe's Chapel to have been anciently in the Parish of St. Olave, .
Know all men, present and to come, that I, Laurence de Frowik, have granted and demised, and by this present charter of mine have confirmed, unto Richard of Clerkenwell, Chaplain, all that land of mine, with the houses, buildings, and appurtenances, which I have in London, in Muckwell Street, in the Parish of St. Olave; lying between that land which William Throtegos held of me towards the south, and the land of the Friars of the New Hostel towards the north: and which extendeth itself in length from the King's highway, even unto the Wall of the City towards the west, &c. He paying me Shillings a year, &c. and giving unto the Church of St. Olave, aforesaid, Wax Candle of a pound weight, at the Feast of St. Thomas the Apostle yearly: and unto the Chapel of the Close or cloister within Creplegate, at the upper end of Muckwell Street, towards the north, other Wax Taper of Quarters of a pound weight, upon the Feast of St. James, yearly, &c.—Witness Nicholas Bat, then Mayor of London,[*] John of Northampton, and Richard Pycard, then Sheriffs, &c. Anno .
The name of this Chapel does not actually occur in the preceding grant, but the land referred to in it is considered to be identified with that now forming the court-yard of the present alms-houses by circumstances:—namely, firstly, by the description of the boundaries,—the City wall on the west, and the Friars of the New Hostel, or the French Order of the Hospital of St. Giles, on the north;[*] and, secondly, by the latter taper mentioned in the covenant being offered on St. James's day, at the Chapel at the upper end of Muckwell Street, which was originally known by the name of the Chapel of St. James in the Wall. Having been of royal foundation, the original presentation belonged to the King, who, when it was vacant, appointed also the guardian to watch over its property, and the revenues assigned for its support; which guardian, in , is shewn by the following instrument to have been the Lord Mayor of London: in all probability Henry de Walleis, who filled that office in , and again from to , and also in .
It appears, however, that the spoliation complained of still continued, and it is probable that the care of a small establishment like the present was found inconvenient with the numerous important duties of the chief magistrate; and therefore in the custody was transferred to the Constable of the Tower, who, at this time, was Anthony Bek, afterwards Bishop of Durham.[*]
As it is probable that both of these keepers proved alike unfitted for the custody of a narrow chapel on the City Wall, it was subsequently placed with its inhabitant, under the inspection of the Abbey of Garendon in Leicestershire; the recognition of the government of which appears in .[*] By this period the character of the social hermits had very much degenerated; many appear to have become such that they might pass their lives in indolence,[*] and the following instance connected with the present hermitage, shews that they availed themselves of the popular esteem in which they were held, to assume a power to which they had no sort of right.
—By a Patent, dated , the custody of this was committed to Walter Kemesey;[*] and it is noted by Leland,[*] that in the year of Edward III., , William de Lions was the hermit of this chapel. He had probably been placed there by the Abbot of Garendon, to whom the King had mortgaged the hermitage the year before.[**] To this chapel also the same Abbot and Convent sent chaplains of their house and order, (Cistercian) to celebrate divine service for the soul of Audomar de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, deceased, and for the good estate of that of Maria de St. Paul, his surviving widow, in return for her gift of tenements, in the suburbs of London in , the others within the city in Sherebourne Lane. The indenture by which this grant is made, is dated on the Nativity, , and provides that the monk appointed to this service should be presented to the Countess for her approval during her life; and afterwards to the Mayor of London for ever: the rents of the said tenement to be applied solely to the maintenance of the priest, and support of the hermitage.[*] It is probable, however, that the Corporation of London still possessed some authority over this foundation, since by a Royal Charter on the Patent Roll of the year of Edward III., -, membrane ,
which instrument Bishop Tanner considers to refer rather to the Chapel of St. James upon the Wall, than to the Hospital of St. Giles without Cripplegate.[*] Possibly it might have been thus assigned to the City by the King, as a recompense for having assisted him to clear off the mortgage upon it held by the Abbot of Garendon: and perhaps it was on this account that the chantry-priest sent from that house was ordered to be presented for approval to the Lord Mayor of London after the death of the Countess of Pembroke. of these presentations is entered in the City Records, and the following is a translated copy of it.[*]
or Chapel on the Wall having thus become an established residence for monks, Stow observes that
but however natural and probable this derivation may be, it has been already shewn that the place was entitled Street in the century; in Aggas's Plan of London about it is called Street; and Stow himself writes it Street in another part of his As the chaplains of this chantry were appointed to be priests sent from the Abbey of Garendon, it is probable that they very soon claimed an exemption from the authority of the Bishop of London, though residing in his Diocess; under precedents said to have been introduced by Austin and Theodore, Archbishops of Canterbury, that monks were to be subject to their own Abbots only. By a sentence, however, dated , and confirmed in , the Chapel of St. James, with other pretended exemptions, was restored to the Diocess of London.[*] The ancient hermitage appears to have been suppressed long previous, since it was granted , the year of Henry VIII., to William Lambe,[*] the benevolent citizen whose name is now unalienably attached to the spot; he was a Gentleman of the King's Chapel, in considerable favour with his Sovereign; and a Clothworker by Company and occupation.
Stow relates, however, that in the reign of Edward VI. he bought the hermitage and appurtenances, which he gave to the Clothworkers of London with other tenements, and died in the year .[*]
[*] The truth of all this discrepancy of dates appears to have been elicited by the evidence produced to the Parliament Commissioners appointed to enquire concerning Public Charities;[*] by which it is shewn that several years before even the year assigned above for the present foundation, Lambe had begun to make legal arrangements for it. By an indenture dated , between the Master and Wardens of the Company of Clothworkers, on the part; and the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, on the other part; after reciting that William Lambe of London, Gentleman, intended to declare his last will of certain premises in the Parishes of St. James upon the Wall nigh Cripplegate, St. Stephen , and St. Olave , and to bequeath them to the said Master and Wardens;—it is covenanted That the said Master and Wardens should, after his decease, yearly, upon the , and upon each of the Feast days of St. Stephen, the Annunciation St. Mary the Virgin, and the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, cause a Sermon to be preached in the Chapel of St. James upon the Wall; at which of their livery should be present: the preacher to receive for his sermon, and the clothworkers each. That the said Master and Wardens should, after his decease cause gowns to be given to men, at the yearly expense of . ; and the like to as many women at the cost of . ; with shirts to men, value . ; and smocks to women, value . ; and also yearly to provide pairs of shoes for the same: all such articles being distributed in the Church or Chapel of St. James, aforesaid, on the , the recipients being poor and aged, impotent and lame, persons, who should be present at all the sermons. It is farther covenanted that if the Chamberlain, Town-Clerk, or Under-Chamberlain, of London, or any of them, should be present at that sermon to see this duly performed, the said Master and Wardens should pay them each. After the decease of Lambe, the Master and Wardens of the Clothworkers' Company are also to find a chaplain to say divine service in the said chapel on every Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday, and decently to preserve the building. It is provided, however, that if the said William Lambe should not by his will freely convey the said premises to the said Master and Wardens, to their own proper use for ever, the preceding covenant should be void. —To this explicit agreement there is but little to be added from the actual will of the benefactor concerning the present establishment. He gave by it his dwelling-house in London, including all messuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, whatsoever, with their appurtenances,
From these premises, however, the yearly sum of . was to be paid to the Stationers' Company for the perpetual relief of the poor in the Parish
|Church of St. Faith, in the Crypt under ; in money, and in bread, every Friday throughout the year.[*]|
In the present state of this charity, the persons partaking of it annually receive their clothing with a donation of each, on the : the men having a complete modern suit of broad cloth, a shirt, shoes, and stockings; and the women materials for a gown, cloak, &c. with shoes and stockings, being allowed them for making up their own clothes. The Chamberlain and Town Clerk of London, as well as many members of the Clothworkers' Company, are usually present at the annual sermon when these clothes are given at Lambe's Chapel in ;[*] the pensioners themselves also attending them in their new habits. The other sermons ordered by the indenture are likewise preached yearly in the same Chapel. In addition to this charity endowed by Lambe, the Clothworkers' Company has thought it proper, out of the surplus rents of his bequest, to devote . in pensions of . to poor members of the same who are styled
though they are indebted for this benefaction to the volantary benevolence of the Court, by which they are appointed for life.
Although the ravages of the Great Fire extended along the outer side of that part of the City wall against which Lambe's Chapel was erected, it appears to have only partially damaged the ancient edifice; since even at the rebuilding of it considerable vestiges remained of a Crypt, which seemed to be of a period yet older than that of the foundation of the hermitage-chapel by Henry III. Of this place an interesting account, with a plate containing groundplan and some architectural details, both by Mr. A. J. Kempe, was published in the for , Vol. xcv. page , plate ii. He there states that the recent demolition of the upper part of Lambe's Chapel for the purpose of rebuilding it, gave access to the curious vault occupying the space beneath. After descending or narrow steps, a low vaulted chamber was entered, feet long from east to west, and feet broad; having in it originally short round columns, of which were remaining, supporting the groined roof of the apartment. The capitals of these columns were Saxon, ornamented with leaves and volutes at the angles, and the capitals of the corner pillars were placed diagonally to the square of the building. Some of the intersecting stone ribs springing from the columns were plain, and others were adorned with zig-zag, twisted, and other ancient mouldings; specimens of which, with of the pillars, and a plan of the directions of the arches, are given on the right hand of the lower part of the present Engraving of old Lambe's Chapel. On the other side of the corresponding part of the same Plate is a Section of the ornamented mouldings from of the arches; and leaning against the wall, in the Interior View at the top of the Plate, is represented a Ground-plan of the Crypt, with the Outside of the Chapel. The material of which this Crypt was constructed was freestone, of a reddish colour, the surface being very considerably decomposed; and several modern brick walls intersected the building.
It will be seen, however, by the annexed View of the late Lambe's Chapel, that there were considerable alterations made in it upon repairing after the Great Fire. The south and east walls containing the arched windows were probably in great part ancient; but the square windows on the north were doubtless of a much later period. The whole structure also appears to have been beautified in , which year is inscribed in the pediment of the arch under which appears the old half-length figure of the founder beneath the eastern window of the Chapel. His effigy is dressed in the livery gown of his Company, with a flat cap; holding a purse in the right hand and gloves in the left: the ornamented elliptical arch around it is supported by square pyramidal pilasters, and the date in the pediment is divided by a shield bearing the arms of the Company of Clothworkers. Immediately beneath this figure was an oaken chair in which the Master of the Company sat at the annual sermons; and there were also seats for the other officers and members, and benches for the pensioners. In the great window above were small paintings on glass of wholelength figures of the Saints James the Apostle, Peter, Matthew, and Matthias, standing beneath arches.[*] The dimensions of the Chapel represented in the Plate were feet in length from east to west, by feet in breadth: it was furnished with a small upright stone font, a bell, and a pulpit and reading-desk; and at the altar was a painting of Moses, with the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, and Creed, upon panels between Corinthian columns: at the west end
| were the Royal arms. Many of these decorations were probably made at the time recorded in the following inscription on each of the side windows at the eastern extremity:—|
As a chapel established by law private marriages and burials were performed in the present foundation; there was also a register of them formerly belonging to it, the following extracts from which were published by the Rev. John Strype.[*]
A few grave stones were contained in the Chapel, from some of which the brass-plates had been taken away, but on others they were remaining; and in there appeared also the following inscriptions.
Adjoining to this was another stone, with a small brass plate containing a lion rampant in a lozenge; beside which there had been formerly other brasses, the above, and the other beneath, the shield, but they were wanting at the time this account was written. About inches farther appeared a gravestone, also containing a brass plate of a lozenge charged with a lion rampant, with the ensuing inscription.
Previous to the rebuilding of this edifice it stood on the northern side of a small irregular square of buildings with a long narrow entry, called , at the north-western corner of ; its northern and western boundaries being an angle of the City wall with the hollow base of a watch-tower at the corner, and the church yard of St. Giles Cripplegate beyond it. This watch-tower is conjectured to be most probably that mentioned as a boundary in the Charter of William I. to the Canons of le Grand, in ,
from the northern angle of the City wall.[*]
It was stated in the account of Lambe's charity given to the Parliamentary Commissioners, that in the repairs of this Chapel amounted to . , and that it was apprehended that when the lease of the eighteen messuages adjoining on each side of it should expire, the Court of the Company would be required to take down and rebuild the whole. The term for which they were held was years from Midsummer ;[*] and accordingly in the Chapel was rebuilt with Alms-houses, of rooms each, on the original site, the latter being in the Tudor style of domestic architecture. A small part of this structure is now brought forward into ; namely, a narrow gate, and the side of the Clerk's house, ornamented with a panel and the Clothworkers' arms sculptured in stone. The form of the area within is irregular, and at the north-west corner is a small arch leading into a piece of greensward occupying the circular base of the ancient watch-tower on the City wall. The Chapel is erected upon the old foundations, and is fitted up within with the greatest plainness and propriety, with a pointed roof, divided into squares by dark oaken ribs and pendants; and light oaken pews, desks and pulpit. At the western end is the original effigy of the founder, let into the wall, and painted in a black cap and red gown; above it is the large old painting of the Royal arms; and on the north wall beside it is a panel containing a carving of the Clothworkers' arms, coloured and gilded. Below this is the small stone font shewn in the Plate, and beneath the founder's figure are chairs
|for the Beadles of the Company at the annual sermons. The bells hang in a gallery over the porch of the chapeldoor, appropriated to the sextoness; the pensioners' seats are on each side the west end of the building; a fair altar with the Creed, &c. occupies the east; and under the south windows is a handsome pew for the Master and Wardens of the Company, immediately opposite the pulpit. Behind the latter is the vestry, and in a small yard beside it, is the door to the ancient crypt beneath, which has been carefully preserved; the entrance to it is under a small but beautiful round Norman arch of a red-coloured stone, composed of fragments from the ancient building. The Alms-houses which are now attached to this Chapel are appropriated to poor freemen of the Company, dressers or workers of cloth, who receive per annum each with a chaldron of coals.|
It is not, however, upon the establishment of this Chapel and the preceding charities alone, that the memory of William Lambe is left to rest; since his whole fortune was employed alike in extensive acts of benevolence during his life, as well as in permanent endowments at his death: of all which the following additional and noble summary is given by Stow.[*]
The other benefactions of Lambe, with his epitaph, have been already given; but the present article will be most appropriately concluded by some account of that public fountain erected by him which is referred to in the preceding extract, and which is still kept in memory in the name of . The original situation and establishment of the City cistern of this Conduit is thus related by Stow.[*]
The actual spot indicated in this description and the older plans of London, is the centre of an area formed by the endings of , , and Bridge, near the west end of ; which in reality lay the extent of the Great Fire of London, though its ravages are popularly said to have terminated at Pye Corner, at the eastern end of entering Smithfield; and, therefore, the ancient Lambe's Conduit was most probably destroyed in that conflagration.[*]
The account of William Lambe and his benefactions by Sir John Hawkins, was originally published in the edition of Capt. Francis Grose's , , Vol. IV. No. vii. pages -, and it is there observed that about years before that time a Conduit was standing near the same spot, though dry, as all the City conduits then were. The ground plan of this erection was an equal-sided quadrangle, having a kind of rustic basement for about feet high, in which was the pipe whence the water issued. Above this the square form still continued, presenting to view faces, each containing a spacious oblong panel in the centre, with Corinthian columns at the sides, surmounted by entablatures, consisting of frieze, cornice, and arched pediment, the latter enclosing a cartouche shield. From each of the angles the roof rose up in an elegant concave line, forming a tent-like termination, on the apex of which stood a lamb, the rebus of the founder's name, with his head towards . This description is stated by Hawkins to have been given from memory, and he adds that the style of building was considerably later than that of , being of such pure and classical architecture as to have been worthy of Sir Christopher Wren himself; but he appears to have known nothing of the actual date of the erection. It was in reality designed by that eminent architect, and a modern engraving[*] of the south face shews that it was inscribed on the great panel,
The plate also shews that ; and that the water issued from a lion's head. Hawkins supposes that it was perhaps from its convenient situation and the elegance of its form, that this conduit was allowed to stand some years after those at , , &c. had been taken down; which, however, for nearly half a century previous to their demolition had been left dry: their waters having been intercepted or cut off[*] on account of the more copious supply from the Thames and the , which had rendered most of them useless. Lambe's Conduit remained, therefore, opposite the end of , until about the year ; when, though a carriage could not approach it without difficulty, it was considered to be an obstruction and removed. An obelisk, with lamps round it, was erected on the site, which was also soon after taken down by the City Commissioners of Pavements. The fountain, or spring-head, of this Conduit, though it has ceased to supply the bason at , was rebuilt by the City near the north end of , but was also removed
| at the time of erecting the , and the water conveyed to the eastern side of the street; whence the npper half of it from is now called . The access to the water was then by steps leading down to the pipe whence it issued; and some particulars of its history were preserved in the following inscription which was placed above.[*] |
In this memorial appears to have been removed, the steps and other stones taken down, a brick arch only remaining, and preparations made for building upon the site.[*] A stone, however, was still remaining on the north side of , , at the house of — Ulyate, a watchmaker, which contained the following inscription, and possibly indicated a branch only of the ancient spring.
Subsequently there appears to have been added,
[*] At the present time both the sites of the Conduit and the Spring are left
The former, however, may be considered as the centre of that triangular area behind on the north, formed by the arms of and , originally ; and the latter as having been about the middle of that pile of building between and the stable yard of the Lamb public-house, on the eastern side of .
[*] Index Monasticus by Richard Taylor of Norwich. Lond. 1821. fol. pp. 65, 66. It cannot be doubted, however, that the name of hermit is derived from *)erhmos, a wilderness, *)erhmi/ths, a solitary.
[*] It does not appear by the list of the Lords Mayors given in Strype's Stow's Survey of London, 1720, Vol. II. Book v. Chap. vi. p. 104, that this Nicholas Bat was Mayor in the year the above grant is dated, or ever filled that oflice at all; though his name stands as Sheriff, in 1247, and again with that of Laurence Forwicke, by whom this grant was made, in 1251. The Mayor of 1252 was Adam Basing; of 1253 John Tolason, Draper; and of 1254, Richard Hardell, Draper; who was continued in office until 1258: but it is possible that Nicholas Bat was made Custos, or Locum Tenens, upon the actual Mayor being displaced, as he might have been in 1253, when it is stated that the liberties of this City were seized, and the Mayor charged, that he looked not to the assise of bread. Again, also, in 1255 it is observed that the Mayor, divers Aldermen, and the Sheriffs of London, were deprived, and others placed in their rooms. A Gerard Bat was Mayor in 1240, the 25th of Henry III.
[*] The preceding grant is dated 1253, the 37th and 38th of Henry III., but the period when the Hospital of the French Order of St. Giles without Cripplegate is generally stated to have flourished, is the reign of Edward I., at least twenty years subsequent. Stow's Survey of London, by Strype, Vol. I. Book iii. chap. vi. p. 88. Notitia Monastica, by Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph. Edit. by Rev. James Nasmith, Lond. 1787. fol. Middlesex VIII. 36.
[*] Patent Rolls, 3rd Edward I. Membrane 16. Dorso:—De Heremitagio juxta Crepilgate:—cited in Wm. Prynne's Chronological Vindication and Historical Demonstration of our British, Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman, and English, Kings Supreme Ecclesiatical Jurisdiction over all spiritual or religious affairs. Vol. iii. p. 161. Lond. 1670. fol.
[*] History of the Tower of London, by John Bayley, Esq. Lond. 1825. 4to. part. ii. p. 659.
[*] Patent Rolls, 9th Edward I. xii. Membr. 10. dorso:—De custode deputatio ad Heremitagium juxta Cripelgate. Cited by Prynne as before, Vol. iii. p. 269.—Another document concerning this place of nearly the same period, appears on the Patent Roll of the 20th of Edward I. 1291-92, Membr. 18. Pro Heremita de Criplegate, Lond.
[*] Patent Roll, 27th of Edward I., 1298-99. Heremus Sancti Jacobi in muro Juxta Crepelgate, London. Spectavit Abbathiæ de Gerendon, Com. Leic. Cited in Thomas Hearne's Collectanea of John Leland. Edit. Lond. 1774. 8vo. Vol. I. p. 112.
[*] British Monachism, by the Rev. T. D. Fosbroke. Lond. 1817. 4to. p. 505.
[*] Repertorium Parochiale Londinense, by Richard Newcourt. Lond. 1708. fol. Vol. i. p. 369; citing the first volume of Episcopal Records in the Bishop of London's Registry, containing the Acts of Bishop Baldock or Baudake, &c. from 1306 to 1337, and thence called Baudake, fol. 29. Preface to Newcourt, p. iv.
[*] Patent Rolls, 9th Edward II. cited in The History and Antiquities of the County of Leicester, by John Nichols. Vol. iii. part. ii. Lond. 1804. fol. p. 840.
[*] Collectanea, Vol. i. p. 112.
[**] First Patent Roll, 15th Edward III., 1341-42, Membr. 34. Rex amortizavit Abbatti de Gerondon Heremitagium juxta Cripplegate, London.
[*] Leland's Collectanea, Vol. i. p. 112.—Nichols' Hist. Leicestershire. Vol. iii. part. ii. pp. 840, 795, from a volume of original records in the office of the Town Clerk of the City of London, marked F. fol. clii.—Maria, Countess of Pembroke, was the daughter of Guy Châtilion, Earl of St. Paul, and was third wife to Aymer de Valence, who was killed at a tournament on his marriage day, when attending Queen Isabel into France, 23rd June, 1324, 17th Edward II. She soon after renounced the world, and devoted herself to acts of piety and charity; becoming also the foundress of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, in 1343, Denny Abbey of St. Clare, &c. and died in 1377. The tenement in Fleet Street mentioned above, is stated in her grant to be of the gift of William de Hales, Esq. and that in Sherebourne Lane to have been had from Gilbert he Palmer; but in 1312-13, 6th of Edward II., the Earl of Pembroke received a grant from the King in general-tail of the house and place called the New Temple, London; as also certain lands called Fleet Crofts, with all the other lands in the City and suburbs of London which belonged to the Templars. The Baronage of England, by Sir William Dugdale Lond. 1675. fol. Vol. I. pp. 777, 778.
[*] Notitia Monastica. VIII. Middlesex 36.—In the same work, VIII. Middlesex 10, is a reference to another charter relating to this establishment on the Patent Rolls of the 5th of Richard II., 1381-82, part. 2. Membrane. 26, De Heremitagio Sancti Jacobi, juxta Crepilgate, London.
[*] Nichols' Hist. of Leicestershire, Vol. iii. part. ii. p. 840, citing a book in the City records marked I. fol. vi. a.
[*] Newcourt's Repertorium, Vol. i. p. 369, from Bp. London's Registry, vol. Bonner, fol. 275.
[*] Ibid.—from the collection of Mr. William Grime.—Sir John Hawkins observes in his Account of Lamb's Conduit, Lamb's Chapel, and William Lamb, printed in The Antiquarian Repertory, Lond. 1807, 4to. Vol. i. p. 359, that he must have aquired his wealth elsewhere than as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal; his salary in that situation being only 7 1/2d. per day. His name does not appear in the list of the King's Chapel under Edward VI.
[*] Survey of London, Vol. I. Book iii. chap. viii. p. 128.
[*] Newcourt's Repertorium, Vol. i. p. 369.
[*] Sixth Report, 1821, p. 219.
[*] In this church Lambe was buried, and there is a reference to the above bequest in the following epitaph to his memory; which is stated by Sir William Dugdale to have been engraven on a brass plate, and affixed to a pillar in the nave of the open church beneath. William Lambe, so sometime was my name Whiles I alive dyd runne my mortal race, Serving a Prince of most immortall fame, Henry the Eight; who, of his princely grace, In his chapéll allowed me a place; By whose favóur from Gentleman to Esquire I was preferr'd, with worship for my hire. With Wivés three I joyned wedlock band, Which, while alive, true lovers were to me; Jane, Alice, Joane, for so they came to hand, What needeth prayse recording their degree? In wively truth none stedfast more could be: Who though on Earth Death's force did once dissever, Heaven yet I trust shall join us altogether. Oh, Lambe of God! which sinne didst take away, And as a Lambe was offred up for sinne; When I, poor Lambe, went from thy flock astray, Yet Thou, Good Lord! vouchsafe thy Lambe to winne Home to thy folde, and hold thy Lambe therein! That, at the day when Lambes and Goats shall sever, Of thy choice Lambes LAMBE may be one for ever! I pray you all that receive Bread and Pence To say the Lord's Prayer before you go hence.
[*] The modern gratuity presented by the Clothworkers' Company to these officers for their attendance, is 10s. each to the Chamberlain and Town-Clerk, and 14s. to the four members of the Company appointed by the indenture to be present. Sixth Report on Charities, p 221.
[*] These paintings, with the effigy of Lambe, are engraven in Nichols' Hist. of Leicestershire, Vol. iii. part. ii. p. 843, plate cxvi. The effigy was also copied for the Account of Lamb's Conduit, &c. by Sir John Hawkins; Antiquarian Repertory, Vol. i. p. 357. Other copies of these figures are likewise inserted in the Gentleman's Magazine for Jan. 1782, Vol. liii. p. 27, and J. P. Malcolm's Londinum Redivivum, Vol. ii. Lond. 1803, 4to. p. 317.
[*] Nichols' Hist. of Leicestershire, Vol. iii. part. ii. p. 841.
[*] Stow's Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, Lond. 1720, fol. Vol. I. Book iii. chap. vi. p. 81. See also Nichols' Hist. of Leicestershire as last cited. This Register appears now to be lost, since it is one of the private Chapel records enquired for in the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1831, Vol. ci. part. i. p. 296.
[*] Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. xcv. part. i. p. 401. Mr. A. J. Kempe's Historical Notices of the Collegiate Church, &c. of St. Martin's-le- Grand. Lond. 1825. 8vo. p. 174. It may here be noticed that Lambe's Chapel stands in Cripplegate Ward; though Monkwell-street and Barber-Surgeon's Hall are described by Stow in the Ward of Farringdon Within. Survey of London, Vol. I. Book ii. chap. viii. p. 128. Chap. vi. p. 90.
[*] Sixth Report, p. 220, 221.
[*] Stow's Summarie of Chronicles. Lond. 1579. Small 4to. Anno 1577. Survey of London by Strype, Vol. I. Book i. Chap. xxx. p. 265.
[*] Survey of London, by Strype, Vol. I. Book iii. chap. xii. p. 245.
[*] An exact Surveigh of the Streets, Lanes, and Chvrches, comprehended within the Rvins of the City of London, first described in Six Plats, 10th December, Ao. Domi. 1666. By the Order and Directions of the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Councell of the said City. John Leake, John Jennings, Willm Marr, Willm Leyborne, Thomas Streete, Richard Shortgrave, Surveyors: And Reduced into one intire plat by John Leake, for the use of the Commissioners for the regulation of Streets, Lanes, &c. Copied by G. Vertue, 1723.
[*] Quarter-sheet print. Levens sculpsit. Published by A. Beugo, 38, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, July 20th. 1810.
[*] It is observed in an article of remarks on the account of Lambe's Chapel, &c. by Sir John Hawkins, printed in the Gentleman's Magazine for March 1782, Vol. liii. p. 189, that the reason for the City conduits being dried up, was that about the time referred to they were let to the proprietors of the London Bridge Water Works for 700l. per annum; which was perhaps at the great regulation of those works in the year 1701. It is added that many persons living at the time the article was written well remembered the taking up of numbers of leaden pipes all over the City, which had been used for the passage of the water to the conduits. The supply of these reservoirs was also entirely cut off by the Fire of 1666; and in an official MS. book of the Expences of erecting Public Buildings in London after the Great Fire, preserved in the City Library at Guildhall, are the following entries, fol. 33a. For Aldgate Conduct, out of the Chamber Cashe. 1670, Septr. 24th. Paid Tho. Whiting, Joyner, for regaining the water to Aldgate Conduct 80 00 00 Octr. 13th. Paid Mr. Whiting more on the said Accott . . . . . . . . . . 100 00 00 Decr. 24th. Do. . Do.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 00 00 1672, March 14th. Do. in full of two bills, in recovering the water to Aldgate Conduct . 172 15 19 In The Burning of London, commemorated and improved in One Hundred and Ten Discourses, Meditations, and Contemplations, by Samuel Rolle. Lond. 1667, 8vo. Meditation xl. is entitled The Spoiling of the City Conduits.
[*] In the description of the Fountains, Bridges, Conduits, &c. of the metropolis in Edward Hatton's New View of London, 1708, 8vo. vol. ii. p. 789, it is stated concerning this aqueduct, that Lamb's Conduit at the north end of Red Lion Street near the fields, affords plenty of water, clear as chrystal, which is chiefly used for drinking. It belongs to St. Sepulchre's Parish, the fountain-head being under a stone marked S. S. P. in the vacant ground a little southward of Ormond Street, whence the water comes in a drain to this Conduit, and thence it runs in leaden pipes to the Conduit on Snow Hill, which has the figure of a lamb upon it, denoting that the water comes from Lamb's Conduit. It may be here observed that this spring was actually in the Parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, though some jurisdiction of it was claimed by that of St. Sepulchre because the Conduit itself stood within the limits of the latter Parish. It is stated in the Gentleman's Magazine for March, 1782, Vol. liii. part. i. p. 189, that an inhabitant of the neighbourhood a short time previous having considerably sunken his cellar for the formation of a cold bath, it greatly injured the spring of this Conduit by drawing off the water: and that the City had then recently made an offer to St. Andrew's Parish to take charge of the aqueduct in future; which appears to have been declined.
[*] Antiquarian Repertory, Vol. i. p. 324. Sir John Hawkins's Account of Lambe, &c. is reprinted in the Gentleman's Magazine, for January and February, 1782, Vol. liii. pp. 27, 134-138, with a copy of the effigy of Lambe and the four small paintings of Saints from his Chapel.
[*] Ibid.—Ibid. for August, 1788, Vol. lviii. part. ii. p. 672.