Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 1

Wilkinson, Robert


Chapels at the Eastern End of the Church of St. Saviour, Southwark: In the Ward of Bridge Without, in the County of Surrey.

Chapels at the Eastern End of the Church of St. Saviour, Southwark: In the Ward of Bridge Without, in the County of Surrey.


This most splendid and interesting edifice, in its magnitude and arrangement is little less spacious and complete than a regular Cathedral. It is esteemed the largest Parochial Church in Great Britain, being feet in length, cruciform in shape, and once comprised within it a nave, choir, exterior side-aisles, transepts, the Church or Chapel of St. Margaret on the south of the choir, the Chapel of St. John, afterwards the vestry, at the north-east corner, and Retro-Chapels at the extreme east; for morning prayers, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, now so extensively known under the name of the Lady Chapel, and another smaller, lately projecting from it, called the Bishop's Chapel, from containing the vault and monument of Launcelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester. A general account of this edifice has been already given, and the present notices are intended for the illustration of the Chapels at the eastern end; excepting that their history cannot be separated from that of the late beautiful and meritorious restoration of the Church itself. In the modern Exterior Views the former of those Chapels is represented with gables, and a covered turret. in the back-ground; and the Bishop's Chapel is seen projecting from it on the south-east. The Eastern View is shewn to have been taken during Mr. Gwilt's fine restoration of the choir of , contracted for in , during the formation of the new and beautiful eastern rose window, and before the erection of the rich foliated cross upon the gable above it.

With respect to the history of the Lady Chapel, it is supposed that it cannot be older than the rebuilding of a great part of , after a fire early in the century.[a]  The rebuilding was commenced under Peter De Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, from A.D. to ; and is thus recorded in a MS. Chronicle of the century in the Harleian Collection,[b] 

Johannis Anno X


. (


). In yis yere was ye firste maire of london, And Seynt Marie Ouerie was y


yere begonne.

As the architecture of the nave is of a style than that of the choir, and the character of the tower and transepts is , the choir and Retro-Chapel were most probably the parts destroyed; and even if the record had been wanting, the solid clustered-columns and narrow-pointed arches, with the lancet-windows and plain intersected ribs of the roof, are sufficient evidences of a building of the century. Its completion has been assigned to some period between A.D. and A.D. , upon the evidence of a window on the south side of the Lady Chapel, consisting of a large arch comprising smaller with trefoil-heads, surmounted by circles enclosing quatrefoils; evidently belonging to an age much later than the plain gables, and triple lancet-windows of the eastern extremity of the building though the forms and arrangement of the principal arches, will not admit of it being assigned to a period from the time when this part of the Church was commenced. The real date is probably pointed out by the circumstance that in A.D. , Walter, Archbishop of York, granted days indulgence to all who should contribute to the fabric of this Church,[c]  which proves that the edifice was unfinished; and the style of the window referred to agrees with some in that part of known to have been built between A.D. and A.D. , or from the year of Henry III. to the year of Edward I.[d] 

The architecture shews that it was probably at a time not very distant from the same period, that the smaller Chapel, extending from the eastern end of the Lady Chapel, was erected against the exterior division of that building. An interior entrance to it was formed by the removal of of the triple lancet-windows, with part of the adjoining piers, a large pointed open arch being turned in their place: and the pavement made low steps higher than that of the Virgin's Chapel.[e]  Though this edifice were doubtless originally dedicated to some particular saint, and constructed by a particular founder, the names of both are unknown, and it probably received the general modern title of the Bishop's Chapel in , upon the interment of Launcelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, against the great east window. The monument erected to him occupied nearly the whole of the east end, and consisted of an altar-tomb of black and white marble, raised upon a base, and enclosed with railing. Upon it was laid a whole length effigy of the Bishop, the size of life, habited in his cassock and robe, as Prelate of the Garter,[f]  with his feet to the east; from which end of the tomb a large perpendicular architectural tablet was raised against the window bearing an inscription, and surmounted by a pediment containing his armorial ensigns, between carved sitting figures of Justice and Fortitude. There appears to have been a general belief, however, that Bishop Andrews was buried in the cemetery belonging to the adjoining Winchester Palace, on the , where he died; but upon removing the tomb, about , when the Bishop's Chapel was taken down, the inside was found closely bricked up, and, upon opening it, a very large leaden coffin was discovered inscribed L. A. on the lid: excepting the iron rings at each end, it was in excellent preservation. This coffin and monument, are now deposited at the western end of the Lady Chapel in the centre, against the back of the altar-screen; other tombs formerly in the Bishop's Chapel, have been re-erected in different parts of the Church.[g]  The interior of this Chapel was extremely plain, and measured feet in length, and in breadth, within the recesses of the windows: it had strong ribs, and a groined roof, with a stone seat on both sides and at the eastern end. The peculiar forms of the windows contained in it may be seen in the annexed Exterior Views.

On the , the year of Henry VIII.[h]  the site of St. Mary Overies Priory was granted to Sir Anthony


Brown; and it is probable that the edifice itself had been even then destroyed, the description of the ground being

the whole site of the enclosure encircling round the late Monastery or Priory of the Blessed Mary Overy, in the County of Surrey, with the precincts:

and all messuages, wharfs, shops, &c. within the Close of the late Monastery in the Parish of St. Saviour, lately in the tenure of Henry Delinger and others, and the brewhouse and houses in St. Mary Magdalene.[a]  After the Dissolution the inhabitants of the adjoining Parishes of St. Margaret and St. Mary Magdalene, petitioned the King for a grant of the Church which had belonged to the Priory; and, being supported by their Diocesan, Stephen Gardener, Bishop of Winchester, they were permitted to buy it, to which is to be attributed the preservation of this extremely fine and interesting structure to the present period. At nearly the same time the Parishes were Incorporated by Act of Parliament in , under the name of St. Saviour; which, however, has not even yet entirely supplanted the ancient title, excepting in formal documents and proceedings.[b]  From the time that ceased to be conventual, it is probable that the extra-chapels belonging to it on the east, were left to that neglect and decay which continued until the commencement of the present century; partly perhaps in consequence of their having been erected for a peculiar service of the Romish religion, then abolished, and partly from the expense required to keep them in repair, when they were considered to be of no utility to the Church itself. It is stated in the added to Stow in ,[c]  that the part of the structure above the Chancel was in former times called Our Lady's Chapel, but was then known as the New Chapel: because,

though very old, it now may be called a new


, as having been newly redeemed from such use and employment, as in respect of that it was built for divine and religious duties,—may very well be branded with the style of wretched base and unworthy. For that which before this abuse was, and is now, a fair and beautiful Chapel,—by those that were then the Corporation,

A body consisting of thirty vestry-men, and six of those thirty, Church-Wardens. Ibid.

was leased and let out; and this house of God became a bakehouse!


very fair doors, that from the


side aisles of the chancel of this Church, and


that through the head of the chancel,

These doors appear to have been constructed as entrances instead of the two very beautiful arches under which they were built; for though the ancient altar-screen now appears to form the solid termination of the choir, it is possible that a view of the Lady Chapel was once opened through some extremely elegant flamboyant tracery, of the time of Edward III., in the heads of the two arches which divide it from the main body of the Church. It has been conjectured that these arches were at first open and then filled up with masonry, to oppose the currents of air which passed into the Church, through the long avenue of the eastern chapels. A small doorway with a very flat pointed arch, within a shallow recess ornamented with gothic panels, in a segmental head, was subsequently constructed in the lower part of the arch; whilst the ornamented tops were merely closed by stone, inserted behind the tracery: the ancient altar-screen was afterwards erected as another and more effectual defence. Gentleman's Magazine, vol. cii. part ii. p. 105. The conjecture that there was once an open view into the Lady Chapel from the choir through the arches now closed up, appears to have been originally mentioned by Mr. Carter and Mr. Bray. Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1808, vol. lxxviii. part ii. p. 700. History of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 570. A very interesting view of the eastern side of those arches and the subsequent doorways may be seen in an engraving by J. Cleghorn from a drawing by Mr. G. Gwilt, Jun., of the design for rebuilding the choir of St. Saviour's Church, pubiished July 1st, 1823. 4to.

as at this day they do again,—went into it; were lath'd, daubed, and dammed up; the fair pillars were ordinary posts against which they piled bilets and bavins. In this place they had their ovens, in that a boultingplace, and in that their kneading-trough, in another, as I have heard, a hog's trough;—for the words that were given me were these. This place have I known a hog stye;—in another a store-house, to store up their hoarded meal: and in all of it something of this sordid kind and condition. It was


let by the Corporation aforenamed to


Wyat, after him to


Peacocke, after him to


Cleybrooke, and last to


Wilson, all bakers; and this Chapel was still employed in the way of their trade, as a bakehouse:

These statements are confirmed by entries in the vestry-books of St. Saviour's; one of which in 1551, mentions a lease granted of a place within the wall of the church-yard, to Helmsley Ryelle for iiijs. iijd. a year to set his carts on. An order of vestry two years after directs the olde Chapel behind the Chancel to be let for the benefit of the school; which would bring its desecration to the very time expressed in the extract given above. In 1571, however, another order occurs for warning to be given to John Peacock, baker, by the church wardens, to remove the filthy nuisance out of the Chapel behind the high-altar, of which he has a lease, and to amend the glass windows, and do all other things according to the covenants of his said lease. In another entry in this register in 1576, in which is noticed the want of repairs in the churchyard wall and vestry, it is there directed that the surplus of money for the charge of the Grammar-School, should be paid by the Churchwardens to the parish generally, towards the maintenance and separation of the ruinous and decayed places of this great monastery being a parish church, which is every year greatly chargeable to the parish. Another entry in 1607 states that Mr. Henry Wilson, tenant of the Chapel of the Holy Virgin found himself inconvenienced by the tomb of a certain — Cade, and applied to the vestry for its removal; which was consented to, he making up the place again in any reasonable sort. Bray's History of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 570. So late, however, as 1808, Mr. Carter remarks of the crypt of St. Saviour's Church, that this choice pile is used for storing up coals and other articles by some retail dealer in such like commodities.

, vol. xxviii. part ii. p. .though some part of this bakehouse was sometimes turned into a starch-house. The time of the continuance of it in this kind, from the letting of it to Wyat to the restoring of it again to the Church,—was -score and odd years, in the year of our Lord God ; for in that year the ruins and blasted estate that the old Corporation sold it to, were by the Corporation of that time, repaired, renewed, and well and very worthily beautified. The charge of it for that year, with many things done to it since, arising to ; and this as the former repairs, being at the sole cost and charge of the parishioners. aisle in this Chapel was paved at the sole cost of Mr. John Hayman, Taylor and Merchant-Taylor, in the year .

About the year the choir of appears to have been enclosed by galleries on the north, south and across the middle-aisle at the entrance, the latter being in the place of the ancient rood-loft; and in a screen was erected at the western door. In and , many parts of the building were renewed: the whole north side was strengthened and beautified,

with a substantial and very artificial rough-cast: and the other side was plastered and whited:

in , as already stated, the Virgin Mary's Chapel was repaired and paved; and in the tower was renewed and the pinnacles were rebuilt, as appears by the date pierced in the vanes. In the beginning of the eighteenth century another repair took place, which entirely destroyed the little that remained of the original cathedral appearance of the interior; though Strype records the Church to have been at this time

lately repaired and beautified most splendidly,


it is said cost the Parish



and that well laid out.

The old monuments were all refreshed and new painted, a great deal of wainscoting was erected; but the most particular account of the improvements were inscribed upon a table suspended against a pillar, which stated that

This Church was laid throughout with stone; new pewed and galleried; the Great Vault sunk; the Pulpit and Altar-piece erected; the Communion-Table railed, and set with black and white marble; the Choir enclosed by gates; the South and West Windows enlarged; the whole new glazed; the




Bells cast; and all the Church cleansed, white-washed, and beautified, at the charge of the Parish, Anno



[g]  Previously to the erection of this altar-piece, the eastern and of the choir was terminated by a beautiful screen of white stone, with niches, tabernacles, &c. but this was entirely covered over by a dark and heavy architectural design, with oaken columns, enclosing the Decalogue, Creed, and Lord's Prayer, with figures of Moses and Aaron and flying cherubim, and terminated above by candlesticks and tall blazing urns: as represented in the annexed View of the Interior of the Choir of this Church. It is also most probable that the pointed roof over the choir was then taken away, and a leaden flat substituted for it; that the stately gable over the south transept was changed into a pantile hipped roof; and all the rich tracery of the window beneath it destroyed. In considerable repairs appear to have been executed in the nave; and that was possibly the period when the embattled parapets on the exterior walls of the nave, western towers, and south aisle, represented in the annexed copy of Hollar's View of this Church,—were removed, and the external stone-work cased with brick. Probably about the same time the northern front of the north transept was taken down, and a substitute erected of timber framework covered with geometrical tiles, as an enclosure of the bays. Farther destruction under the appearance of repair was


committed in , in the south transept, the rose windows at the east end of the choir, and some of the finest parts of the tracery in the east and west front windows.

Having thus declined to that disgraceful condition of dilapidation and neglect in which this building appeared at the commencement of the present century, the greater part of it was then found to be almost in that state of decay when an edifice will only remain without falling; for much of the fabric had been originally constructed of Surrey free-stone, which had suffered in a more than ordinary degree from time and the weather. At length a committee of the parishioners was appointed for repairing the Church, but it was not until that a commencement was actually made by Mr. John Crawford, then Church-Warden, by a repair of the tower, which was confided to Mr George Gwilt, Sen. This part was then spilt in every direction from the violent vibration of the bells, and exhibited fissures and inches broad. The pinnacles and embattled parapets were therefore rebuilt, several new windows were inserted in the bell-loft, and belfry, and the tower itself was secured by cast-iron ties of tiers in height, so concealed within the masonry as not to be perceptible, and so contrived as not to hazard the work by contraction or expansion. In . when a design was proposed of restoring the choir, a project was brought forward of building an entirely new church to fit the old tower; which, however, was rejected by a large majority of the parishioners, and in , a contract was made for extensively repairing, or rather rebuilding, the choir; since the roof was removed and the greater part of the walls. This was also executed by Mr. Gwilt, who took down the eastern end of the Church to the clere-story, and designed and erected that which now appears. It consists of an enriched gable with an elaborate cross clechee-floree on the summit,[a]  and immediately beneath a small and elegant heptaloil catherine-wheel window. At the sides are staircase turrets, ornamented with niches and crowned with pinnacles; and in the principal centre of the eastern end is inserted a new triple lancet-window, of the richest style of the century, as being more adapted to the general age of the Church, than the broad-arched window of lights, of the time of Henry VII., represented in the annexed Interior View, which existed here until this repair. Over the whole of the vaulting of the choir, was erected a new cast iron roof covered with copper, the piers of the flying-buttresses on each side were newly cased with stone, and their arches entirely rebuilt; and pinnacles and finials were added to the abutting-piers: it is probable that the latter had never been completed before, since there were originally of them on the south side and only on the north. The principal part of the modern masonry consists of a sharp girt-stone from Houghtree, near Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire; of which the quoins and mouldings are formed, the remainder of the facing being made out with surface-flints from the high-lands in various parts of Surrey.—At this time also, the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene on the south side of the choir, represented in the annexed copy of Hollar's View,—was entirely taken away; but it had never possessed any striking beauty, and was defaced by the inappropriate alterations made in it about the end of the reign of James I. The open side of the choir was then enclosed with masonry upon the model of the ancient north-side; and the windows of the side-aisles were built entirely new, and a new door was added. The whole of these noble repairs did not greatly exceed the sum of , including the tower; and throughout the restoration the architect carefully adhered to the original building, wherever the details could be traced or ancient materials be discovered to guide him.[b] 

The restoration of the transepts of was commenced about the end of , from the designs of Mr. Robert Wallace, who succeeded Mr. Gwilt as architect to this edifice. In both of the buildings he added groined roofs, and introduced in the south transept an imitation of that circular window which was discovered in the ruins of Winchester Palace, after the fire there in ; and of which representations are given in the annexed Plate of that structure. About , the Bishop's Chapel was taken away from the eastern end of the Lady Chapel, and the arch of entrance built up; but when the whole of the intended repairs were nearly finished, it was found that the roof of the nave was so much dilapidated as to require the parishioners to discontinue using that part for divine service. After the edifice had been closed for upwards of months, a vestry held on and , , came to the following Resolutions:

That the choir, and north and south transepts, be enclosed to the eastern part of the Church, for divine service; and the pews situate in the nave be removed into such parts of the Church for the accommodation of the inhabitants.—That the organ be removed over the Communion, or any other part of the east end that the Wardens may think proper, but not out of the Church.—That the whole of the roof, from the western door to the end of the tower, called the nave, consisting of ceiling, roof, walls and pillars, as far as dangerous, be sold and cleared away; the remainder of the walls, pillars, and family vaults, to be left open to the weather.

[c]  The roof thus destroyed was a fine specimen of the architecture of the century, and possessed the striking peculiarity of having the corbels whence the ribs of the arches sprang placed perpendicularly over the columns. Those columns had been already banded with iron, and the walls were green and dark with apparent decay, though it is said that some of the ancient timbers were still in a fine state of preservation; but in pursuance of the above order the organ was removed to form a temporary termination to the choir, and the nave was uncovered and exposed; in which lamentable state it still continues, , not unlike the half-ruined edifice of the Cathedral of Landaff.

The very laudable, zealous, and persevering efforts made for the preservation of the Lady Chapel at the eastern end of the Church, were, however, completely successful; though it was for some time earnestly debated whether it should be destroyed or restored. But even in the vestry the design of demolition was opposed, and on , a numerous general meeting for the preservation of the structure took place at the Freemasons' Tavern, at which a series of Resolutions was passed to that effect. The principal of them were, That the few remaining reliques of Gothic, or early English pointed style, of architecture in this kingdom, are replete with interest: That the Chapel of Our Lady in , is a splendid specimen of that style of architecture: That as the Parish of St. Saviour has expended in the repair of this Church, of which a debt of is unpaid, it is expedient that a public subscription be commenced to enable the Parish to restore the Lady Chapel: and that a Committee be appointed to promote the restoration by soliciting public subscriptions.[d]  Notwithstanding the very great expense, which the rebuilding of had already proved to the Parish, it was evident, by some of the speeches at this meeting, that the design of demolishing the Lady Chapel was not by any means even partially sanctioned in , but only that the assistance of the public was required for so costly an undertaking: but it was perhaps almost entirely owing to the unwearied and meritorious exertions of Mr. Thomas Saunders, that so general and lively an interest was excited on the subject. The estimated amount of the restoration was , and by February nearly had been raised; but the sentiments of the parishioners were most unequivocally displayed at the general poll which had been demanded by Mr. Saunders of all the parochial rate-payers, and which took place on and ; the conclusion being a majority of for the restoration of the building.[e]  The subscriptions were subsequently continued with great zeal, and were also extended to the restoration of the


ancient altar-screen in the choir; for the effecting of all which they were aided by a performance of Sacred Music in the Church, on Thursday, , and the delivery of some scientific lectures.[a]  The superintendence of the restoration was gratuitously undertaken by Mr. Gwilt, Mr Hartley was the contractor for the building, and the stone of the new works was laid .[b]  The annexed modern Exterior Views of this Church, will convey an accurate notion of the appearance of the outside of the Lady Chapel before this restoration; excepting that it then shewed dilapidated and tiled gables, and that the part from which the Bishop's Chapel had been removed was white, whilst the remainder was defaced and discoloured stone, coarsely repaired with brick. In taking down the arch which led into the Bishop's Chapel was discovered part of the fabric of the lancetwindow originally in that place; which became a most valuable model for the restoration of the others. In the present perfected state of this edifice, the eastern end of it exhibits the original gables, each surmounted by a rich cross, and containing in the point a small triple lancet window, with carved corbel-heads and columnated-mullions; with a large window of the same description below. The form of the glazing in the latter consists of large intersected circles and lozenges; with some armorial ensigns, &c. in stained glass. The roofs of the Chapel are covered with lead, and the walls are of flints like those of the other restored parts of the Church, with stone mouldings and quoins: the buttresses, and the north-east turret containing the staircase are also restored in a similar manner; the latter having loopholes and a low cap of stone. On each side of the building also the peculiar windows have been likewise carefully copied. Within, the Lady Chapel is feet in length, and has the roof divided into groined arches, supported by octangular columns, with circular shafts at their angles. When this place was formerly used for the Consistorial Court of the Bishop of Winchester, and the Visitations of the Deanery of , the north-east corner was parted off in the manner of a pew, and contained a desk, table, and elevated seat; but the remainder of the space was abandoned to the reception of lumber.

Whilst the restoration of the Chapel was in agitation, a farther difficulty appeared in the very narrow frontage to be allowed for it in the south approach forming to the . So early as , the Wardens of addressed a memorial to the Bridge-Committee, soliciting a sufficient space for the exhibition of the structure, and suggesting an opening of feet. On , it was resolved by the vestry that the width of feet, offered by the Committee, was altogether inadequate, added to which it was made a condition of that grant that the Lady Chapel should be taken down; and therefore in the following October the Wardens memorialised the Lords of the Treasury. In an interview between them, the latter appeared to be in favour of a greater opening, but on , the Wardens were informed that not more than feet would be allowed, and that space only on condition of removing the Chapel, if the consent of the Bishop of Winchester could be procured. In a letter on the subject, however, the Bishop declined giving his consent to the Company; stating that it could not be alleged that the removal of the Consistorial Court was required for public accommodation, which he viewed as the only justifiable reason for the demolition of a Church, or any part of .[c]  It was then resolved to petition the Committee of the appointed on the Bill for Improving the Approaches to the ; by which it was decided, on , after days deliberation and by a majority of to , that the opening to should be feet instead of , as proposed by the original framers of the Bill.[d]  The houses on the west side of opposite the Lady Chapel, are therefore terminated so as to form the sides of a handsome approach to it. From hence at a future time a flight of steps may be formed to the building beneath, and an appropriate rail also erected round the church, but at present the structure is defended on the east only by a high circular enclosure of boards.

The last meritorious work of restoration in , was that of the ancient Altar-Screen given in the commencement of the century by Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester; a subscription for which was ultimately united with that commenced for the Lady Chapel. To the latter of these funds the present Bishop of Winchester gave , and to the Screen; and other large sums were speedily and liberally contributed. Previously to Mr. Gwilt's restoration of the choir, the eastern wall of the Church was covered with a composition of wood and plaster, ascribed by tradition to Sir Christopher Wren, though apparently without any authority. Above this Screen appeared the mutilated and inelegant broad window of the sixteentn century, the arch of which was sculptured in relievo, in panels; that in the centre having an angel holding a shield, and those at the side a pelican feeding her young, the emblem of Christ, and the device of Bishop Fox.[e]  There was also a carved facia, on which the pelican was repeated, with the holy-lamb and oak leaves, the style of all which entirely disagreed with that of the altarpiece below. On the removal of the modern screen, a series of small tabernacle-niches was discovered on the partition behind, the canopies of which had been cut down to almost a level surface; though they still possessed so much beauty as to cause the restoration of the whole, to become a circumstance of the greatest interest. This was completed in the commencement of , by Mr. Robert Wallace, the Architect of the Church, Mr. Firth, the Contractor, and Mr. Purdy the principal Carver; the contract amounting to only the sum of The ancient material of this Screen was Firestone and the stone of Caen; and the restoration has been executed in stone from Painswick, in Gloucestershire, which agrees well with the former. Wherever it was practicable the original work has been retained, but nearly the whole of the ornamental carvings have been wrought from moulds and replaced in the precise situations of the ancient sculpture whence they were taken. The whole screen is lofty, and the general composition of it is divided into stories in height and as many partitions in breadth. In the centre of the lowest story is a space for the altar, with tall tablets and canopies above; and on each side is a door with a depressed pointed arch. On each side of the doorways is a niche rising from the ground, flanked by slender buttresses and covered with a triangular tabernacle of canopied arches, with the angular point in front. In each niche is a tall pedestal with a richly carved head; and above the doors are short double canopies of a similar style, though rising above those on the sides, and breaking the line of a broad frieze of demiangels, above which is a narrow line of carved pelicans, holy-lambs, and scrolls. These terminate the story; and the above and are composed of a large niche in the centre, with a semi-hexagonal canopy, placed between niches on each side, with pedestals and canopies like those below; whilst a frieze of angels, &c. parts the stories. As the story finished the remains of the ancient screen, Mr. Wallace has designed a termination of an entablature of angels supporting shields, with a crown-like cornice above; something similar to which most probably surmounted the original design.[f] 


[a] This Priory was burned about the year 1207; wherefore the Priors and Canons did found an Hospital near unto their Priory, where they celebrated Mass until the Priory was repaired.—Stow's Survey of London. Edit. by the Rev. J. Strype, Lond. 1720. fol. Vol. II. book iv. chap. i. p. 8. Sir William Dugdale seems to refer this fire to that which happened on the night of July 10th, 1212 or 1213, which destroyed the Church of our Lady of the Canons and all the wooden buildings on London Bridge. Monasticon Anglicanum, Edit. 1830. fol. vol. vi. part i. p. 169.

[b] Harl. MSS. No. 565. A Chronicle of English Affairs, and especially of those relating to the City of London, from the first year of King Richard I. 1189, to the 21st year of Henry VI., 1422, inclusice: 4to. on vellum, folium 13 a. A printed edition of this very interesting manuscript, collated with some others of a similar nature, was printed in 1827, in quarto, by E. Tyrrel, Esq. Deputy-Remembrancer to the City of London, under the superintendence of Sir N. H. Nicolas.

[c] Monasticon Anglicanum, vo. vi. part i. p. 169.

[d] The parts referred to extend from the transepts of the Church to the fourth buttress of the nave; and may be examined in the very accurate and beautiful engravings of them contained in The History and Antiquities of Westminster Abbey, by J. P. Neale and E. W. Brayley, Lond. 1823. 4to. vol. ii. plates xxii, xxviii, pp. 7 note †, 37. The ingenious conjecture concerning the age of the Lady Chapel at St. Saviour's, was first brought forward by Mr. E. I. Carlos, in the Gentleman's Magazine for February 1832, vol. cii. part 1. p. 104; the same paper having also been subsequently printed as a separate pamphlet: it is there noticed in support of the argument, that in the Church of St. Thomas, Portsmouth, likewise erected by Peter de Rupibus, between A.D. 1210 and 1220, the style of architecture in the chancel and transepts is similar to that of the Virgin's Chapel, Southwark.

[e] A view of the archway leading out of the Lady Chapel into the Bishop's Chapel is engraven in The History and Antiquities of the Parochial Church of St. Saviour, Southwark, by W. G. Moss and the Rev. J. Nightingale, Lond. 1818. 4to. p. 82.

[f] This figure appears to have been always painted in the proper colours, and to have preserved the ancient tincture of the robe of the Prelate of the Garter, which in the time of Elizabeth, seems to have been of murrey, or crimson velvet, but was altered to purple by Charles II. in 1661. Elias Ashmole's Institution, &c. of the Order of the Garter, Lond. 1772. f.d. pp. 236, 237. Over this tomb, adds Mr. Bray, there was originally a fair canopy, supported by marble pillars: but the roof falling in and the Chapel being very much defaced in 1676, the canopy was broken and not repaired. History of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 575. The inscriptions on this tomb, one of which was lost and not restored, may be seen in the same authority, and an engraving of the monument as it stood in the late Bishop's Chapel is inserted in Moss's Hist. of St. Saviour, p. 84.

[g] Particulars of all the interments in the Bishop's Chapel, may be seen in the works last cited. One of the monuments near the entrance was to the memory of Abraham Newland, Chief-Cashier of the Bank of England, who died Nov. 21st, 1807, at the age of 77.

[h] Morasticon Anglicanum, vol. vi. part 1. In John Speed's Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain, Lond. 1611, fol. vol. ii. book ix. chap. 21, folium 798, the valuation of St. Mary Overys Priory is 656l. 10s. 0 1/2d. In the History and Antiquities of the County of Surrey, by the Rev. Owen Manning and William Bray, Esq. vol. iii. Land. 1814. fol. the dissolution of the monastery is stated on p. 559 to have taken place about Christmas, 1539; on p. 566 in 1535, the 26th of Henry VIII.; and on p. 560 it is said that the house was surrendered by Bartholomew Linsted, the Prior, 14th October, 1541.

[a] Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 566.

[b] Ibid. p. 559.—Private Acts xxxii. Henry VIII., 1541, cap. 15.

[c] Stow's Survey of London, Edit. by Anthony Munday, &c. Lond. 1633. fol. the Remaines at the end, p. 885.

[g] Hist. of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 571. Strvpe's Stow's Survey of London, Vol. II. book iv. chap. i. pp. 10, 11. The inscription is there stated to be hanging against the pulpit.

[a] On the pedestal of this ornament is engraven the following inscription.—This Cross, the Last Stone towards the Rebuilding of the East End of the Choir of this Church, was Laid in the Presence of the Wardens, and Gentlemen composing the Committee of Church Repairs, by George Sadler, Esq. Warden of the Great Account. George Gwilt, Architect, Sept. 17th. 1824.

[b] The whole of the above account of the repairs of St. Saviour's Church, has been abridged from an excellent historical paper on that edifice, inserted in the Second Series of the Retrospective Review, Part ii. Dec. 1827, art. viii. pp. 316-322.

[c] Morning Herald, Friday, May 13th, 1831.

[d] Proceedings at the Meeting on the subject of the Preservation and Restoration of the Lady Chapel, held at the Freemasons' Tavern. With an Appendix. By A. J. Kempe, Lond. 1832. 8vo. Printed for the benefit of the Subscription. The convening of this meeting, with all the successful effects resulting from it were almost solely attributable to the exertions of Mr. Thomas Saunders.

[e] The votes at this poll were to be given for the non-confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting, or, in other words for the preservation of the Lady Chapel; or for the confirmation of those minutes, or the demolition of the Chapel. At the end of the first day, the numbers were 255 for the restoration, against 106; majority 149: at the close of the second day, the votes on the gross poll were 380 for the preservation—against 140; leaving a final majority of 240. The friends of the restoration celebrated their success by a dinner at the London Tavern, on Saturday, April 1st, 1832. Previously to the poll the Lady Chapel was open for public view, and between 20,000, and 30,000 persons were supposed to have visited it on the 8th of February.

[a] Eight Lectures on Zoology by Mr. J. F. South at the Girl's National School, Union Street, Southwark, Jan. 29th, 1833, and seven following Tuesdays at Six o'clock in the evening. A Lecture on Phrenology at the same place by Mr. De Ville, on Tuesday, March 12th, 1833.

[b] On this stone appeared the following inscription. After a Lapse of more than Five Hundred Years from its original foundation, the First Stone for the Restoration of the Lady Chapel was laid July 28th 1832: by the concurring hands of John Ivatt Briscoe, Esq. M.P. and Georgiana-Matilda and Adeline, daughters of George Gwilt, F.S.A. Architect. To rescue from impending destruction, and to preserve the Venerable Fabrick, a Contribution of private individuals was successfully promoted during the Wardenship of William Davis, Esq. by Thomas Saunders, F S.A.—Deo Favente: Rege Gulielmo Quarto, Wintoniæ Carolo. Ricardo, Episcopo, Munificentissime Adjuvante.

[c] Proceedings, &c. Appendix, No. ii. p. 34.

[d] Gentleman's Magazine, Feb. 1832, vol. cii. part i. pp. 101, 102. An Act to Amend several Acts relating to London Bridge and the approaches thereto. Local and Personal Acts declared Public, 2nd and 3rd Will. IV. cap. xxiii. Royal Consent, 3rd April 1832.

[e] An engraving of this arch and facia, which are now lost,—is inserted in Moss's Hist. of the Church of St. Saviour, p. 61.

[f] The above particulars concerning the Altar-Screen of St. Saviour's Church, have been extracted from an article on the subject by Mr. E. J. Carlos, illustrative of a lithographic outline of the restored Screen, contained in the Gentleman's Magazine for Feb. 1834. New Series, vol. i. part i. pp. 151-155.

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 Title Page
 Howell's View of London
 View of the Fire of London
 City Wall
 The Conduits of Cheapside and Cornhill
 Plan of the Fire in Bishopsgate Street, Cornhill, and Leadenhall Street: November 7th, 1765
Frost Fair on the River Thames
 Part of the Strand: St. Clement's Danes
 Ancient Structure in Ship Yard: Temple Bar
 St. Paul's Cross and Cathedral: With King James I and his Court at a Sermon
 Ancient Cathedral Church of St. Paul, London
 Paul's Cross (and Preaching There)
Elsinge Spital, Sion College, and the Church of St. Alphage, London Wall
 Elsinge's Hospital; or, as it is otherwise denominated, Elsynge Spittle
 Sion College
 The Priory and Church of St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield
 The Church of St. Bartholomew the Less: Giltspure Street, West Smithfield, in the Ward of Farringdon Without
Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate Street
The Priory and Church of St. Helen, Bishopsgate Street
 Monument of Sir Andrew Judde, Knight: In the Church of St. Helen, Bishopsgate Within
St. Michael's Church: Cornhill
The Parish Church of St. Paul, Shadwell: In the County of Middlesex
 The Parish Church of St. Peter upon Cornhill: In Cornhill Ward
Extracts from the Vestry Books of the Church of St. Peter upon Cornhill
 St. Saviour's Church
 St. Saviour's Church, Southwark
 Winchester Palace, Southwark
 Chapels at the Eastern End of the Church of St. Saviour, Southwark
 Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem
 An Account of Bermondsey, its Manor, Priory, and Abbey
 Priory of the Holy Trinity: In the Ward of Aldgate
 St. Martin-le-Grand College, and St. Vedast, Foster Lane
 Guildhall Chapel
 A short Account of Lazar Houses in and near London
 Knightsbridge Chapel
 Lambe's Chapel and Alms-Houses: Monkwell Street, Cripplegate
 The late Mr. Skelton's Meeting House, Erected Near the Site of the Globe Theatre, Maid Lane, Southwark
 Zoar Street, Gravel Lane, Meeting House and School
 Oratory, Under the Antient Mansion, or Inn, of the Priors of Lewes in Sussex
 Whitehall: Plate I
 Whitehall: Plate II
 Whitehall: Plate III
 St. James's Palace
 Fawkeshall, or Copped Hall, Surrey
 Toten-Hall, Tottenham Court Road
 King John's Palace
 Clarendon House, called also Albemarle House
 Somerset House
 Suffolk House
 York House
 Durham, Salisbury, and Worcester Houses
 Sir Paul Pindar's House
 Montagu House: Great Russel Street, Bloomsbury
 The British Museum
 Bedford House, Bloomsbury Square
 Peterborough House, afterward Grosvenor House, Millbank, Westminster
 Craven House, Drury Lane
 Ancient Mansion called Monteagle House: Montague Close, Southwark
 Oldbourne Hall, Shoe Lane: In the Parish of St. Andrew, Holborn