The million-peopled city

Garwood, John


Their Spirit of Persecution and Hatred to Protestants.


The old spirit which lit up the fires of Smithfield against Protestants is also most prevalent among the Irish. As illustrations, the following extracts from the last two Annual Reports of one of the Surrey Chapel missionaries are given:-

"Report, .-The deluded creatures in Glass-house- yard are nearly all Irish, and the appearance of a Protestant among them immediately excites their anger. If they could secretly murder him they would not hesitate to do so. Even the children are taught to watch my movements, and their parents will grind their teeth at me as I pass their doors. One woman said recently, ' If you intend to come here you had better order your coffin.' In there is an Infant School belonging to the Established Church, and the Roman Catholic children, no doubt prompted by their parents, are constantly breaking the windows by throwing stones. A few days since, the door was burst open, and a donkey put in


at the door. Ewer-street runs out of Gravel-lane into Union-street. Whenever I enter the streets I am narrowly watched. If I give them a tract, some of them will light their pipes with it. Others will shout out, ' Here comes the - missionary ! Here is the Government spy ! Here is the tormentor !'

" An Irishman recently said to me, 'Here you are again, bad luck to ye. We have no pace hare for the like of ye. Faith, and we war never so tarmented in our lives before. Och! and I should like to roast ye, and all the like of ye! Oh, wouldent I like to have the kindling of the fire, and a drap of whisky over the fun. The curses of be upon ye for iver and iver !'

" Another Irishman accosted me in the street, and said, 'Are you the priest?' 'You know I am not,' I replied. 'In whose name then do you come here ?' 'In the name of the Great High Priest, King Jesus!' 'By the blessed Virgin, and holy , and by Jasus ye shall not go down here, heretic as ye are, if ye do I will stab you to the very heart;' and he presented a knife with a sharp point, and dared me to stir a step farther. I told him he had no right to stop me on the Queen's highway, and I was determined, whatever might be the consequences, not to be prevented from doing my duty, and rushed past him. He followed me, gnashing his teeth, and uttering the most awful imprecations. An old woman cried out, 'Why did you not rid the world of an inimy, and do God a sarvice ?' ' Sure,' said he, 'and if it had not been for my own neck I would, but the - Protestant Government would have been after me, bad luck to them.'

" In , where I occasionally visit a sick person, I have had as many as six dogs set at me, but through the mercy of the Lord they were not permitted to injure me.

" The foregoing are some of the difficulties which I have had to contend with."

" Report, .-In my Report of last year I mentioned the case of a man who threatened to murder me. Near the same spot an Irishwoman cried out this year, ' Oh, you -- --, should we not like to have our will of you ? and you must look out that we do not. We should like to have the roasting of your Protestant heart.'

" I offered one of the bills on the Crystal Palace to an Irishman, and he said, ' And is it the Crystal Palace you would keep shut; sure, and cannot we go to mass, and then go to Sydenham in the afternoon; and should we get a drop of whisky too much, would not our priest forgive us? Ah, you Protestants have no such privilege. I tell you candidly, it is not going to the Crystal Palace, but being heretics that will damn you all. I only wish we had the power as they have where Francisco is imprisoned, and we would not only confine you, but put you into the Crystal Palace, set fire to it, and blow you all to hell together. And it would be the greatest service done to God and his Church since the times of good Queen Mary!'

" Another said, ' Isay, you Protestant, then you still keep on in your hellish work ! Ah the day will come when you and all the like of you will sorely rue the day that ever you circulated that book of yours.' [I really cannot repeat what he called the , the terms he applied to it were so dread- ful.] 'I don't know a bigger enemy than you, because you are always telling the people to search it. And take you missionaries all together, you are worse than an army of soldiers against our Church. You have completely inun- dated this neighbourhood with that book of yours. May the Lord reward you for your pains and your obstinacy! Many an Ave Maria have I forwarded to the upper world for the destruction of you all.'

"The whole of the foregoing are Roman Catholics, for I meet with no direct opposition from others. Although they are awfully indifferent to the truths of the Gospel, I meet with civility and respect from the most abandoned."

The following case, which recently occurred to a woman who had been under the visitation of a London City mis- sionary, and who had eventually renounced Popery, illus- trates what the spirit of Popery still is. It is taken from the " Times " newspapers of , :-

'" .-Police Intelligence.-.-, Roman Catholic priest of , , Bermondsey, was summoned before for committing an assault on , an Irish woman......

" a young woman with an infant in her arms, on being sworn, said: That she now lives in Palmer's rents, , , and that her husband is a labourer; that on last Sunday three weeks she gave birth to a child, while lodging at the house of a Mrs. Harrington, in , . She knew the , the defendant; and he called upon her last Friday while she was sitting by the fire, with her child in her arms.

.... He inquired if she had had a child christened lately. She said that she had, and he asked by whom? and she answered by the , the Protestant clergy- man. The moment she mentioned Dr. A.'s name, the defendant struck her on the side of her head with an umbrella, and exclaimed, 'Don't you think you have sold your soul to the devil?' She replied, that she did not think that she had; upon which he walked out of the room. He returned, however, in about three or four minutes in a passion; struck her three times with the umbrella, in the landlady's presence, and said to her, 'Why don't you send those devils out of your house ?' The landlady at first said


nothing in reply; but when he repeated the question, she then said 'she would make her and her child quit the house.'

" expressed some surprise that no witnesses were called on either side; and said, that under the circum- stances he should send the case before a jury, without mak- ing any remarks himself on the subject; and for that purpose should order the defendant to enter into his own recognizance in the sum of 100l. to appear and answer the charge at the Sessions."

"Dec. 11.-Surrey Sessions.-(Before Mr. T. Puckle and a full bench of Magistrates.)

" , a Roman Catholic priest connected with the , surrendered to take his trial for committing an assault on , a Protestant woman, under very singular circumstances.

", a sickly-looking woman with an infant in her arms, on being sworn said: 'I am the wife of , a labourer. On Friday fortnight I was living in Palmer's-rents, , and was my landlady. A and lodged there also; and I slept in the kitchen which they all used. I was confined not quite three weeks, and had not been out of bed, only to the fire. I know the defendant: he is a clergyman; and I saw him before and after I was confined... On the Friday in question defendant came into the room, and asked me, "Did I get my child baptized ?" I replied, that I did. He asked whether it was himself who did it? I replied that it was not; but it was Dr. Armstrong. He is a Pro- testant, and myself and my husband belong to his congrega- tion. Defendant said, "Did you sell your soul to the devil ?" I told him I considered I had not; when he struck me on the left ear with his umbrella. I think in my mind that he was very angry. He went out to the next house,


and returned in a few moments, when he struck me then three times, and I called out for mercy, as the last stroke hurt me. I told him my head was so bad I could not bear it. I was quite weak and ill at the time. As he was going out of the house he cursed me in Irish, and said to Mrs. Har. rington, " Get the devils out of your house." She said she would, and took the bed away from me, and I was compelled to sleep on the floor.'

" Cross-examined by Mr. Woollett, who appeared for the defendant.-I came from about 3 years ago, and went with my parents into Wales. They are Roman Catholics, and I was such until I married. I came to Bermondsey a month before last harvest, and had been at Mrs. Harrington's about 6 weeks, and was to pay her Is. 6d. per week. I first knew Mr. Donovan 3 nights after I was confined, when he came to check a man who had troubled me. The police could not take him or quiet him. That was the reason he was sent for. The defendant then left 1s. for me, but I did not speak to him. I owed Mrs. Harrington a little rent, but she did not look for it until defendant beat me and told her to turn me out ..

"Mary Harrington, the landlady of the house, cross- examined by Mr. Robinson for the plaintiff.-Did not defendant tell you to pitch those devils out of the house?

"Witness.-Yes, he did, in a very civil manner.

" Mr. Robinson.-And you took the bed from under her immediately after that.

"Witness.-I did; but she did not sleep on the floor, she slept on the sacking with her clothes on.

" Mr. Sweatman, a surgeon, residing at , a member of the Established Church, said, he had known defendant from a boy, and he was a very amiable and kind- hearted gentleman, liberal in the extreme, and very inoffen- sive in his manner.

"Mr. Kirwan, of , , also spoke in high terms of him, as did Mr. Joseph Luke, of and Miss Isabella Stephens, of , with whom defendant lodged for some time.

"Mr. Robinson then addressed the Jury in reply, con- tending that after what the woman had said, the charge had assumed a more serious aspect. No doubt his character was respectable, but they were there to suppress the domination of priests, which now they had a clear proof of, leading them to believe that he exercised a power over his flock which was far superior to the civil authority of the land.

" The CHAIRMAN then summed up the case at great length, reading over the evidence carefully. There were two points for the consideration of the Jury. They must first be satisfied that an assault had been committed, and if so, whether there was any justification. They had heard the whole of the evidence, and it would be for them to consider whether the defendant was guilty or not.

" The Jury consulted for about 20 minutes, and returned a verdict of guilty.

" Mr. Robinson said he was instructed not to press for any severe punishment, as his party had no vindictive feeling towards the defendant. There could be no doubt that the assault was committed in a moment of excitement, therefore he had no wish to aggravate the case.

" The foreman of the Jury said they wished to recommend the defendant to mercy.

"The CHAIRMAN said, it gave him great pain to pass sentence on a person of the defendant's position in life, but the Court as well as the Jury were of opinion that not only an assault had been committed, but 8 aggravated assaults were proved upon a poor weak woman. It was an act of religious persecution which no minister of any denomination


could be allowed to exercise in this free country. The defendant had no right to chastise any one on such grounds, and had not the prosecutrix and the Jury recommended him to mercy, the Court would have committed him to prison without a fine. Had it been a Protestant minister or Dissenter, the Court would have done the same, as such conduct would not be tolerated in this country. The Court would take into consideration the recommendation, and inflict a penalty of 51. on him.

" The fine was immediately paid amid the execrations of the mob and dreadful howling of the women, who were in a most excited state, so much so that both the defendant and his accuser were obliged to be sent out privately through the gaol."

A weekly newspaper thus commented on the occurrence,- "' A woman has become a Protestant, and her child has been baptized in a Protestant Church. O'Donovan, hearing this, declares that this has 'sold herself to the devil,' at the same time, as if to clench the bargain, " striking her three times near the left ear with his umbrella.' This, however, was a mere ebullition. For on cooler con- sideration O'Donovan calmly ordered the woman's landlady 'to turn the devils out.' And all potent, a Pope in little, was O'Donovan at the hearth of Mrs. Harrington, the landlady. Donovan had spoken; and bed was taken away from her, and she and her child (the baby 3 days old, be it remembered,) slept on the bare floor that night. O'Donovan, after such pious work, went to his bed . . meanwhile , 3 days delivered, lay on the bare boards. ... Daniel O'Donovan, we doubt not, never thought himself more truly a priest than when beating a woman, weak with travail, striking her 3 times with an umbrella till she cried for mercy, cursing her in Irish, and bidding her go to 'the 17 devils.' We believe that the


exposure of O'Donovan will do much good. He has been turned inside out, and so exposed looks blacker than even his gown. The religion of Christianity is a religion of protection and shelter. But the O'Donovans, framing it to their own hands, make it a weapon of wrong and persecu- tion. In scorching heat and pouring rain O'Donovan has an umbrella that, in his piety, he may lift above the travail- worn and sinking, but he bethinks him of no part of the umbrella but the stick."

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 Title Page
Chapter I: Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
A distinct Class from Adult Thieves
Their extreme Youth, and sometimes Childhood
Great Severity of British, as compared with French, Law on Juvenile Offenders
Their especial Claim, when resident in London
Their supposed Numbers
The Classes from which they are drawn
The Training for Crime which they receive
Their Gradations in Proficiency
Importance of Missionary Operations among this Class
The Ragged School Movement
The Connexion of the Ragged schools with the Operations of the London City Mission
Ragged Schools in an especial manner free from the Difficulties of Difference of Creed and Interference with the Duties of Parents
Early Approaches to the Ragged School System
The first Ragged School in Lonon, as established in 'the Old Stable' at Westminster
The Report of this School, as printed by Order of the House of Commons
Mr. Charles Dicken's Account of the Plot of Ground on which this School stood, called 'The Devil's Acre'
Letter of the Children of this School to the City Missionary
New Pye-street Girls' School, April 10, 1843
Dickens's narrative of Emigrants from this School
The Field-lane ragged School described, as a second Illustration of these Institutions
Description of the adjacent notorious 'Thieves' Houses'
Formation of the School
Dickens's Narrative of different Visits to this School, and of the Improvements effected in the interim
Narrative of a Visit to this School, from 'Chambers's Edinburgh Journal'
This School first interested Lord Shaftesbury in the 'Movement'
Erection of a New Schoolroom with a large Dormitory
Review of the subsequent Progress of London Ragged Schools to the present Time
Industrial Schools
Sergeant Adams's Eulogy of the Efforts of Ragged School Teachers
Three Cases of Usefulness from the Ragged School Union Magazine
Case of Usefulness reported to the Author by a Clergyman
Two other Cases of Usefulness from the 'London City Mission Magazine'
The Shoe-blacks a most remarkable Illustration of the Success of the Efforts made to benefit this Class
Broomers, and how they might be made to cleanse London
Steppers and Ragged Nursery
Comparison of the Expenses of Schools and Prisons
The especial Claims of Girls
Voluntary Effort, and that by the Masses, rather than Government Aid, to be especially rested on
Appointment of a Missionary by the London City Mission
Importance of Increased Exertions, in order to bring the whole of this Class under Ragged School Instrution
Concluding Remarks
Chapter II: Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Hospitals fit Adornments to the two Shores of England's Metropolis
Greenwich Hospital
The Pensioners
Their Ages
Their Present Number
The Yearly Deaths
The Infirmary for the Sick and Dying
Religious and moral Character of the Pensioners, and Providsion made for their Instruction
The Pensioners not allowed to marry, and the bad Effects of this Rule
The Royal Hospital Schools
Law Agency in a peculiar manner important with these Men
The London City Mission, the only Agency of this Character in the Hospital
Need of a Second Paid Lay Visitor
Description of the Meeting of Pensioners held daily by the Missionary
Striking Cases of Usefulness among the Pensioners by this Agency
In A.D. 1851
In A.D. 1852
In A.D. 1853
Case of Usefulness among Out-pensioners, from the Scripture Readers' Association 'Occasional paper'
Chelsea Hospital
Its Origin
Nell Gwynne's Grant of the Building
Number of In-pensioners admitted
Their Character
The Pensioners' Opinions of the late Duke of Wellington, and of Lying-in-State
The Crowds of the Public who assembled to see the Spectacle
Number of Out-pensioners in different Years, according to the Prevalence of Peace or War
The immense Cost of the Pensioners to the nation, even at the Present Day
The Hotel des Invalides in Paris, established before Chelsea Hospital in London, and a Standing Army established in France before its Establishment in Enbland
How the Disabled and Aged Soldier was previously supported in this Country
The College was not completed till the Revolution
The Interest of William the Third and Fourth in the College
The College is for Invalids also
Ages of the Pensioners
Number of Deaths annually
The Burial-ground of Chelsea Hospital, and its Remarkable Epitaphs
Burial Registers
The Funeral of a Pensioner described
Flags and Trophies recently removed from St. Paul's Cathedral to Chelsea Hospital
Specimens of Certificates of Service given to Pensioners on their Admission to the College by their Commanding Officers
The Clasps worn by Pensioners to denote the Number of Battles in which they have engaged
Guard kept at the College in Military Style
Foreigners and different Creeds among the Pensioners
The heavy Manner in which Time hangs on their Hands
Cards, &c. introduced by the Authorities of the College to remedy this
Library, and its Defects
Gardening introduced by Lord John Russell
These Gardens were the former famed Ranelagh
Great Abuses in the Management of Chelsea Hospital abolished by Lord John Russell
Regulations as to Marriage more favourable to Morals at Chelsea than at Greenwich
The Royal Military Asylum for Boys
The Wellington Fund now raising for the Children of Officers
Gratitude of the Pensioners for Religious Instruction, and their Visit to City Missionaries, when the latter had been ill
Their Interest in Religious Tracts
Their Desire of Further Instruction
Number of Out-pensioners resident in the Metropolis
Facilities for, and Importance of, Benefitting these Men
Extracts from the Reports of a Missionary of the London City Mission
The especial Claims which Pensioners present on the Christian Benevolence of the Nation, and not of the Inhabitants of London only
Thankfulness for Peace
Immense Cost of War as compared with the Insignificant Amount which would now add greatly to their Comfort, and promote their Best Interests
Danger of Delay with Men so Aged
Chapter III: The London Cab-Driver
The London Cab-Driver
The Introduction of Coaches into London in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
The riding Horses in previous Use
Coaches when introduced only by the very Highest Class of Society, and regarded as an effeminacy
On other Classes beginning the use of Coaches, the higher Classes continued to add to the Number of the Horses by which their Coaches were drawn, in order to retain a Superiority
The Introduction of Hackney Coaches kept at Inns, in the Reign of James I
Hackney Coach-stands in the Public Streets established
These Prohibited by the Proclamations of succeeding Kings, but in vain
The Two Centuries of Hackney-coach continuance
The Last Days of London Hackney-coaches
The Cabriolets of Paris
Their subsequent Introduction in London
The immense Increase in their Number during the Twenty Years of their Existence
Their present Number
The Cab-driver
The extensive Use of London Cabs on Sundays, and its injurious Effects on the Drivers
The Extortion complained of in Cabmen
The unlicensed Driver, and the extreme Depravity of this Class
Cab-drivers as a Body exposed to unjust Odium
Recent Alteration in the System of Licensing, and its Effects
Great Difference in the Character of London Cab-stands
The Waterman
First Efforts for the Religious Welfare of Cabmen as a Body, as made by the London City Mission
A Missionary appointed by that Society to visit them, and his Great Success
A Second Missionary appointed, but soon discontinued, through want of Funds for his Support
Cases recorded of his Usefulness
The Emigration of the First Missionary, and the Appointment of his Successor, with Review of his Efforts and Success
Cases of Usefulness recorded by the Cab Missionary of the London City Mission, last Year
Chapter IV: The London Omnibus Man
The London Omnibus Man
The Introduction of Omnibuses into London, and their previous Establishment in Paris
The Enterprise of Mr. Shillibeer, in starting Omnibuses in the English Metropolis, the Difficulties he encountered, and his subsequent Ruin
The Paris and London Omnibuses of the present day compared
The constant Litigation between the Proprietors of London Omnibuses after Mr. Shillibeer's Failure, and the consequent Establishment of large Omnibus Companies for the sake of Mutual Protection
The Immense Amount of the Capital and Annual Expenditure of the London Omnibus Trade
The vast Sums of Money spent by the London Population in Omnibus Riding
The Large Amount of Revenue which London Omnibuses produce to the Government
The very small Number of Omnibuses in the remainder of England, as compared with the Number in London
The almost incredible Length of Distance traversed periodically by the London Omnibuses
The constant Increase in the Number of London Omnibuses
The Metropolitan Omnibus Traffic greater in the Number of Passengers than the Metropolitan Railway Traffic
The Condition of the London Omnibus Men, and their present Numbers
Their Sunday Occupation in the Metropolis of a professedly Christian Country scarcely less than on Week-days, and sometimes greater, while an Extreme Amount of Toil is imposed on them during the Week
Lord Shaftesbury's Testimony of the Success of an Omnibus Proprietor who Discontinued Sunday Work
Testimonies as to the Toil of Omnibus-men from the Early Closed Association
From an Occasional paper of the Church Pastoral-Aid Society
From the Rev. J. T. Baylee's 'Statistics and Facts in reference to the Lord's-day'
Extract from 'Silverpen' as to the Wives and Families of Omnibus Servants
Medical Testimony as to the Injury of Labour so hard on the Constitution of the Men
Testimonies given to Mr. Mayhew as to the Severity of the Labour, by a Driver, a Conductor, and a Time-keeper
Their Wages
Their Temptations to Drink
Their Temptations to Embezzlement
Urgent Appeal as to the Heathenism of so Large a Body of Men
Reference to the Efforts of the London City Mission, in a Pamphlet entitled 'The Omnibus Men of London'
Recent Efforts of Omnibus Servants themselves to Improve their Condition
The Grand Junction Omnibus Comopany
The Introduction of Omnibuses has brought more together the different Parts of London
Concluding Appeal
Chapter V: The Irish of London
The Irish of London
Their Numbers
Their Country and their Race
St. Patrick
Subsequent Wars
Conquest of Ireland by Henry II, and its subsequent Oppression by the English
The Reformation in Ireland
The Protestant Colony of Ulster Established
The Battle of the Boyne, and its Consequences
The Union
Remarkable Increase of Population in Ireland during the close of the 18th and the commencement of the 19th Centuries
The pleasing Peculiarities in the irish Character
Their Hospitality
Their strong Natural Affection
The Native irish Poor more virtuous than the English Poor
Even the Good Qualities of the Irish cause them especially to need Faithful and Judicious Counsel and Visitation
Their Claim as Immigrants into, to them, a Strange Land
The Excellences of the Irish Character are beheld in London in their rudest form
How Popery has Marred and Debased the Irish Character
The Irish have been made thereby Idle
They have no Proper Feeling of Independence
Their Disloyalty
Their Spirit of Persecution and Hatred to Protestants
The Irish of London require 100 Missionaries or Scripture-readers, in order that the Gospel may be brought to their Abodes
The same Agency, for the effecting the same Results, is what is especially required for the Irish of London
Cardinal Wiseman's recent Denunciation of this Agency in London
Soundness of Protestant Feeling among the English working-classes
'The testimony of no single missionary is materially different'
The Persecution which the recent London Converts have had to endure
General Expectations of Irish Romanists that Ireland will soon become a Protestant, and England a Popish Country
The Causes of the Extensive Immigration of Irish to London in Recent Years
The better Class of Poor emigrate from Ireland to America, and the worst Class to London
The Divisions of the Irish of London into Cockneys and Grecians
The Irish of London, as divided into Connaught and Munster Men
Immigration of Immoral Irish Women
The Numbers of the Irish of London who can read English and Irish respectively estimated
Irish Protestants possess more Scriptual Knowledge than English Protestants
Extreme Ignorance on Scriptural Subjects of Irish Romanists, illustrated by Examples
The Irish, on arriving in London, rapidly lose their previous Religious Habits
London considered by the Irish as an Infidel City, in which, without Loss of Character, they may live in the Neglect of all Religious Observances
The Prevalence of Drunkness among the Irish and English compared
The Rookeries are the Parts of London in which the Irish Chiefly dwell
The Occupations of the Irish of London
Especial Suitableness of Irish Scripture-readers and Misisonaries for Irish Districts and the more Especial Facilities with which they may be obtained
Future Hopes
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