Londina Illustrata. Graphic and Historical Memorials of Monasteries, Churches, Chapels, Schools, Charitable Foundations, Palaces, Halls, Courts, Processions, Places of Early Amusement, and Modern Present Theatres, in the Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, Volume 1
. , d.
— d. Agreed that
-. , .
. . Agreed
-. , . The great door and wicket at the north-west end of the Church, hanging to the wall of John a Bowen's house, to be hung on the other side at the Church's charge,
. , .
— , .
ordered on the south side of the body of the Church at
then the north side of the middle aisle to be done also.—The latter pews were ordered -.
. , . The porch of the north door ordered to be repaired,
-. , . Ordered that the xvj taken for every grave in the side-Chapels, in the body of the Churche, and under the Library, shall be given to the Churchwardens, who are to see the place made up again without delay.
-. , . [d] ordered on the south side of the Church, and so many on the north,
the pews on the north to be inches shorter to enlarge them: the old pews which had been built by any heretofore to be employed to re-edify the new.
. , . The wall in the North Chapel in danger of breaking out with a foul annoyance, as from Witchecok's house and Anthony Yonge's, which should be spedily remedied: the Churchwardens to talk with the former for it to be amended, or else to be considered of at the Vestry.— , . Witchecocke promises that his vault shall be cleaned, that the
—, . A door ordered
—, . The parishioners moved to contribute towards discharging the Church debts, chiefly for enclosing the vestry.—[e]
-. , . The Churchwardens to procure the entrance at the west end of the Church to be paved with hard stone.
. , .
—Ordered that the wall in the North Chapel
. , . Ordered that Mott
—. Robert Mott the Bell-founder to have his bill paid for casting the Great Bell, and for overplus of metal, and for taking the Bell down and hanging it up again:
—. Ordered dozen of
to be provided at the charge of the Church; and Ladders,
. . Ordered that the Churchwardens get dozen of
—. Notice of the box-maker's cellar being dangerous to the steeple in future:—a fire made on a hearth in a shop let to Anthony Yonge, though he has no chimney.—His tenement appears to have been of those at the east end of the Church on the north side, in : see .
. , February—
—The expense amounted to
. , . The building of the Churchyard wall referred to another Vestry.
— , . The steeple and turret next Master Doctor's house to be viewed, and presently repaired if required.
— , . The same sentenced by the Master and Wardens of the Masons to be taken down in March, and in the mean space to be pointed and stopped against the weather.
. , . . Again viewed.—d. To be rough-cast where it is required, and a new door made on the leads, from the south-west part of the steeple.
. , . Agreed that the penny of Pewage throughout the Church, should be upon every pew abated, for that the same had been too high charged.—Agreed that Mott's Bell be accepted of, because thought tuneable enough;
—he to have as agreed on xij per cwt. in exchange, amounting to ; the weight of the old Bell being cwt. qr. lbs. and that of the new cwt. qrs. lbs. a bond still given that the Bell shall continue sound and sure for months and a day.
. , . A view of the steeple ordered, complaint being made that it is very defective
. , . Agreed that the duties for burials in the Chapels, Church, and Library, shall be raised: namely, for graves in the aisles, ; in the Church, ; and under the Library, And a new table to be made accordingly.
. . A new head for the pulpit ordered by the Churchwardens.
. . Agreed for the Sexton to have his passage through the shop next the steeple, which the Clerk's now joineth,
. . The old clock-bell ordered to the top of the steeple, because the on which the clock now striketh is found fault with, being so low that few of the parish can hear it.
. . The Steeple again viewed.
—. A motion for altering certayne pewes in the Churche for Woomen, and that for diuers reasons then shewn at the vestrie it was left to the Churchwardens with certeyne sufficient workemen; and they to vew and give their advice therein, whereby such things as are fitting may be done and no other.
. . The Steeple ordered to be covered and the bells hung up.
. . Agreed that some of the Parish go to Sir Henry Martine with a petition, to acquaint him with the ruinous state of the Church and steeple, to procure some of the money in his hands for charitable uses.[d]
. . The repair of the Steeple considered, then much in decay, as to whether the fabric should
—The latter agreed to by the vestry.
Of the cause of the very extensive repairs which were now about to be commenced throughout the whole of this edifice, there is the following curious anecdote related in David Lloyd's , London: , folio; page , in the account of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury.—
— Several particulars of the restoration of will be found in the ensuing extracts from the Vestry-books; but it may be observed previously, that the following general account of it is given in the additions to Stow's [b]
[c] —The series of extracts shall now be resumed.
. . The Sexton allowed per week for his attendance on the carpenters from the beginning of the work, .—A course to be taken by the Parish for recovering the money given by Mr. Reynolds towards re-edifying the Steeple; and a contribution immediately made towards rebuilding the Church and Steeple.—The Bell to be new cast and made tuneable like the rest.
. . The Churchwardens to raise the pews; to new pave and level the Church floor; and to new line the row of men's pews with say.—The Belfrey to be taken down and set lower, and new stairs made.
—. A subscription at the Vestry towards the repair of the Church.
. . The Mason's note of repairs required presented and entered; the particulars of which are as follow.—The upper and lower battlements of the Church to be removed and replaced, excepting the lower on the north side, according to the old proportions of height and thickness; with new water-tables and crest and vent of Portland stone:—To point and mend the lower north battlements, water-tables, and buttresses, and the south buttresses:—The staircase battlements to be renewed and pointed all down; and a portal made over the Church door as formerly:—The entire stonework of the windows in the middle roof, on the south, on the north, on the east, of which to be taken down to the foundations if the parish think fit, and on the west:—those parts of the Church to be pointed and rough-cast which were formerly so, and all other defects to be amended:—Portland stone to be used throughout.
. , . The other half of the contributions for repair of the Church ordered to be collected: the leads to be viewed and repaired, and steeple turret to be amended:—the Churchwardens to give an allowance to the masons for breakfasts not exceeding —the Court of Aldermen to be petitioned for their benevolence.
. . The Parish having already petitioned the Mercers, Grocers, and Merchant-Taylors, for assistance towards the repairs, petitions are ordered to the remainder of the Companies.
. . The Churchwardens ordered to pay Sutton, the Glass-Painter.[d] in full of his bill:—and to Norman the Painter in fulle payment.
. , . Agreed that the charges for taking away Superstitious Pictures out of the Church,[e] and for repairing and adorning the same as it hath been lately performed, by consent of the former Vestry, shall be paid by the Churchwardens out of the Parish stock.—The Parish to treat with Mr. Coleman[f] about taking the Sequestration of the Rectory.
. . Farther Conferences between Coleman and the Parish.—. Mr. Thomas Coleman elected minister by the Vestry.
. . Agreed that the Parish petition the Committee of Sequestrations for time to elect a minister in the room of Coleman, deceased.
. . William Blackmore elected Minister by the Parish, by order of the Committee for Plundered Ministers.[a]
—. Ruling Elders chosen.[b]
. . Agreed that Thomas Fenn, Sexton, be required to give an account of the lynnen and scarlet hood belonging to the Parish, and all the brasses that are missing, between this and the next Vestry, or else to be discharged.[c]
. . collected for propagating the Gospel in New England.[d]
. . Order for buckets to be repaired damaged by the late fire.
. . The north side of the Church ordered to be repaired and viewed.
. . A wire lattice ordered for defence of the King's Arms and other Painted Glass in the Vestry, and at the chancel end, and on side.
—. Agreed that a Parish Prayer Book be bought at the Parish charge.
—. A Saint's Bell ordered to be hanged in the Steeple over the other bells.
. . The turrets in the steeple very much impaired and dangerous to the houses.
. . Agreed that the Church and Vestry shall be forthwith repaired and beautified.
The Church of St. Peter upon appears to have been in the same state of continual alteration and repair down to the time of the Great Fire of London, : for on in that year, it was agreed that the steeple and eastern end of the edifice should be taken down, and a petition presented to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen for furtherance of rebuilding the whole. As the conflagration crossed diagonally from and the south-western corner of Leadenhall, to the same angle of ,—a very small portion of the north-eastern part of this Church was left undestroyed; though the fire carried away all the remainder in its devasting progress up , which it appears to have reached on Monday .[e] — After the fire the Vestry of met at the Nag's Head Tavern, , nearly opposite to Leadenhall gate, and the earliest entry of its proceedings is on , directing that several quantities of lead, iron, and bell-metal, and other matters, and things scattered and in danger of being wasted, then lying in the ruins, should be collected by Mr. Richard Blackburne, the Churchwarden. On , it is agreed that per annum shall be allowed him for the charge of cellars wherever those articles may belying; and on , appears the notice of rebuilding this part of , by the vestry granting him the ground of the Round Tower, or staircase of the steeple to build upon at the rent of per annum, or a lease of years.—The proceedings of the Churchwardens are then again regularly entered, and the following extracts shew various circumstances relating to the Parish in its desolated state, as well as the progress of removing the ruins of the old Church and of erecting the present.
—At this time all the estates of the Parish seem to be let as sheds.
— . The Vestry orders the ruins to be cleared:—the lead, &c. in the custody of Master Richard Blackburne ordered to be sold and the money applied towards rebuilding the Church.
. . An order for taking down the east wall of the Church.
-. February Agreed that a general Vestry shall be speedily called about preparing and fitting the Vestry for a public meeting in the worship of God:—the ground of the Church-yard should be enclosed for security of the Church materials.
. . The ground from the houses of Mr. Williamson's legacy belonging to , staked out for the enlargement of Grace certified by Robert Hooke to be in depth at the north end feet, and at the south feet; in breadth from north to south, feet inches; and in superficial content feet / of an inch:—the ground staked out to be taken away from the Church of St. Peter for the enlargement of Grace , certified by the same, at the north end feet, and at the south end feet; the breadth feet, and the superficial content feet.— These additions to the street gave it the present direct line to the south end of , the old road having had an oblique turning to the east by Leaden-Hall: and for this ground the city paid to Parish. (See .[a] )
—Ordered that the part of Alley next be paved with broad stones, like the other part next Grace , already done.
. . It was voted that guineas be paid to Dr. Wrenn (Sir Christopher, the Architect) as a gratuity for his pains and furtherance of a Tabernacle for this Parish.—This temporary building appears to have stood on the south of the Church in the present Churchyard.
. . The Vestry held at the Tabernacle: a bell ordered for it weighing about cwt. and workmen to make a wheel and frame.
—. more voted to Dr. Wrenn:—charge ordered for burials in the Tabernacle to be for every corpse.
-. . paid to the Parish by the City for melioration for ground to be taken from the eastern end of , and laid into Grace .
-. . A door ordered to be made into the Tabernacle out of Alley.
. . The leases of the shops under the Church bought to raise money upon.—At the following Vestry bought by Robert Fowler for
. , . It was ordered that Thomas Poultney and Thomas Athew, Citizens and Joiners of London, their Executors, &c. should, by the next ensuing, erect and finish in the Parish Church of St. Peter, for the prices undermentioned, the several pews, seats, screen, and pulpit, agreeably to models delivered, and hereunto annexed:—Viz.—All the pews that shall be set up in the body of said Church shall be in height ft. inches above the floor. And all the pews in the Chancel shall be in height ft. inches above the floor. And the pillars and walls in the said Church shall be lined feet high, or thereabout, above the floor. The Screen, which shall divide the body of the said Church from the Chancel, shall be feet high above the pavement, and made according to model. All the fronts of the pews shall be framed with wainscot; inch and a half thick, and mitred with an ogee on both sides, and a round laid on the outside of the framing, and the panel of an inch thick raised on both sides. All the partitions shall be framed with wainscot, an inch and a half thick and mitred with an ogee on both sides, and the panels of an inch thick, raised on both sides; under the benches excepted which shall be wrought as plain work. The wall-work and casing the pillars shall be framed with wainscot, inch thick, and mitred with an ogee and the panels an inch thick raised. All the desk-boards shall be of wainscot, of an inch thick, and inches broad, more or less, with the brackets, not to be measured in.—All the benches shall be made of well-seasoned yellow Drame Deal, without knots or holes, and shall be a foot broad, more or less, and inch and a half thick: the feet for the benches not to be measured or paid for.—The Screen shall be framed with wainscot, inches thick, and panels inch and a quarter thick, raised on both sides. And the fronts and partitions of the pews, the wall-work, and linings of the pillars, as aforesaid, shall be all measured straight in height and length, the Screen only as work and half; (the King's Armes above the screen excepted.) And they shall make and set up the King's Armes above the screen, raised fair, and to appear on both sides; the said Screen to be wrought in wainscot, according to the best art and skill of the trade or mystery of a carver.—And they shall and will make and set up a wainscot pulpit, with the canopy, stairs, rail, and carving-work, belonging to it agreeably to model. And farther that all the wainscot that shall be used in and about the several pews, wall-work, linings of the pillars, screen, King's Arms, and pulpit, shall be of good, clean, sound, well-coloured, well-dryed, well-seasoned, and well-matched, East-country wainscot, without white or red veines, sap, knots, or holes, in the said frame or panel, lining, or moulding work.—And they shall set all the locks and hinges on in a workmanlike manner: viz. a pair of hinges and a lock on each door.
Item, the fronts of all the said pews shall be done after the rate of per yard, measuring on side. The wall-work and casing of the pillars shall be done after the rate of a yard. The Desk boards of per foot, and the benches after the rate of per foot. The Screen and carvingwork about the same, according to model, shall be done after the rate of per yard; except the King's Arms, which shall be done for the sum of . The pulpit, canopy, rails, and stairs, belonging, agreeably to model, shall be done for the sum of Item, all the benches shall be borne up with standards of deal, and not to be measured, but go into the benching at per foot.
And the said Thomas Poultney and Thomas Athew do covenant to finish all the said work as above, if not hindered by the other workmen employed for the prices, &c. above named. In consideration of which work so to be done, it is ordered by Vestry that the said Thomas Poultney and Thomas Athew, their Executors, &c. shall for such work be paid as per agreement, in manner following; viz.— upon the said parties bringing in the said work into the same Parish Church: more upon their fixing and setting up the same; and the remainder which the said work shall amount to, according to the prices fixed on, within months after the compleat finishing of the same.
. . Agreed upon erecting the Organ by Smith, according to the model produced, for ; including painting, gilding, and setting up.
—. The Vestry again held at the Nag's Head Tavern; probably in consequence of taking down the Tabernacle, as at this time the Church was almost completed.
. , . The Vestry held in the new Vestry house at the Church.
The present edifice being thus completed, the few additional descriptive particulars of it which are required by the annexed Views, shall be here inserted. It is situate on the same spot which it occupied before the Fire, at the angle formed by Grace-Church Street and , excepting that about feet were taken from the eastern end of it. This part fronts upon the western side of the street, and is built in the Grecian style, with a decorated pediment enclosing windows; beneath which are others, separated by Corinthian pilasters. The side of the Church in rises from behind a long and low but handsome shop, and the south side overlooks the Churchyard and Alley, as exhibited in the ensuing Plate of the Exterior. By the same View it will also be seen that the body of the building is of stone, and the tower of brick, as far as the dome and spire, but the latter are of wood covered with lead: the roof is also entirely leaded over. The interior is divided into a
|Chancel, raised step higher than the remainder of the area; a nave containing aisles; and a spacious vestibule called the porch, the whole breadth of the building, under the gallery at the western end of the Church, where is situate the Vestry. A very fine arched roof is supported on square piers, fronted with pilasters of the Corinthian Order, surmounted by their entablatures. A beautiful oaken screen of small fluted pillars, crosses the whole width of the Church and separates the nave from the chancel; within which is an altar-piece of the Ionic Order, with a small font placed against the south wall: the spaces on each side at the extremity of the aisles being called the North and South Chapels. At the western end is a large gallery supported by Tuscan columns containing the organ; and the whole building is wainscoted with oak feet in height.—The dimensions of the Church are feet in length, by in breadth, and in height; the steeple being feet high,[a] to the gilded key which serves it for a vane emblematical of St. Peter. This edifice was last repaired and beautified in the most appropriate and harmonious manner in .—As the series of extracts from the Vestry-Books of St. Peter upon contained in the MSS. of the late Mr. Wilkinson at the City Library, terminate - ,—the following continuation is taken from another volume also copied by him, now in the possession of Mr. Baker, the Vestry-Clerk of this Parish, by whom it was most obligingly communicated for the use of this work. The entries in it refer particularly to the erection of the various monuments in the present Church, but it also contains many curious notices relating to the origin of various parochial customs.|
. . Sixpence offered to each of the parishioners who come to Vestry.
. . Resolved to make a vault for the burial of the dead.
—. Ordered that the Committee treat with workmen for the iron gates and pallisadoes round the Churchyard.
. . Ordered that dues for burying the dead in the church be raised:— guineas presented to the Parish by Mr. William , Merchant, in consideration of permitting him to fit up a pew in the South chapel at his own charge for himself and family as long as he shall remain in the Parish:—Mr. Joseph Mott allowed Lady Beck's pew for his own use, the payment for which is left to his generosity, and he also presents the parish with guineas.
. . Ordered a pair of iron gates at the north door of the church:— guineas of the given by Mr. Mott for his pew returned to his widow.
—. Present at the Vestry, Dr. John Waugh, Lord Bishop of Carlisle, Rector.
. . Mr. John Finch to represent the Bishop at the Vestry.
. . Ordered that the Churchwardens wait upon the Lord Bishop of Carlisle about the pulpit being hung in mourning—for the death of George I., .
-. . Resolved that whoever builds a pew in the church pays guineas:—the fines to be paid forthwith.
. . Ordered that every person who shall have leave to lay down a grave-stone in any of the aisles of the church shall pay to the churchwardens for the use of the Parish.
. . A motion being made for leave to erect a monument in the churchyard not exceeding feet in length and feet in breadth;— Ordered that leave be given to erect the same upon payment of guineas to the churchwarden for the use of the Parish.
. . The Orders of the last Vestry were read and confirmed, excepting that the leave given to erect a monument in the churchyard is hereby extended to feet inches in length, and feet inch in breadth, instead of the former dimensions allotted for the same.
. . Mr. John Angel chosen Under-churchwarden.—. . Upper churchwarden.
. . Ordered that Mr. Sharett goes in the name of the Vestry to Messrs. Drake and Long, to let them know that it is expected they make a present to the poor for the privilege of having put up a monument on the south-side of within to the memory of Mrs. Gale.
. . Resolved that John Butler, Parish Clerk, be allowed per annum, beside the former gratuity of for his good services.
. . The Rev. Mr. Frankleyn, the Curate, requested to print the Sermon preached by him last Sunday forenoon: and presented by the Vestry with guineas for the printing.
. . The Vestry-room under repair: the Vestry held at the White Lion Tavern.
. . Ordered that the pulpit and desk be put into mourning for the death of our most gracious Sovereign King George II.
. . The Churchwarden, Mr. John Blake, informed the Vestry that he had received the sum of for affixing a monument in the church for Charles Chauncy (an oval tablet fixed against the north wall) and that he had paid the present Rector, Dr. Thomas, part thereof; and desired the opinion of the Vestry whether the Dr. were not entitled to half part of the said guineas, as he was informed had been practised in other parishes: which being put to the vote was carried in the affirmative.
. . It was submitted to the consideration of the Vestry whether a head stone with a modest inscription to the memory of the late John Butler, Parish and Vestry Clerk of this Parish, to perpetuate the remembrance of his long, faithful, and laborious services, for the benefit of this Parish, and aid of the severa officers thereof,—might not encourage diligence in future servants: when it was unanimously agreed that be erected for the said purpose.[b]
. . A motion that houses in Grace belonging to the Parish, shall not be let to a butcher, tallow-chandler, pawnbroker, or working-copper smith: negatived.
. . Select Vestries discontinued.[c]
. . A New Table of Fees made; which in was beautifully executed in ornamental writing by Tomkins, and framed and hung up in the Vestry.
. . A Vestry concerning the Voluntary Subscriptions in aid of the country collected in the Parish; amounting to
. . Use of the Vestry granted to the Volunteers.
. . Mr. Gould permitted to erect a tablet to the memory of Mrs. Gould against the south wall of the church outside, on paying to the poor.
The subject of the last Plate in the present series is immediately connected with that of several of the preceling extracts; it being a representation of the beautiful mural monument erected in the South Chapel of St.
| Peter's to commemorate the terrific destruction of the children of Mr. James Woodmason, a wholesale stationer of ,[a] by fire, during the night of Friday, . An extraordinary account of this dreadful calamity, published at the time, and called |
[b] states that Mr. Woodmason with several friends had gone to the gallery of the ball-room of St. James's, it being the anniversary appointed to be held as the Queen's birth-day; leaving at home with his wife female servants and young men belonging to his establishment: his clerks and footmen being all absent, and even the females also appear to have left the house, excepting maid-servant. About half-past Mrs. Woodmason visited all the children according to her usual custom, and found them all sleeping excepting the elder, with whom she conversed: of them being in the nursery, over her own bedchamber in front of the house, and others immediately above them. She then returned to her room, and had partly undressed, but went into another chamber to bathe her feet, sending a servant into her own apartment with a glass of water. About minutes after she heard a violent shriek and cry of fire, upon which she ran out and saw her bed in flames: in consequence, according to a report of the period, of the light having communicated to the white drapery of the looking glass and toilette. Mrs. Woodmason hastily called out to the servant to save the children, but she in her alarm rushed stairs for assistance, followed by her mistress, both of them loudly exclaiming for aid; yet neither of them had the presence of mind to shut the door of the chamber in which the fire began. No answer was returned to them, and no came to them; the kitchen was found empty; and Mrs. Woodmason then went into the dining-room, opened a widow, and called out Fire! upon which several persons in the street promised to assist her, and desired her to open the street-door. She effected this with much difficulty, crying out for them to save her children, and was then carried senseless to a house opposite; where she remained for sometime in agonies not to be described until assured that her children were safe. This, however, was only a humane deception, since the flames soon reached the staircase, and cut off all possibility of succour or retreat; whilst the fire rushed so vehemently from the chamber-door with so dense a smoke, that those who entered dared not venture up to the floor, and the whole of the children were consumed. A want of water also for nearly an hour, allowed the conflagration to spread to the warehouse behind and the adjoining houses, and it was not until nearly o'clock on Saturday morning that the fire was abated.[c] In the interim a neighbour had gone to St. James's for Mr. Woodmason, and upon his arrival, though all cried out to him that his children were safe, he was soon convinced by his own observation and the answers given to him, that they were destroyed: he found his wife in the greatest agonies, and his feelings and sufferings may be better imagined then expressed.[d] When the wall of the house suddenly fell some other persons were killed by the overthrow.[e]
On Monday, , the eldest daughter of the family was dug out of the ruins, with the body of a lad, said to be an apprentice from ,[f] and on Wednesday
[g] —so much curiosity was excited by the fatal termination of this fire, that though it was of such a very limited extent, great numbers went daily merely to look at the remains of the house. The interest felt for the misfortunes of the family was also very general and intense, and for Tuesday, , states, that
— Another act of great friendship and humanity was the erection of that beautiful monument over the remains of the children represented in the annexed Plate:
as the elegant inscription states,
The notice relating to it is entered on the parochial minutes of Thursday, ; when it is recorded that Mr. Richard Board
In of the original accounts of this fire, appears a notice of the very great utility of a number of bags brought from watch-house and used for making a dam for the water, instead of the usual slight layers of
| straw or litter, which are so easily carried away. of those bags were found in less then a minute to collect a head of water sufficient to supply the pipes of engines, the superflux being received into a dam, both of which remained firm, and even served as a bridge for persons crossing in saving the goods. The want of water, however, was the cause of a complaint concerning the state of the reservoir then making opposite the north door of ; in consequence of a resolution passed at a Wardmote of Ward.[a] A Defence from an inhabitant of the vicinity in the of Friday , states that the engines were then completed, and would be fixed so soon as liberty could be obtained of the City and grants from the Water- Companies, memorials for which had been presented and were waiting the usual forms and meetings of public bodies. Had the reservoir been quite ready, observes this notice, |
In the formation of this tank, the workmen dug through different strata of foundations before they came to the solid earth. These were supposed to have been the deposits of successive fires; and from the lowermost and oldest being composed of woodashes, it was assumed to be the very ancient remains of London when the whole city was built of wood. The labourers having dug below the foundation of the present Church of St. Peter, upon sinking still lower they came to the remains of a much older building; and fearing that the edifice might fall upon them, they refused to proceed unless Mr. Blackburn, the engineer, would encounter with them the hazard of the earth falling in, which he did, and some distance lower they met with a human skeleton. The undertaking was at length completed at the expense of subscribed by the adjoining Parishes and the Fire Offices; and a reservoir of water was erected, which was filled by the common Thames water-works, and furnished to the largest engine a sudden supply sufficient for all purposes till more could be obtained from fire-plugs, &c. The bricks used for the walls of this tank were made for the purpose, and exactly fitted in dovetails and mortices, being wedged together in cement by the blows of a hammer. Above the tank are now erected broad cast-iron pillars containing the engines by which it is worked, a short distance to the east of the north door of , at the extremity of the pavement in . These engines are wrought at certain periods that they may be in constant readiness for use; and the sum of is paid monthly by the Parishes of St. Michael and St. Peter, alternately, for working them, on an order signed by the Deputy of Ward: their power and the contents of the tank are capable of floodingthe streets down to St. Mary at Axe.[b]
[c] Previously to the Reformation there were one or more Clerks in holy orders attached to Parish-Churches, as assistants to the Rector or Vicar, who had for their maintenance the profits of the place, and the privilege of teaching school. As the Parish-Clerks, subsequently established performed many of the same duties, and often held the same privileges, they considered themselves to be also belonging to the Clergy, and empowered to read or say a homily or sermon in the public service of the Church; especially during the times before preaching was properly understood or regulated, and was almost unknown. Even in the reign of Elizabeth it has been calculated that there were 8000 parishes in England without preaching ministers, and the two books of Homilies by Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Jewel, published in 1547 and 1560, were intended to supply this deficiency. By a Canon of James I. they were permitted to be read by unlicensed ministers, as Deacons, who, by the present form of ordering them, are not allowed to preach, unless they be thereunto licensed by the Bishop himself: and it is not improbable that many of the Parish-Clerks and Schoolmasters of the sixteenth century had already received Deacon's orders, and were thus considered capable of saying a sermon.
[d] This is perhaps a reference to an old practice of the foreign and exiled English protestants abroad,—namely the separating the male and female parts of a congregation; and was probably introduced into England on the increase of the Puritans in the reign of Elizabeth.
[e] The following remarkable persons are mentioned in the Chronicles of Holinshed, edit. 1586. vol. ii. p. 1322, col. 1, in connection with this Parish.—This yeare, 1581, were to be seene in London two Dutchmen of strange statures; the one in height seauen foot and seauen inches, in bredth betwixt the shoulders three quarters of a yard, and an inch; the compasse of his brest one yard, an halfe, and two inches; and about the wast one yard, a quarter, and one inch: the length of his arme to the hand a full yard: a comelie man of person, but lame of his legs, for he had broken them in lifting of a barrell of beere. The other was in height but three foot, had neuer a good foot, nor anie knee at all, and yet could he danse a galliard; he had no arme, but a stumpe to the elbow or little more on the right side; on the which he would danse a cup, and after tosse it about three or foure times, and euerie time receiue the same on the said stumpe: he would shoot an arrow neere to the marke, flourish with a rapier, throw a bowle, beat with an hammer, hew with an axe, sound a trumpet, and drink euerie daie ten quartes of the best beere if he could get it. About the seauenteenth of Julie, I saw these men in the Parish of St. Peter upon Cornhill, the taller sitting on a bench barcheaded, the lesser stood on the same bench, and hauing on his head a hat with a feather, was yet the lower. Also the taller man standing on his feet, the lesser, with his hat and feather on his head, went vprighte betweene his legs and touched him not.
[b] The R in the above mark was probably meant for Rectory, to be read with the other initials, and the tun was intended for the peculiar device of the Ward; referring to that ancient Conduit and Prison called the Tunne upon Cornehill, because the same was builded somewhat in fashion of a tunne standing on one end, erected by Henry le Walleis, Mayor of London in 1282, for night-walkers and other suspicious persons. It stood upon the site of the present pump on the north side of the Royal Exchange, which was erected over the original well on its discovery in 1799.
[d] Sir Henry Martin, Judge of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. The money referred to in this passage was probably the estate of Robert Gray. who died without a will, out of which in 1625 Sir Henry decreed 100l. to the use and benefit of the poor and Parish Church of Allhallows Bread Street. Strype's Stow's Survey of London. Vol. I. Book iii. chap. ix. p. 201.
[b] Stow's Survey of London, Edit. by Anthony Munday, Henry Dyson, &c. Lond. 1633, fol. p. 866 in the Remaines or Remnants of divers worthy things, which should have had their due place and honour in this worke, if promising friends had kept their words. The letter R placed in the margin of various parts of Strype's Edition of Stow, refers to these remains.
[c] The ancient views existing of St. Peter's Church after this repair, represent it as a more compact building than it appeared previously, with the roof clear, and surrounded by battlements, a round turret on the south-west, a series of arched windows in the side of the edifice, and a high pointed spireplaced upon the tower. See the Long Antwerp View of London etched by Hollar, and published in 1647, in seven sheets, measuring 2 1/2 yards by 17 1/2 inches. Of this interesting prospect a very beautiful fac-simile was executed in lithography in 1832 at the expense of William Lewis Newman, Esq., City-Solicitor, for private distribution; by which laudable and liberal act this rare and magnificent print is happily preserved from ever being entirely destroyed.
[d] Baptista Sutton, who painted two windows in the Church of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, in 1634; mentioned in the Hon. Horace Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, Edit. by the Rev. J. Dallaway, Vol. II. Lond. 1826, 8vo. p. 37.
[e] The House of Commons made an order and Sir Robert Harlow the executioner of it, to take away all scandalous pictures, crosses, and figures, within churches and without: and the zealous knight took down the Cross in Cheapside, Charing Cross, and other the like monuments impartially. July 5th, 1641: 17th Charles I.— Memorials of the English Affairs, by Bulstrode Whitelock, Lond. 1732, fol. p. 47—Anno 1643, cap. 17, 28th Aug. 1743. entitled Monuments of Superstition to be abolished (before November 1st, 1643.) And be it farther ordained that all and euery such removal of the said altars, tables of stone, communion-tables, tapers, candlesticks and basons, crucifixes and crosses, images and pictures, as aforesaid, taking away of the rails, levelling of the said grounds, shall be done and performed, and the walls, windows, grounds, and other places, which shall be broken, places of publique prayer, belonging to any Parish by the Church-warden or Church-wardens of euery such Parish respectively.—Penalty 40s.—A Collection of Acts and Ordinances of Generall Use, made in the Parliament begun and held at Westminster the 3rd day of November 1640; and since unto the adjournment of the Parliament begun and holden the 17th of September Anno 1656; by Henry Scobell, Lond. 1658. fol.
[f] The following are official notices of the Sequestration referred to above.—Die Veneris 12o. Maii, 1643, 19 Car. I.—Ordered that Captain Richard Wollaston, and Mr. George Henley, of the Parish of St. Peter, Cornhill, London, do appoint such orthodox Divines as they shall think fit to preach and officiate in the said Parish Church, during the restraint of Dr. Fairfax and do all other things which the said Dr. Fairfax ought to do; and until this House do take further order.—Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. iii. p. 83.—Die Martis, 22o Augusti, 1643, 19 Car. I.—An Order for Sequestring the Parsonage of St. Peter's Cornehill, London, whereof Wm. Fairefaxe, Doctor in Divinity, is now Rector, to the use and benefit of Tho. Coleman, Master of Arts, a godly, learned, and orthodox Divine, who is hereby required to officiate the said cure, and to preach difigently there,—was this day read; and by vote upon the question assented unto.—Ibid. vol. iii. p. 214. With the remarkable divines, says Neal, may be reckoned the reverend and learned Mr. Thomas Colman, Rector of St. Peter's Church in Cornhill: he was born at Oxford and entered in Magdalen College in the seventeenth year of his age; he afterwards became so perfect a master of the Hebrew language, that he was commonly called Rabbi Colman. In the beginning of the Civil War he left his rectory of Blyton in Lincolnshire, being persecuted from thence by the cavaliers. Upon his coming to London he was preferred to the Rectory of St. Peter at Cornhill, and made one of the Assembly of Divines. Mr. Wood says he behaved modestly and learnedly in the Assembly, and Mr. Fuller gives him the character of a modest and learned divine: he was equally an enemy to presbytery and prelacy, being of Erastian principles: he fell sick while the Assembly was debating the jus divinum of presbytery; and when they sent some of their members to visit him, he desired they would not come to an absolute determination till they had heard what he had to offer upon the question; but his distemper increasing he died in a few days, and the whole Assembly did him the honour to attend his funeral in a body, March 30th, 1646.—The History of the Puritans by the Rev. Daniel Neal, Lond. 1822, 8vo. vol. iii. p. 316.
[a] The Committee for Plundered Ministers arose from those Puritan Clergy who, being driven from their cures in the country by the King's soldiers, fled to London with their families; leaving their substance and household furniture to the mercy of the enemy; these being reduced to very great exigencies, applied to the Parliament for relief; the Committee first ordered a charitable collection for them at their monthly fast, and four days after, namely, Dec. 31st, 1642, appointed a Committee to consider of the fittest way for the relief of such godly and well-affected ministers as have been plundered; and what malignant Clergymen have benefices in and about town; whose benefices being sequestered may be supplied by others who may receive their profits.—The Committee of Sequestrations also mentioned in the above extracts, originated in a Grand Committee of the whole House of Commons appointed Nov. 6th, 1640, for enquiring into the morals of the Clergy; from which Nov. 19th, Sub-committees were appointed to consider into the various parts of the subject, and especially of some way of removing scandalous ministers and of putting others in their places; few persons, however, were sequestered before this Committee was joined with that for Plundered Ministers.—Neal's History of the Puritans, vol. iii. pp. 27, 23-25.—William Blackmore, mentioned above as the successor of Colman, is stated by Palmer to have been M.A. of Lincoln Coll. Oxford. Ordained Deacon by Prideaux Bp. of Worcester; but he afterwards received classical ordination. He was imprisoned in the Tower with Mr. Love, &c. but had his parole by means of his elder brother Sir John Blackmore who had sided with Oliver and was his bail; by which means he was very helpful to Mr. Love in his trial. At the desire and appointment of the Provincial Assembly of London, to which he was secretary, he drew up that part in the book entitled Jus Div. Regim. Eccles. which treats of ordination by imposition of hands. After Bartholomew Day, 1662, he lived privately at Harestreet, near Rumford in Essex, to a good old age; preaching once a day gratis in his own hired house. He was particularly useful in catechising youth. He was a considerable man, a person of moderation and prudence, and distinguished as a peacemaker.—The Nonconformist's Memorial, by Samuel Palmer, Lond. 1785. 8vo. vol. i. p. 143.
[b] Die Martis, Aug. 19, 1645.—Directions of the Lords and Commons, after advice had with the Assembly of Divines, for the election and chusing of Ruling Elders in all the congregations, and in the Classical Assembly for the Cities of London and Westminster, and the several Counties of the kingdom for the speedy settling of the Presbyterian government.—Fuller's Church History, Cent. 17, Book xi. p. 228.
[c] A second ordinance for abolishing of monuments of superstition was issued by the Parliament May 9th, 1644, cap. 38; but in both of these acts the final clauses provided for the preservation of any image, picture, or coat of arms, in brass, stone, or otherwise, in any Church, Chapell, Churchyard, or place of publique prayer, as aforesaid; set up or graven onely for a monument of any King, Prince, or Nobleman, or other dead person which hath not been commonly reputed or taken for a Saint. —In the blind and furious zeal of the Parliament's officers and agents, many of these were also destroyed, and it is to such that the above entry refers. The use of copes, surplices, and superstitious vestments, was also prohibited by the latter ordinance, and they were to be taken away and destroyed with all organs and their cases; but the property of them was not assigned to the person who defaced them.
[d] Die Mercurii, 13mo Junii 1649. An Act for the Promoting and Propagating the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England was this day read and committed; and on Friday, July 27th, it was passed and ordered to be published. Journals of the House of Commons, Vol. vi. pp. 231, 271;—it will be found printed in Scobell's Collection of Acts, &c. Part 2, p. 68, 1649, cap. 45. It first establishes a Corporation for the purpose, and then orders that a general collection in aid of it shall be made throughout all the counties, cities, towns, and parishes, of England and Wales: that the ministers should publickly read the Act the Lord's Day next after its delivery, exhorting their hearers to a cheerful and liberal contribution; that they with the parish-officers, should collect the alms from house to house, and that the amount should be paid within ten days after.
[e] An exact Surveigh of the Streets, Lanes, and Chvrches, comprehended within the Rvins of the City of London, first described in Six Plates, 10th December, Ao. Domi. 1666. By the Order and Directions of the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Councell, of the said City. John Leake, John Fennings, Willm. Leyborne, Thomas Streete, Richard Shortgrave, Surveyors; and Reduced into one intire plat by John Leake for the use of the Commissioners for the regulation of Streets, Lanes, &c. Copied by G. Vertue, 1723. Two Sheets.—On Monday Grace Church Street is all in flames,—now the flames break in upon Cornhill, that large and spacious street, and quickly cross the way by the train of wood that lay untaken away which had been pulled down from the houses to prevent its spreading, and so they lick up the whole street as they go.—God's Terrible Advice to the City by Plague and Fire, by the Rev. Thomas Vincent. Lond. 1666. 4to.
 Ed. Illegible.
[a] A rough ground plan, with the measurements inserted of this alteration, is in one of the series of original pocket-books used by the Surveyors of theruins of the City of London after the Great Fire, now preserved in the City Library at Guildhall, marked Booke IIII Hooke, p. 191; and the same alteration is indicated in the Survey of the ruins copied by Vertue.—In Mr. Wilkinson's MS. Collections the quantity of ground taken from the Parish is stated to be 114 3-eighths superficial fect from one of the houses adjoining the Church, and 168 3-fourths feet from the other.
[a] Parentalia; or Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens, by Christopher and Stephen Wren,and Joseph Ames, Lond. 1750, fol. pp. 317.—Hatton's New View of London, vol. ii. p. 485.—J. P. Malcolm's Londinum Redivivum, vol. iv. p. 571.
[b] The stone and inscription at this time erected are still to be seen, though greatly defaced, near the south-east corner of the church-yard in St. Peter's Alley. The upper part of the headstone was handsomely carved, and was originally sculptured with the figure of a pipe laid across an open music book above the following inscription, —This stone is erected by order of Vestry to perpetuate the memory of Mr. John Butler; who by the diligent, faithful, and unwearied discharge of his duty as Clerk of this Parish for 22 years, conciliated the generall esteem of all that were connected with him. He died Nov. 6th. 1768; Aged 61. Oft have I view'd the gloomy place Which claims the relicts of the human race, And read on the insculptured stone Here lies the body of——. the conclusion effaced.
[c] It seems that until the above period the Vestry of this Parish was select, consisting of about 30 who were chosen into the Vestry, out of which the Parish-officers were elected: thirteen members at a meeting had power to proceed on the parochial affairs, and a majority of seven might carry any vote.—New Remarks of London: Collected by the Company of Parish Clerks, Lond. 1732, 12mo. p. 127.
[a] The house at which this dreadful calamity took place, was situate between some ancient wooden buildings at the western end of the Old East India House, No. 5, on the south side of Leadenhall Street. Whilst it was re-erecting Mr. Woodmason removed to No. 129, in the same Street, and returned to his own place of residence in 1785. This date is embossed upon the boundary-plate of St. Peter's Parish now fixed against the edifice erected on this memorable spot, as it forms the most eastern extremity of that district: it is at present, December 1833, No. 11, and is occupied by Messrs. John Prince and Co. Clothiers.
[b] An Authentic Statement of the dreadful calamity which happened at Mr. Woodmason's house in Leadenhall Street on Friday, Jan. 18th. Universal Magazine, January 1782, vol. lxx. p. 53. London Chronicle, Tuesday Jan. 22nd to 24th. p. 83.—In the answers to Correspondents attached to the Morning Chronicle of Thursday, Jan. 24th, the printer notices his having received several articles relating to the fire, within the last three days, as well as some censure for not having copied the various paragraphs relating to it in the other papers: but he adds that he considered the event to have been attended with circumstances so shocking to humanity, that curiosity on the subject was thoughtless and unfeeling, and the sooner it was obliterated from the recollection of the public the better.
[c] The London Chronicle from Thursday Jan. 17th to 19th, 1782, p. 72.
[d] Authentic Statement, &c.—In the Morning Herald and Daily Advertiser of Monday Jan. 21st, it is most absurdly and mischievously stated, that the yeoman who went to call Mr. Woodmason from the gallery at St. James's, exclaimed to him aloud, Mr. Woodmason come down, for your wife and six children are all burnt in their beds!—The same paper denies the destruction of the children, and adds that they were all in the country at the time of the fire.
[e] Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, Monday Jan. 21st.
[f] Authentic Statement, &c.
[g] London Chronicle from Tuesday Jan. 22nd to 24th. p. 88.
[h] Morning Chronicle, Monday Jan. 1st, and Tuesday Jan. 22nd.
[a] At a Court of Wardmote, holden for the Ward of Cornhill, the 16th day of June, 1781, it was Resolved, That a Tank or Reservoir, which will hold 18,000 Gallons of Water, be erected in the Front of St. Peter's Church in Cornhill, for the more effectual extinguishing of any Fire that may happen in or near this Ward; and that the expence of making the said Tank be raised by voluntary subscription.—The formation of this Tank appears to have originated in a Letter addressed to the inhabitants of Cornhill by Mr John Sewell, the Bookseller, which was read at a General Vestry of St. Michael's Parish, and afterwards printed in a small quarto half-sheet,—stating the great and frequent destruction which Cornhill Ward had experienced by fire; the imperfection of the nightly watch, and the plan of a reservoir for water, to contain 3230The last digit of this number is illegible. gallons, proposed to be erected over an intended new watch-house to be made in the cloister of St. Michael's Church. The portico of St. Peter's Church was then pointed out as an improvement, which would admit of a reservoir containing 5940 gallons of water, and last nearly an hour at the rate of 100 gallons per minute; the usual discharge of a large engine. This latter was succeeded by another from Mr. Edward Nairne, the Optician, opposite the Exchange, dated Dec. 21st, 1780, also printed separately in four small quarto pages, which proposed as an addition, the building of at least four tanks or cisterns of brick laid, and lined withinside with terras, under the high-way in the high-Street of Cornhill, or any other part of the Ward, to hold any quantity of water and to be filled by a pipe from the Thames, or New-River water-works. These tanks were proposed to be built like an arched coal-cellar, with a funnel in the pavement as an entry by which they might be repaired and cleaned, and it was calculated that one holding 6000 gallons would not cost more than 46l. the walls and arch being a brick and a half in thickness. The letter also replied to some objections which had been made to the design, proposed the means of paying for it, and noticed the great benefit which might be derived from large public tanks erected in the principal and most elevated parts of the City; especially at the great cross formed by Cornhill, Bishopsgate Street, Grace Church Street and Leadenhall Street.
[b] Gentleman's Magazine, November 1785, vol. lv. part ii. p. 485.