Britannia: or a Geographical description of the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with the Isles and Territories thereto belonging.
CUMBERLAND: BEING Part of the BRIGANTES, and ancient KINGDOM of the Northumbers.
CUMBERLAND: BEING Part of the BRIGANTES, and ancient KINGDOM of the Northumbers.
a far engaged Northwards; hath an of a sharp temperature, and were it not for those high which break off the Northern and Western it would be more penitrating. It is very and therefore inclined to sterility; nevertheless it is not without many fertile which bear good cropps of and interlaced with rich On its are fed great of and other In the of the are rich of in great plenty; also those of and some of from which said the reap good profit; and the and large do plentifully furnish them with excellent wild and and from the they take which they sell to the
And besides these this County produceth several amongst which heretofore and now and course in great plenty.
The form of this may not unaptly be resembled to a whose two or are South and North, and from the extremity of the one, to wit, in the South, to that of in the North, is about 55 and its breadth from in the East, to the in the West, about 40; which makes its circumference to be about 168
Its bounds are on the East, and on the South, and on the West, the where it resembleth a and on its North part of with some part of
The of most note, are a high in which may be seen from in a high and steep in the top whereof were discovered huge and of a not without great wonder, considering that it is so steep and upright, that it is hardly to be ascended. a great on the top whereof (by the side) are placed three called the each of which doth stand, within a foot of another, in a
|several in this and a great which riseth up to such a height, with two heads like unto and with a kind of emulation beholdeth in within that from these two according as the misty arise, or fall, the people thereabouts inhabiting make their Prognostication of the change of and commonly sing this note: a very high on which is often seen after and from this runs a ridge of to and so to the most Northern part of this County.|
It is well watered with amongst which, which divides this County from which three last fall into the at which emptieth it self into the at which joyneth with the at the greatest River in the County; and which two joyn with at which divides from and others, which empty themselves into the either alone, or conjoyned with others.
Here are several and of which those of most note are and
The ancient known to were the and after the gained the power, it became part of the Kingdom of the
This of all others in sheweth the most for being in the confines, or utmost limits of their it was alwayes secured by their and defended with that admirable called the first built by the with and and afterwards much strengthened, and raised from to by the and lastly in the declension of the for their further security, against the incursions of the raging it was made of stone 8 foot broad, and 12 high, extending it self about 100 runing through vast and over-steep and high and on which, at the end of every were built or where alwayes stood: and some of this in many places is yet standing not only in this but also in through which it ran. But before this made one, which he fortified with and in that narrow space of ground that lyeth between and which afterwards was often strengthened, and at last became as aforesaid. And this County being thus continually frequented with their and in the time of peace, or after gained, they erected many and with to their to declare to posterity their noble many of which in whole, or in part, are to be seen at this day. And the being thus in the confines of made it to be exceedingly strengthened with for besides its publick ones, which are said to be about 25, the of the and are generally built and so called; but of late they built their of a newer form.
The places here consecrated to were chiesly those at and
This according to its is divided into the of and the South part thereof called between the Rivers and ) is within the of in and all the rest of the County is within the of It is also divided into several which are again subdivided into many And according to its it is severed into five there being no dreds in this County, as also and as being freed from all charges of Subsidies, until the reign of K. by reason of the great charges in border service. The names of the said are above below and and in these Wards are several in all which are numbred 58 besides divers of Ease, many of which are as large as and hath intercourse of with 15 of which said number 5 or 6 are of no long continuance.
Places of chief note in this are
or a City of great antiquity, being in the time of the in a very florishing condition; and upon their departure, it suffered much by the and but in the dayes of King of it was about; then was it again defaced by the and lay dejected for the space of about 200 years, till at the length began to look upon it, and built here a and setled a Colony of to secure this After him, the First his and Successor, placed here an and thus by degrees it began to regain some of its pristine glory, and is now dignified with an which at present is in the person of the Right Honourable Earl of Lord Lieutenant of the said City and Counties of and &c. It is a City no less pleasantly then commodiously seated at the influx or meeting of several which doth encompass it, except towards the South; for on the East it hath the River on the West and on the North the channel which receiveth the others, and after a small course dischargeth it self into the And besides these natural fences for its further strengh and security (as lying near to ) it is fortified with a strong and large scituate on the West side of the City, which K. the Third repaired, where the present Sir Bar. resideth, and with a strong Cittadel, together with divers Bulwarks on the East-side built by K. the Eighth, which are now gone much to decay: And to add to its further strength, it is begirt with strong built of squared This City is fair, its houses well built, and beautisied with a seated almost in the midst, which exalteth it self to a good height, and adds a great splendor to it, being a structure of curious Workmanship, especially the uppermost and newest part the other being much defaced by the for the building up of for the in Its temporal Government is committed to the care of a 12 2 and other amongst its which it enjoyeth, it sendeth to is a place of a good chiefly for is well inhabited; and its which is on is very considerable for with several other and in great plenty. This City (and generally the whole County) was very loyal to their in the late chearfully enduring a long and sore Siege, and when they yielded it was upon honourable tearms.
Not far from Westward, at upon the (where there was a of the ) within the very where the salt water ebbeth and floweth, the and (as 'tis reported) fought at full with their and at the with their and which proved a bloody Conflict; where King the First lost his life.
seated amongst the a small and of very little account, having an inconsiderable on
or where there was a little or first founded at the instance of first of at . by the Earl who gave this and other thereunto. And after the dissolution of this was given by King the Eighth to the Dean and Chapter of newly erected by him.
More reguarding the and on the other side of the is now a small Village, but raised out of the ruins of the ancient Town or of the which by the tracts of and ruinous do declare it to have been once of good account.
seated somewhat low, between the Rivers and which almost encompass it, over which are two good The is seated on two upon one of which standeth the a fair building; and upon the other a large, strong, and stately which formerly belonged to the Earl of It is a hath the election of Is dignifyed with an called the of and every Quarter the are here holden. It is an indifferent long is well inhabited, enjoyeth a good especially for course here made; is graced with fair and its which is on is esteemed the best in the for next unto And here is a at their holden at and for the hiring of to which end all such as want or do hither come; the like is observed at and most of the in the County.
seated on a Creek of the at the North end of a great or which is washed with the flood on the West-side, where is a great Rock, or Quarrey of hard which gives name hereunto; and which with the help of a great of secures the which is made by a little River which falls into the where small may enter, and be defended from the Tempest, and Winds, and where they may conveniently lade and unlade their It is of late become a which is kept on being much improved in its and is well frequented, and inhabited by especially by and those that are related to who drive a good to and other parts; having several belonging to the whose chief is for and here plentifully digged up, which they export to the parts aforesaid, and in exchange bring several good having here a
seated not far from the and on the Banks of a over which it hath two It is a but hath lost the
|priviledge of sending to It hath a good on Upon a sharp-copped built a Castle, and therein seated himself, which gave name to this And after the King had given him the of and that he had built this Castle, he changed the name into the of|
a couched betwixt the Rivers and which with the doth encompass three parts of it, and is a good road for shipping, which makes it to be of some having several and small belonging to it. Some will have this called in old time as one would say, the and the talk much of King that here had his and It is a well built and hath a every
or seated near the not far from in the of and on the side of a Hill; a small and hath a very inconsiderable on
seated on the River where in the after they have (with a great kind of yawning or gaping) sucked in the dew, which they lust after to conceive by, bring forth which the Country people get, and sell at easie rates to the
so named from the River on which it is seated, now reduced to ruins; first founded about the year , in the reign of the first, and was augmented by the charity of several persons, amongst the rest by Sir Kt. who lyeth there interr'd, whose in part is yet to be seen, being almost eaten up by the devouring teeth of time.
In the Manour of there is a or whereon there is yet to be seen the ruins of a notable or of an oblong square, the dimensions whereof (though now much less then what they were at first, by reason of the shrinking and falling of the earth, and being altered by plowing) are yet as followeth; the length of the within the is about 100 and the breadth near 90; on either side of the there is yet visible a great bank of earth, and the at the top is about 12 broad, and the depth about 4; the main entrance into this was at the Eastend, with another at the West end, opposite to which, and near adjoyning, there is a little round (now called ) of about 12 in height, and 6 in breadth at the top, which was made use of as a as having a fair prospect over all the adjacent and This by the is called and supposed to be a of the This ever since the Conquest, hath belonged (and still it doth) to the family of the the present owner being my worthy and honoured Friend, of in Esquire.
anciently a erected, and dedicated to the honour of an named by some Writers who led sometimes there a solitary life, and unto whose holiness are ascribed certain vain Miracles; as the taming a wild Bull, and the procuring a mighty deep Snow in whereupon the was first called which with the and were given to the Abbey of St. at by then Lord of Barony, and made by him a cell of
or formerly a good for which might be made so again with charge. This was (probably) a there having been found many and which the Country people tearm
seated on the South-side of the River near its influx
|into the over which said River there is a fair Stone-bridge, called It hath a very good for and here is very good fishing for of a considerable yearly value. below|
scituate in a hemmed in with and the called (wherein, at and elsewhere, are good ) and not far from this is dug up or in great plenty. In which is a great are three small and where the Lord of the hath a fair House: And in one of these 'tis said that lived an This was well known many years ago, by reason of the said of and much inhabited by where they had their near the side of the river which with its forceable stream, and their ingenious inventions, served them in notable stead for easie and of to the admiration of the beholder. And though these were within the memory of man so numerous, that they resembled a little yet now there is not one house standing, which hath occasioned it to be much poorer then formerly it was, and less inhabited and frequented, now conteining but one long It hath a on chiefly for and
seated in a and at the Spring-head of the River or where, according to some Authors, in old time the kept their standing guard; and the many and that are here oft dug up, do sufficiently shew its antiquity. It is at present a good conteining the higher and the lower, and hath the accommodation of an indifferent for and on
or so called from an built here by the first King of and called and It is a small seated on the arm of the and hath a very mean on
seated in a and not far from the River a small Town, and hath a mean newly erected on
or heretofore a build by the of near unto that for a and place of surety to lay up their and against the sudden Invasions of the wherein (as 'tis said) the secret works of lye in conflict with mothes; which said professing here a life, was so wholly possessed with the study of the and other obstruse that the common people took him for a and believed him to work Miracles.
or which in the signifies the or the soil, and there being of a reddish It is seated under a called and near the Rivers and on the South-side, which divides the County from and on the West-side, where near is to be seen that round trench of Earth, called It was once strengthened with a which before its demolishment, was repaired
|in the Reign of the Sixth, out of the ruins of a called in near adjoyning. The at present is large, well built, and inhabited by especially by and accounted the second in this although neigher a nor Town yet it is made use of for the keeping the for the County. It is adorned with a fair and a large which on every is very much resorted unto, and served with living several and all sorts of especially towards the end of there being then (according to report) killed, and vended in one Market day, near 400|
consecrated to lyeth on the River and on a a small and of late made a which is kept on being for the present of no great account. Here hath been a fair Castle, now reduced to ruin.
anciently scituate on a at the bottom of which runneth the River over which there is a and hereabouts is good store of dug up. It is a large stragling and hath a little on
seated near the River of note, for giving Title to the Right Honourable Baron and for that it had a and here it was that King of and King of yielded themselves and their Kingdoms unto King of on condition to be protected by him.
on the River where, as a trophy of Victory, were erected 77 great of about 10 foot a piece in height, of which one is 15 foot high; and these are now called and her and within the said Circle are heaps of under which (as 'tis reported) lye the bodies of slain men.
not far from the and on the River where in the declension of the lay the first band of the that came out of and a Company of under the General of It is at present a small (though ancient) which is kept on And hard by this Town, on the top of a high is a fortified Trench, called the
an indifferent which is kept on
seated near the River and in the Barony of at present a small but by the great and strange ruins of it seemeth to have been an ancient City of the and supposed to have been the wherein the of the first band of the kept and in old time against the Northern
At in the said Barony of is to be seen the footsteps of a very great and ancient of the which was strongly fenced about.
 Its fertility.
 Its Metalls.
 Its Manufactures.
 Its Form and extent.
 Its bounds.
 Its Mountains
 Lakes and Meres.
 Ancient Inhabitants.
 The Picts wall.
 Its Castles.
 Religious Houses.
 Its Ecclesiastical and Temporal division.
 An ancient Fort near Beckermett.
 St. Bees.
 Abbey Holm, or Holme Cultrum
 Wulstey Castle, or Ulstey.
 Dacre Castle.
 Wheatly Castle.