At the West end.
Anne Hooker, late wife of Robert Hooker, Ropemaker, 1689:—Walter Jones, 1691, Governor of his Majesty's second rate ship, the French Rus. . .:—John Spilman Vintner, 1696:—the children of Robert and Anne Spelman:—Capt. Richard Young, Mariner, 1699. And Mary, his wife, 1699. Also Hannah, their daughter, 1699:—a black marble tomb adorned with cherubim, &c. to Isabella Berry, wife of Thomas Berry, deceased March 29th, 1696, aged 54:
Rest thou! whose rest gives me a restless life,
Since I have lost a kind and virtuous wife:
Whose charity procured her such a name,
As is recorded in the book of Fame.
Her well-placed charity the needy knew,
None that were truly poor escaped her view;
But vagabonds and common beggars, she
Never admitted to her charity.
The real objects where her chiefest care,
To such she never would her bounty spare:
Therefore the Poor do much her loss deplore,
For few did give such Almes, but none did more
Phebe Robinson, 1686:—on a stone standing upright, Here lyeth interred the body of Martha Willis, wife of Thomas Willis, Obiit Dec. 1699, Aged 21 years:
Of Death and Judgment, Heaven and Hell,
Who oft does think must needs die well.
On a tomb near the north-east angle of the Church, Here lye three sons and two daughters of Richard and Anne Merry; and also a son of Richard Merry, Jun. and also three sons and two daughters of Andrew Herring, grandchild to the said Richard and Anne Merry.
Let friends forbear to mourn and weep,
While sweetly in the dust they sleep.
This toilsome world they left behind,
A Crown of Glory for to find.
Their days were short, like Winters' sun,
From Earth they came, to Heaven they run:
God bless the rest with length of days,
On earth to live his name to praise.
On a grave-stone a little westward of the last, Here lies the body of Anne, wife of Ambrose Goodwin, Obiit Feb. 20, 1763.
No age so young that Death will spare,
All ages they must die;
Therefore to die let all prepare,
To live eternally.
Also six sons of Henry Goodwin and Jane his wife;—Elizabeth, late wife of Capt. Richard Merry, 1703-4:—Martha Collins, wife of Henry Collins, Shipwright, 1699; and Henry Collins, 1701:—John, and other children of Charles and Mary Cope:—Frances Claro, wife of Thomas Claro, 1694:—Five children of John Cosin of Wapping Wall; and Elizabeth, his wife, 1691:
Here now sleeps one that lived her sex's wonder,
For wife, or friend, or mother, none beyond her.
And sleep she must, till the Last Trump shall wake her,
And her dear Lord to his vast glory take her.
Elizabeth Cole, late wife of John Cole of Stepney Parish, Master-Cooper of her Majesty's Victualling Office, 1703:—A handsome black marble tomb in memory of Henry Duffield, obiit May, 1705, in the 40th year of his age, with two sons and one daughter:—Edward Walter, Esq. one of the Coroners for the County of Middlesex, who died May 24th, 1804.—In the Western part of the Churchyard.—Gabriel Kerby, 1666; also William and Mary, their children, 1665: — Alice Carnabie, 1695:—Margaret Barret, wife of William Barret, 1686:—John Peveridge, and Magaret his wife, and two children.—On the South side.— Elizabeth Terry, late wife of Capt. Abraham Terry, 1696:—Several children of Joanna, the wife of Robert Kirby, Shipwright, who died, 1687:—Mary, daughter of John Ackerley, 1696:—John King, 1695: and eight children:—Thomas Grassington, Mariner, 1683-84; and Elizabeth, his daughter, and Ann, his wife:—Capt. Roger Grassington, Mariner, 1701:—a fair tomb near the door for Capt. Junifer Plovier, 1682-83:—on the outside of the south porch a monument to Mary, daughter of Walter Berry, Esq. and wife of John Wright, 1746.—In the North part of the Churchyard.—Thomas Webber, 1692:—Capt. Samuel Vincent, and Mary his wife, and their children Elizabeth, 1693-94, and Samuel, 1694-95;
Our time was short, the longer is our rest,
God took us hence becarse he thought it best.
And Mary Vincent, 1697.—In other parts of the Churchyard are tombs to Robert Dobson, Esq., 1713:—Capt. Thomas Cole, 1716:—Elizabeth, his daughter, wife of Capt. Richard Vavasor:—Elizabeth Lilliewhite, daughter of Capt. Michael Cole:—Capt. Richard Merry, 1717:—Anne, wife of John Kirby, 1718:—Robert Kirby, Esq. 1725:—Capt. Thomas Lemon, 1720:—Capt. John Painter, 1728:—Capt. Samuel Vincent, 1729:—Susanna, wife of Capt. John Caston, 1732—Capt. Mads Thorson, 1738:—Matthew Newman, Esq., one of the Deputy Lieutenants of the Tower Hamlets, 1755:—Capt. Thomas Johnson, 1759:—Capt. Stephen Calense, 1760:—Capt. Robert Manley, 1763:—Capt. Joseph Carteret, an Elder Brother of the Trinity House, 1765:—Capt. Edward Carlen, 1768:—Anne, wife of Capt. Christopher Nockells, and daughter of Capt. Andrew Cande, 1781:—Capt. John Sanderson, 1783:—Capt. Charles Harford, 1783:—Capt. Andrew Cande, 1784:—Mr. Samuel Mellish, 1784:—Charlotte, wife of Capt. William Paxton, 1784:—Rebecca, wife of Capt. Andrew Hewson, 1785:—Susanna, wife of Mr. George Brodrick, 1786:—Rebecca, wife of George Hastings, 1788:—Capt. Francis Swinbourn, 1790:—Christopher Stephenson, 1791:—Capt. Sylvester Masson, 1792;—Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Fell, Esq. 1792:—Jael, wife of Capt. Joseph Boumels, 1792.
In the old Churchyard of Shadwell there also stood a small stone pedestal, with an obliterated inscription, originally erected over a well of fine water, accidentally discovered in the digging of a grave; the stream whereof was at one period continually running into a street opposite the south gate of the Church, thence called Springstreet. As there is a tradition that the Parish derived its name from a religious foundation near a spring dedicated to our Lady of St. Chad's, or Shad's Well, on the site of which the old Church was erected,—the water thus discovered might possibly have been the Well referred to. About ten years since the stream was cut off, in consequence of a deep main sewer having been carried through High Street, Shadwell, though it was then intended to sink the spring lower and to restore it.Local information given to the late Mr. Wilkinson. Another Spring, of a very powerful medicinal nature, and thence called Shadwell Spa, was also discovered about the year 1738,In the first edition of Maitland's History of London, 1739, fol. p. 783, this spring is said to have been lately discovered, and it is also erroneously stated in the same place to be a very strong allomish water. by Walter Berry, Esq. in sinking a well in Sun Tavern Fields, in the north-eastern part of this Parish. The waters were said to have a strong astringent taste, and to be impregnated with sulphur, vitriol, steel, and antimony: hence they were of real benefit as an antiscorbutic, but in a pamphlet, published by Dr. Diederich Wessel Linden, M. D. to make known their virtues, they were declared to be a cure for every disorder incident to humanity by either drinking or bathing.This pamphlet consists of 16 pages, and is entitled Directions for the Use of that extraordinary Mineral-Water, commonly called Berry's Shadwell-Spaw, in Sun Tavern Fields, Shadwell, near London. Lond. 1749. 8vo. Its contents are limited to a very extended enumeration of the diseases for which the water is beneficial, with various methods of employing it, and the quantity required for each; but a particular account of its discovery and composition is given in A Treatise on the Origin, Nature, and Virtues, of Chalybeat Waters, and Natural Hot Baths, by the same author. Lond. 1748. 8vo. chap. v. pp. 135-173, being entirely devoted to the Shadwell Spring, which he calls the most remarkable concrete mineral-water that ever I have seen or heard of. After giving some notices of the ancient springs of London, Dr. Linden states that the Shadwell Spa is situate about two miles east of the Tower, and about half a mile from the river, or Shadwell-Dock stairs, ascending from thence all the way to the top of a hill, where is a field of a triangular form called Sun Tavern Fields, on the eastern side of which we find our medicinal fountain. He then proceeds to give the following account of its discovery. In 1734, when Mr. Berry was churchwarden of Shadwell, he was desired by the parishioners to use some means for making the Shadwell Waterworks Company pay their proportion of the parochial and king's taxes; the former of which they had not paid for nearly twenty years, and when rated for the latter they paid but as it pleased them; all the former parish officers being afraid to interfere with an incorporated body. Mr. Berry accordingly cited them into the Bishop's Court and cast them, after some years' contest, upon which they removed the cause into the Archbishop's Court, and again lost it; and in retaliation in a few days after they cut off the Thames water supplied by them to the houses of Mr. Berry, and fifteen of his tenants, to remedy which he commenced sinking a well, and employed the most skilful person in London to superintend the work. In digging, says Dr. Linden, they observed that the surface of the ground was a common earth; after that they had gotten five or six feet down, they came to a gravel, of a good deep yellow, and after that to a very hard ballast, which was difficult to dig up, and was as coarse and lumpish as wash-balls. Under this they came to a rock, which as soon as they broke through up sprang the water, as strong as if a main had been broken in the tree: that is, as I understand my worthy and communicative correspondent, to whom we are beholden for this authentic account of it,—as if the main trunk of the subterranean tree, or great pipe had burst, which branches forth into the other pipes which supplies the houses with water. The proprietor had lived on the same spot for twenty years and had never heard of any water with remarkable qualities near him; nor were the properties of the spring immediately known, but soon after a pump had been erected over it a child of one of his tenants heated with play, drank plentifully of the water, and speedily went home sick and vomited to an excessive degree. It is rather remarkable, that if the inhabitants of this spot were deprived of all other water, the emetic qualities of the well should not have been instantly discovered; and that the owner himself should have first tasted it, when the mother of the child came to him in the greatest alarm. Some time after it was tried for washing the eyes of a horse belonging to Mr. Berry that was nearly blind, of which it ultimately recovered the sight; whereupon, finding such benefit in the water, the proprietor enclosed the well and built a bath and pump room. Dr. Linden then relates a series of 42 chemical experiments which he made upon the water, which I began. says he, on the 29th of June, 1746; the day warm and serene, and I was at the well by six o'clock in the morning: they shew that the spring contained a strong solution of iron. This water, he adds, is of a light yellow, nearly the colour of French brandy, and sparkles when poured into a glass like a fermented vegetable juice, such as cider, &c. and tastes very astringent. Thence the vulgar or improper expression, that this water of Shadwell tastes like alum.—In the third of the twelve corollaries which follow the account of these experiments, the author vindicates the genuineness of this spring as a natural mineral water, against the suspicion and charge that it was either an artificial contrivance, made with alum, &c. or only impregnated with decomposed sea-coal, or the refuse of some ancient copperas or vitriol works in the vicinity; both of which he denies by the following arguments. That water-side premises were required for such works, and that the present spot was too far from the river, being on the top of a hill, almost a mile from the Thames, whilst there were convenient places on the banks: that no remains of old wells, reservoirs, &c. required in such works, had been found near the spring: that no decomposed coal had been discovered near it, but only the strata already mentioned, the water issuing from a solid rock beneath: that the remains of old copperas works, &c. would have rendered the soil unfit for ballast, whereas the whole of Sun Tavern Fields had been dug away for ten feet deep for that material: that such remains, or decomposed coal could not penetrate the rock enclosing the spring: that the water was wholly unlike that found in coal mines: that the character and station of the proprietor as a Middlesex magistrate, was superior to the supposed fraud: that the water had been subjected to chemical analysis: that the alum-like taste was given by borax and acid contained in solution, which were too costly to be employed in adulteration: that an attempt had been made to soften the water for common use by throwing in a load or two of lime, which caused so great effervescence, and made such a reek and smothering, that the proprietor was glad to clear it all out again: and, lastly, that a water artificially prepared would infallibly discover itself by its smell when evaporated.—Advertisements of these waters occur as early as 1742, the following having been copied from the Daily Advertiser of Saturday, Sept. 18th. Shadwell Spaw in Sun Tavern Fields, near Shadwell Church, is famous for its certain cure of all cutaneous distempers; as leprosy, and all breakings out of the body, often with three times bathing only; no money is required if a cure is not perform'd. 'Tis also good in many other disorders: taken inwardly it vomits gently. This water is sold by Mr. James Simonds, Apothecary, in Burleigh Street, by Exeter Change, in the Strand; and no where else but at the Spaw, within the Bills of Mortality. Note, the said Spaw to be let or sold, with about 100l.
a-year adjoining.' Another advertisement of the waters in the Daily Advertiser of Wednesday, May 23d, 1744, mentions a recommendation of their virtues previous to those of Dr. Linden recited above, which, however, might very possibly have issued from the same source. I have, says the proprietor, the following particulars under the hand-writing of a very eminent gentleman, long learnt in physick, as to his own knowledge and experience in this water. The same announcement states, that there is at the aforesaid Spaw a convenient Cold and Hot Bath. The Spaw is to be lett, with coach-house and stables, and a large kitchen-garden. The modern use of them, however, was confined chiefly to the extraction of salts, for which the proprietors had a considerable demand, and for the preparation of mordaunts for fixing the colours of calico-printers.Lysons'
Environs of London, Vol. iii. p. 389. Supplement to ditto. Lond. 1811, 4to. p. 286.
At the beginning of the present century, the original Church of Shadwell had become very much dilapidated, and the fall of a small portion of the ceiling near the pulpit, took place one Sunday, a little before the commencement of the service. As this happened soon after the destruction of the spire of St. Nicholas' Church at Liverpool,This fatal accident took place Jan. 11th, 1810, about ten minutes before the time of service; and the destruction extended from the tower up to the altar, all the space between being desolated in an instant. Only about twenty persons were in the Church at the time; the greater part of whom escaped, but the female children of
the Moorfields Charity School had partly entered, and 27 of them were overwhelmed, 18 of whom were killed, or died immediately after they were dug from the ruins. It was supposed that the accident was to be attributed to neglect, and to allowing the bells to be rung whilst the foundation of the building at the west angle of the tower was undergoing the process of pinning; and it appeared also that the old part of the tower had been built 450 years, upon which a new upper structure had been added in 1745.
Annual Register. Vol. lii. p. 456. (Chronicle.) the congregation at Shadwell became alarmed lest their own edifice should experience a similar fate, and crowded out of the building in confusion and consternation, and dispersed in every direction. Upon being surveyed it was declared to be in a state unfit for divine service, and the building was therefore closed, and remained so for upwards of ten years, excepting for the performance of christenings and burials; though some contended that it was yet capable of repair, from the walls and tower still appearing substantial, and from the south wall having been rebuilt of brick in 1735.Local Information.—The Parish Church of Shadwell, says the Second Report of the Commissioners appointed to enquire concerning Charities, issued in 1819, was shut up about nine years ago, on the report of the district surveyor that it was in a dangerous state; and has not since been re-opened. The Parish at length resolved upon erecting a new structure, and the interior fittings and finishings of the old Shadwell Church were accordingly sold by auction by Mr. John Henfree, by order of the Trustees appointed under the Act of Parliament for rebuilding the Church,This Act received the Royal Assent 10th July, 1817, 57th George III., chap. lxxii., and is entitled An Act for Rebuilding the Church, and improving the Churchyard of the Parish of St. Paul, Shadwell. On August 4th, 1818, an advertisement was drawn up for the public journals from the Rector and Trustees of the Parish, inviting an advance of money by donations, free loans, or loans at a reduced rate of interest, for carrying the Act into effect; with an address, stating the destitute condition of the district, as to the means of Divine Service, which it had been then neacly nine years without, and that it contained a population of 10,000 souls, the far greater part of them being labourers in the Docks, and on the river. The first year of the rate levied by virtue of the above Act had been collected, and was in itself amply sufficient for the security of those who were disposed to lend money, but from the reduction of trade in the Parish, and the small number of opulent persons dwelling in it, the pressure of that rate was found extremely heavy; especially as a great expense had been incurred during several unsuccessful applications to Parliament, which had been defrayed out of the funds raised under the Act.—The information in the text concerning the sale of the old edifice and the erection of the new, was furnished by the Parochial Authorities to the original Proprietor of this work. on Monday, August the 11th, 1817, on the spot, in 91 lots, to be removed within five days after the sale, which produced 223l. 13s. On Monday, September 1st, were sold the walls, wood-work, &c. of the Church, tower, and vestry, in 71 lots, to be removed within twenty-one days after the sale, which amounted to 419l. 1s. 8d. The old lead was exchanged in part of payment for that with which the new edifice was covered, as were also the six bells, which were re-cast with additional metal for the present peal, consisting of eight.
The last Engraving of the ensuing series represents an exterior North-west view of the New Church of St. Paul, Shadwell, which was erected in 1820, from the design of the late Mr. John Walters, of Fen-Church Buildings,Mr. Walters died at Brighton, Oct. 4th, 1821, aged 30; and some notices of his life and works will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for that month and year, Vol. xci. part 2, p. 374. by Mr. J. Streather. The body of the edifice is constructed of brick, lighted by ten windows on each side, and decorated with stone mouldings, &c. At the western end is a vestibule, ascended by six steps, supported by four pilasters of the Tuscan Order in front, surmounted by a stone pediment, and lighted by two windows on each side. In the centre is one large door between two niches, above which are three panels, containing the names of the Architect and Builder, and date of the erection. Above the vestibule rises the tower, consisting of a base, containing the clock, and two stories above, terminated by an octangular stone spire, and a vane. The first story in the steeple is square with arched windows, having two Corinthian columns projecting from each angle; and the second story is circular, containing in its circumference six pillars of the same order. The interior of the building is plain, and small, corresponding to the very limited extent of the Parish already noticed, but is extremely chaste and harmonious both in its design and execution. A series of sixteen Tuscan columns supports the galleries, the eastern of which is circular, and contains the organ, placed above the altar, and occupying a projection of the building similar to that at the western end. The roof is a flat concave of a square form, enclosing an ornamented circle, and the recess at each end is covered by a broad decorated arch. On the front of the western gallery is a large marble tablet, containing the names of the officers, and date of the year when the Church was built. The whole of the interior fittings--up are of varnished oak, and the prevailing tint is a pale stone colour; the Creed, &c. being written in golden letters on panels of a darker shade of the same: behind the circular back of the altar is a door corresponding to that at the west, but of a smaller size. The building within is lighted by gas, and its inside measurement is about 96 feet in length by about 36 in the broadest part, and 30 in height. In the whole of this building, though limited in expenditure to a sum comparatively small, the entire cost amounting to only 14,000l. and submitting his plans to parochial approval,—the architect has produced an edifice peculiarly chaste and elegant: the steeple is possessed of remarkable beauty, and is but little inferior to the most admired specimens in the metropolis, so accurate is its design, and so great the harmony of its several parts. The consecration of the New Church of St. Paul, Shadwell, was performed on Thursday, April 5th, 1821, by the Bishop of London.
The following is a list of the RECTORS OF SHADWELL:—
1670. April 3rd. Robert Marriott, M.A.
1689. July 25th. Nathaniel Resbury, D.D.This divine was one of the Royal Chaplains in Ordinary, and the author of the following works:—Sermon on Isaiah, lvii. 1, at the funeral of Sir Alan Broderick, 1681, 4to. Sermon on Matt. xxv. 40. 1681. 4to. Sermon of Providence, Matt. vi. 26. 1689, 4to. Sermon on Job xxxvi. 8. before the Queen at Whitehall, Aug. 16, 1691. 4to. The Advantages of Sickness, Job xxxiii. 22-24, before the Queen at Whitehall, Aug. 21, 1692. 4to. Of Closet-Prayer, Matt. vi. 6, 1693. 4to. The Case of the Cross in Baptism considered. Lond. 1685, 1694. 4to. On Revelations, ii. 1. 1703. 4to.
1711. August 22d. William Higden, P.S.T.
1715. November 25th. Benjamin Ibbot, M.A.Also one of the Royal Chaplains in Ordinary, and an ingenious and learned writer, born at Beachamwell in 1680, died 1725. He published a Translation of Puffendorff's treatise De habitu Religionis Christianæ ad Vitam Civilem; or of the Relation between Church and State, and how far the Christian and Civil Life affect each other: with a Preface, giving some account of the book and its use, with regard to the controversies of the time, 1719. A Sermon on the Ascension. 1714, 8vo. The Nature and Office of the Civil Magistrate, a Sermon, 1720, 4to. Thirty Discourses on Practical Subjects, selected from his MSS. by Dr. Clarke, 1726. 8vo. 2 vols. Reprinted 1776. 8vo. 2 vols. containing also Six Occasional Discourses, and a Memoir by Dr. Flexman. Course of Sermons preached at Boyle's Lecture in 1713-14. 1726. 8vo. There is also a Poem, in Blank Verse, by him in Dodslsy's Collection, Vol. v. p. 202, entitled, A Fit of the Spleen, in imitation of Shakspeare.
1725. May 8th. Charles Vernon, B.S.T.
1736. October 16th. John Nash, M.A.
1740. April 7th. John Whitwick, M.A.
1741. May 28th. Joseph Butler, M.A.
1798. September 18th. Griffith Griffiths, B.A.
1812. May 18th. Charles Webb Le Bas, M.A.
Evening Lecturer. Rev. Robert Drought, L.L. B.
Afternoon Lecturer. Rev. John Duncan, M.A.
The Rector appoints the Parish Clerk.
Below the south-western end of the present Church-yard is a small court of dilapidated brick Alms-houses, partly deserted, originally founded by the will of Dame Alice Roe, the relict of Captain Cook.She left, says Lysons, all her household goods to the Parishes of Shadwell and Stepney, for the purpose of building alms-houses, and as an endowment for them she bequeathed the sum of 200l after the death of one of her sisters, and 500l. after the death of her other sister. She bequeathed also the sum of 1000l. to her third husband, Mr. Carant, on these conditions, that if he should marry again and have a son and give him the name of Cook, the said son should, at the age of 21, enjoy the sum of 1000l., otherwise to go as an augmentation to the alms-houses. This benefaction never took effect as intended. The houses were built, and still remain in Spring Street but the reversionary bequests were never received. Mrs. Sarah Ray, in 1781, bequeathed the sum of 400l. the reversion of a piece of leasehold ground in West's Garden, and all her residuary property, after the payment of certain legacies, to the pensioners in Cook's almshouses. No benefit has yet accrued from this bequest, which has been the subject of litigation. There is another alms-house for poor widows in Cow-lane, but it has no endowment. Lysons' Environs of London. Vol. iii. p. 388.
A Charity School was instituted in this Parish in 1696, and contests with that belonging to St. Botolph, Aldgate, the claim of being the oldest parochial school in London. In 1713, Mr. John Jewar gave to the establishment by will a rent-charge of 3l. per annum, out of a farm called Canterbury, in the Manor of Margaretting, in Essex; and in the same year Mr. William Cozin added 5l. per annum out of two houses in Old Gravel Lane, Shadwell. In 1790 Mr. Jonathan Raven gave 1l. per annum, and Mrs. Mary Bowes, 6l. 10s. yearly. The whole of the permanent annual income amounts to 57l., though there be also some uncertain additions;Farther Report (Second) of the Commissioners appointed to enquire concerning Charities, dated 5th July, 1819, pages 121, 122. The inscription on the front of the new school house states that the schools were founded in 1699.—In the same report will be found an account of the two Charity-schools belonging to the Dissenting Meeting-house, also in Shadwell. and benefactions in money have been received to the amount of about 900l., the principal donors being the following:—1712. Dr. Nathaniel Resbury, Rector, 50l.; Mrs. Baynton, 50l.; Capt. Thomas Lemon, 100l.; Mr. Samuel Clarke, 50l.; —1717. Mr. Andrew Chelton, 100l.; Mr. Peter Russell, 50l.; Mr. Cooper, 50l.—1790. Mr. John Fleming, 100l.Lysons'
Environs of London, Vol. iii. p. 387.
There are at present 45 boys and 35 girls clothed and educated in this School: the salary of the Master is 40l.
and that of the Mistress 30l.; but the former receives a yearly addition of 16l. 10s. paid at the office of the Exchequer from Queen Anne's Bounty—Whilst the Parish Church of Shadwell lay in a state of dilapidation, the School belonging to it was also allowed to decline in consequence of the very imperfect manner in which it was conducted. The old School-house was built upon ground belonging to the estate of the Hon. Thomas Bowes, held by him, by or trustees for him, under a lease from the Dean of St. Paul's. The edifice having fallen into great decay. a subscription was raised for rebuilding it, and a negociation opened with Mr. Bowes' trustees for a grant of the old ground and materials; which some difficulties prevented being effected. In the mean time, about 1816, the School-house became uninhabitable: the Master and Mistress were removed to lodgings, and the children were also taught in hired apartments which were both inconvenient and expensive. This state of matters occasioned much dissatisfaction: though it was still considered that if the School-house were rebuilt, and the parishioners saw that the means existed of applying their bounty in an efficient manner, the establishment would not want a liberal support.Second Report on Charities, p. 122.
In 1829 the School-house was rebuilt upon a very handsome plan, corresponding with the style of the Church; and now forms the entire western end of the new Churchyard.
The south part of this Parish, called Lower Shadwell, was originally a portion of Wapping-Marsh, and before the embankment of the Thames was actually within the course of the river: but it is now inhabited by tradesmen and manufacturers connected with the shipping. The streets within the district called Old and New Gravel Lanes, were so named from their having been formerly ways by which carts filled with gravel passed from the neighbouring Sun-Tavern Fields to the Thames, where it was employed in ballasting ships, until ballast was procured from the bed of the river. The fields alluded to have long constituted the only land in Shadwell not covered with buildings: they consist of but a few acres, and are occupied by several rope walks, 400 yards long, in which cables are made from 6 to 23 inches in girth.Lysons'
Environs of London, Vol. iii. p. 383.—These rope-walks are now occupied by Messrs. W. Sims and Son.—To these fields, though perhaps the site belongs rather to the fields between Ratcliffe and Stepney, has been attributed the place of the Roman Cemetery described by Camden, Sir Robert Cotton, and Weever. Here in Radcliffe, says Strype, in his notice of the antiquities there, was near a hundred years ago a leaden coffin digged up; and two or three urns found, with a piece of money inscribed thus on one side, IMP. PVPIENVS MAXIMVS P. F. AVGVST: and on the other side hands joined, and this motto, PATRES SENATVS. Sir Robert Cotton, the learned antiquarian, discovered in Radcliff-field the monument of a Pro-prætor's wife; which Bishop Stillingfleet takes notice of from Weever's Monument: which relation of that industrious man deserveth here to be transcribed at length. Within the Parish of Stepney in Middlesex, in Radcliff-field where they take ballast for ships, about some fourteen or fifteen years ago (that is Anno 1614 or 1615) were found two monuments, the one of stone, wherein were the bones of a man; the other a chest of lead, the upper part being garnished, with escallop-shells, and a crotister border. At the head of the coffin and the foot, there were two jars, of a three foot length, standing, and on the sides a number of bottles of glistering red earth, some painted, and a great many vials of glass, some six, some eight, square, having a whitish liquor within them; within the chest was the body of a woman, as the chirurgions judged by the skull. On either side of her were two sceptres ofivory, 18 inches long; and on her breast a little figure of Cupid, neatly cut in white stone; and with the bones two printed pieces of jet, with round heads, in the form of nails, 3 inches long. 'It seemeth,' says Sir Robert Cotton, from whom I had this relation, 'that these bodies were burnt, about the year of our Lord 239, it being there were found divers coins of Pupienus Gordian, and the Emperors of that time; and that one may conjecture by her ornaments, that this last body should be some Princess or Pro-Prætor's wife here in Britain, in the time of the Roman government.'—And hence the foresaid learned Bishop concludeth that London so near adjoining to this burying-place, was the metropolis of Britain in the times the Romans had to do here; inasmuch as it may be presumed from the burial of this lady, that the legate of the Emperor, or Pro-Prætor, had his chief residence here; and the great business of the province, as to civil matters, was brought hither to him. Here was his Prætorium, which at first signified the general's tent; but that as the name came from the camp to the city, so the Prætorium was the house of the Governor. Strype's Stow's Survey of London, Vol. ii. book iv. chap. ii. p. 43. One of the ancient prominent features of this Parish was the Shadwell Water-works, which were also established by Mr. Neale, the founder of the church, in 1660, for the benefit of the surrounding inhabitants. At first only one engine, worked by four horses, was employed, but in 1679 the works were rebuilt upon a larger scale, and two engines were erected. In 1687, for the purpose of securing his property, Mr. Neale, solicited a patent; when, meeting with some difficulties in his suit, he strengthened his interest, and at the same time raised a considerable sum of money by dividing the establishment into thirty-six shares. The proprietors, however, were at length made a body-corporate by Letters Patent in 1691; from which time until 1750 they continued to raise the water by horses. A steam-engine was then erected, constructed upon the original principle, which was found so inadequate to the purpose that the Company suffered considerable loss;It is, however, stated of this engine that at a fire near Broad Bridge, in Shadwell High Street, on June 11th, 1768, a very extensive destruction was prevented by a great pour of water, supplied chiefly by the Shadwell water-works; which, on this occasion, sent down 2500 tons of water, as appeared by the measure of the fall of water in their reservoir. Annual Register, Vol. xi. p. 123. (Chronicle.) but in 1774 the improved engine of Messrs. Boulton and Watt was adopted, when it was found that with a great increase of power, the consumption of fuel was lessened two-thirds. Its power of raising water was at the rate of 903 gallons in a minute; which is 52,110 gallons in an hour, and 730,520, or 2853 tons, 152 gallons, in a day of fourteen hours, the usual time of working it. The spot occupied by these works was situate between Middle and Lower Shadwell, on the north and south, and Broad Bridge, and Labour-in-vain Hill on the east and west:This spot will now be found between Leading-street on the south, and High-Street, Shadwell, on the north; and consists of a square mass of inferior, though lofty and modern houses, intersected by several small and narrow passages and yards, the whole being of the most mean and dirty appearance. and the district supplied by them contained nearly 8000 houses, besides public buildings, extending from the Tower to Limehouse Bridge, and from Whitechapel to the River.Lysons'
Environs of London, Vol. iii. p. 389, from an account of the Shadwell Water-works, communicated by William Fraser, Esq. Clerk to the Company. Malcolm states that these works were bought by the London Dock Company for 50,000l.Londinum Redivivum. Vol. iv. Lond. 1807. 4to. p. 567. but in Lysons' additions to his account of Shadwell it is related that they were disused, that the premises were about to be converted to other purposes, and that the works had been sold to the East London Water-works Company, by which the Parish and its vicinity are now supplied with water.Supplement to the First Editions of the Environs of London, Lond. 1811. 4to. p. 285.