The million-peopled city

Garwood, John


In A.D. 1852.


This Report commences with the general observations:- "The field of my labour consists of old sailors and marines. The vast majority of them have sunk deep in depravity. This is not to be wondered at when the temptations to which they were exposed during the war, both abroad and at home, are considered. They would almost invariably spend all their money among the worst of women, and in a few weeks what had taken them years to earn was gone. These practices have grown with their growth and strengthened with their strength. Drunkenness and swearing have become so habitual to them that they scarcely regard them as crimes. When I have remonstrated with them on account of these sins, the frequent reply has been,-' We hope God will make allowance for sailors. We have always been used to it, and cannot give it up very easy.' But, notwithstanding the depth of depravity into which many of these old men have fallen, there are among them many living monuments of the power of Divine grace, showing that there is nothing impos- sible with God, but that he can soften the hardest heart and subdue the most perverse will."

As illustrations of that year's usefulness of the missionary among this class, a case is first of all related of an old pensioner who had been 19 years in Her Majesty's service and seen several engagements. Five years since the missionary found him most ignorant and unconcerned as to all matters of reli- gion. He was also a great swearer. His wife was induced to attend the familiar meetings for prayer and exposition of


the, which were made useful to her. She then endeavoured to prevail on her husband to attend, but to no purpose. He only jeered at her, and cursed and swore most awfully. '" Do you think," he would say, "I am such a fool as to leave this comfortable fire to go to hear that fellow?" At length he was, however, induced to accompany his wife for once. The subject was, true Christians being the temples of the Holy Ghost,-" As the Lord hath said, I will walk in them and dwell in them; they shall be my people, and I will be their God." On his return home he fell into a fit of passion, and said, " He wondered the people did not turn the fellow out of the desk, for he actually told them that God Almighty would come down and dwell in a sinner's heart. He must take us to be a set of fools to believe such nonsense as that." After a while he came, however, a second time to the meeting. On that occasion the subject was the new birth, from . The words, "Ye must be born again," came home to his heart; and he returned home, no more to curse and swear, but to express true concern and sorrow for his past course. He became, from that time, a regular attendant on the means of grace, gave up his old companions, and, after careful examination, was admitted a communicant, with his wife, at one of the chapels of the town. He regu- larly since subscribes his penny a-week to .

A second case reported, as having occurred that year, is that of an aged pensioner who had been 15 years in the Hospital, and who had been also 15 years in active service; but who on his discharge, in , had turned coachman, when he sunk deeper into sin than ever. He at length got into prison for theft. When first met with by the mission- ary, in the Hospital, he was actually as ignorant of spiritual things as an Hottentot. He could not even read. Now, to employ his own nautical image, "the Saviour has hauled down the devil's colours and hoisted up his own." His


mind has become enlightened, he has felt the evil of sin, and he is resting his hopes only on . His life is altogether changed. He has become a communicant at the . To testify his gratitude to the missionary, he sub- scribes his penny a-week towards his support, and keeps the room in which the meeting is held clean, free of charge. He is never absent from his post there.

Then comes the case of a sick pensioner, visited in the Infirmary. He appeared impressed, by frequent visits to his bed-side; but, knowing the deceitfulness of professions at such times, little account was made of it by the missionary. At length the man recovers. The impression remained. Two years have passed away, and have not erased it. He has, since his recovery, become a communicant, and in all things he adorns the Gospel by his life. His language is that of constant thankfulness that God, in his mercy, afflicted him.

Then comes a case of a different order. A very old pensioner, who had lived beyond the three score years and ten allotted to man, had in his youth been the subject of religious impressions. But when his desires to go to sea were gratified, these were all forgotten, and departed, like the early cloud and the morning dew. He soon became, like seafaring men in general, careless and indifferent about religion, and this was not disturbed, even by the imminent perils of warfare, when others around him were cut down in quick succession. Five years since the missionary met with him. He is now the subject of the same religious impres- sions as at first, in his early life. For the past five years he has evidenced the change which has occurred to him. This year he has become a communicant at the chapel. He is most indefatigable in his efforts to benefit his cabin-mates, and never allows sin in them without reproof. He also subscribes to the Mission, like the others.

Passing over the two next cases, in both of which the


pensioners visited became communicants, a case is next recorded of an aged pensioner, whose life had previously been of a more moral character than is usual with that class. For four years he had attended the Meetings of the mis- sionary, seldom missing any of them, although they are nine each week. The change in this man does not appear so great, but his own testimony is that it is as entire as marvellous. During the year he was received as a com- municant at the Independent chapel of the town. How interesting is it to observe such changes effected at a period of life so very advanced, when habits ordinarily become fixed, and the mind of those who during a long life have continued irreligious, become callous !

Another poor old man, on the borders of the grave, is next referred to, apparently plucked that year as a brand from the burning. He had been altogether, in the Merchant and in , 41 years at sea, and had been shipwrecked several times, yet mercifully preserved from a watery grave. It would be tedious to descend to particulars in all these individual cases. Suffice it to say, that from being ignorant and careless, he is now in earnest to secure the salvation of his soul. His life is exemplary, and the testimony of those around him is, " We wish we were like him." His pittance is very small, but out of it twopence a week is cheerfully and voluntarily paid to the Mission, by whose instrumentality he considers he has been so richly benefited.

Three other cases follow of an equally important and satisfactory character; and two very happy deaths of pen- sioners are also recorded, as having occurred during the year, in both of which the dying men most fervently blessed God that ever a missionary was sent to visit the Hospital.

The average attendance of the pensioners at the nine weekly Meetings is 22 in the morning, and 80 in the


evening. The old men themselves pay the rent of the room, amounting to 71. a-year. The morning Meetings are held from nine to ten o'clock, except on Sundays; and the evening Meetings on three evenings in the week, from seven to eight.

About a thousand tracts are given away by the missionary every month among the pensioners. These are very grate- fully received by the vast majority of them. There is also every reason to believe that they are read. In some cases they may be made a blessing, where the word spoken would fail. The following case, which occurred during that year will serve as an illustration:

One tobacco day, as it is called, that is, one day when the men receive their allowance of tobacco, an old pensioner put into the missionary's hands, while he was distributing tracts, a paper, to be read by him when he got home. On opening it, a shilling was found within it, and the following sentences were written, " Sir, I am much obliged to you for your most noble and generous acts, and for your kind tracts to teach us the way of God. I am truly sensible that I am a sinner before Him. I cannot go, however, to hear his Word, as I am very deaf. But, thanks to God, I can read the tracts; and if you please to accept of this trifle, you will oblige your humble servant."

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 Title Page
Chapter I: Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
A distinct Class from Adult Thieves
Their extreme Youth, and sometimes Childhood
Great Severity of British, as compared with French, Law on Juvenile Offenders
Their especial Claim, when resident in London
Their supposed Numbers
The Classes from which they are drawn
The Training for Crime which they receive
Their Gradations in Proficiency
Importance of Missionary Operations among this Class
The Ragged School Movement
The Connexion of the Ragged schools with the Operations of the London City Mission
Ragged Schools in an especial manner free from the Difficulties of Difference of Creed and Interference with the Duties of Parents
Early Approaches to the Ragged School System
The first Ragged School in Lonon, as established in 'the Old Stable' at Westminster
The Report of this School, as printed by Order of the House of Commons
Mr. Charles Dicken's Account of the Plot of Ground on which this School stood, called 'The Devil's Acre'
Letter of the Children of this School to the City Missionary
New Pye-street Girls' School, April 10, 1843
Dickens's narrative of Emigrants from this School
The Field-lane ragged School described, as a second Illustration of these Institutions
Description of the adjacent notorious 'Thieves' Houses'
Formation of the School
Dickens's Narrative of different Visits to this School, and of the Improvements effected in the interim
Narrative of a Visit to this School, from 'Chambers's Edinburgh Journal'
This School first interested Lord Shaftesbury in the 'Movement'
Erection of a New Schoolroom with a large Dormitory
Review of the subsequent Progress of London Ragged Schools to the present Time
Industrial Schools
Sergeant Adams's Eulogy of the Efforts of Ragged School Teachers
Three Cases of Usefulness from the Ragged School Union Magazine
Case of Usefulness reported to the Author by a Clergyman
Two other Cases of Usefulness from the 'London City Mission Magazine'
The Shoe-blacks a most remarkable Illustration of the Success of the Efforts made to benefit this Class
Broomers, and how they might be made to cleanse London
Steppers and Ragged Nursery
Comparison of the Expenses of Schools and Prisons
The especial Claims of Girls
Voluntary Effort, and that by the Masses, rather than Government Aid, to be especially rested on
Appointment of a Missionary by the London City Mission
Importance of Increased Exertions, in order to bring the whole of this Class under Ragged School Instrution
Concluding Remarks
Chapter II: Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Hospitals fit Adornments to the two Shores of England's Metropolis
Greenwich Hospital
The Pensioners
Their Ages
Their Present Number
The Yearly Deaths
The Infirmary for the Sick and Dying
Religious and moral Character of the Pensioners, and Providsion made for their Instruction
The Pensioners not allowed to marry, and the bad Effects of this Rule
The Royal Hospital Schools
Law Agency in a peculiar manner important with these Men
The London City Mission, the only Agency of this Character in the Hospital
Need of a Second Paid Lay Visitor
Description of the Meeting of Pensioners held daily by the Missionary
Striking Cases of Usefulness among the Pensioners by this Agency
In A.D. 1851
In A.D. 1852
In A.D. 1853
Case of Usefulness among Out-pensioners, from the Scripture Readers' Association 'Occasional paper'
Chelsea Hospital
Its Origin
Nell Gwynne's Grant of the Building
Number of In-pensioners admitted
Their Character
The Pensioners' Opinions of the late Duke of Wellington, and of Lying-in-State
The Crowds of the Public who assembled to see the Spectacle
Number of Out-pensioners in different Years, according to the Prevalence of Peace or War
The immense Cost of the Pensioners to the nation, even at the Present Day
The Hotel des Invalides in Paris, established before Chelsea Hospital in London, and a Standing Army established in France before its Establishment in Enbland
How the Disabled and Aged Soldier was previously supported in this Country
The College was not completed till the Revolution
The Interest of William the Third and Fourth in the College
The College is for Invalids also
Ages of the Pensioners
Number of Deaths annually
The Burial-ground of Chelsea Hospital, and its Remarkable Epitaphs
Burial Registers
The Funeral of a Pensioner described
Flags and Trophies recently removed from St. Paul's Cathedral to Chelsea Hospital
Specimens of Certificates of Service given to Pensioners on their Admission to the College by their Commanding Officers
The Clasps worn by Pensioners to denote the Number of Battles in which they have engaged
Guard kept at the College in Military Style
Foreigners and different Creeds among the Pensioners
The heavy Manner in which Time hangs on their Hands
Cards, &c. introduced by the Authorities of the College to remedy this
Library, and its Defects
Gardening introduced by Lord John Russell
These Gardens were the former famed Ranelagh
Great Abuses in the Management of Chelsea Hospital abolished by Lord John Russell
Regulations as to Marriage more favourable to Morals at Chelsea than at Greenwich
The Royal Military Asylum for Boys
The Wellington Fund now raising for the Children of Officers
Gratitude of the Pensioners for Religious Instruction, and their Visit to City Missionaries, when the latter had been ill
Their Interest in Religious Tracts
Their Desire of Further Instruction
Number of Out-pensioners resident in the Metropolis
Facilities for, and Importance of, Benefitting these Men
Extracts from the Reports of a Missionary of the London City Mission
The especial Claims which Pensioners present on the Christian Benevolence of the Nation, and not of the Inhabitants of London only
Thankfulness for Peace
Immense Cost of War as compared with the Insignificant Amount which would now add greatly to their Comfort, and promote their Best Interests
Danger of Delay with Men so Aged
Chapter III: The London Cab-Driver
The London Cab-Driver
The Introduction of Coaches into London in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
The riding Horses in previous Use
Coaches when introduced only by the very Highest Class of Society, and regarded as an effeminacy
On other Classes beginning the use of Coaches, the higher Classes continued to add to the Number of the Horses by which their Coaches were drawn, in order to retain a Superiority
The Introduction of Hackney Coaches kept at Inns, in the Reign of James I
Hackney Coach-stands in the Public Streets established
These Prohibited by the Proclamations of succeeding Kings, but in vain
The Two Centuries of Hackney-coach continuance
The Last Days of London Hackney-coaches
The Cabriolets of Paris
Their subsequent Introduction in London
The immense Increase in their Number during the Twenty Years of their Existence
Their present Number
The Cab-driver
The extensive Use of London Cabs on Sundays, and its injurious Effects on the Drivers
The Extortion complained of in Cabmen
The unlicensed Driver, and the extreme Depravity of this Class
Cab-drivers as a Body exposed to unjust Odium
Recent Alteration in the System of Licensing, and its Effects
Great Difference in the Character of London Cab-stands
The Waterman
First Efforts for the Religious Welfare of Cabmen as a Body, as made by the London City Mission
A Missionary appointed by that Society to visit them, and his Great Success
A Second Missionary appointed, but soon discontinued, through want of Funds for his Support
Cases recorded of his Usefulness
The Emigration of the First Missionary, and the Appointment of his Successor, with Review of his Efforts and Success
Cases of Usefulness recorded by the Cab Missionary of the London City Mission, last Year
Chapter IV: The London Omnibus Man
The London Omnibus Man
The Introduction of Omnibuses into London, and their previous Establishment in Paris
The Enterprise of Mr. Shillibeer, in starting Omnibuses in the English Metropolis, the Difficulties he encountered, and his subsequent Ruin
The Paris and London Omnibuses of the present day compared
The constant Litigation between the Proprietors of London Omnibuses after Mr. Shillibeer's Failure, and the consequent Establishment of large Omnibus Companies for the sake of Mutual Protection
The Immense Amount of the Capital and Annual Expenditure of the London Omnibus Trade
The vast Sums of Money spent by the London Population in Omnibus Riding
The Large Amount of Revenue which London Omnibuses produce to the Government
The very small Number of Omnibuses in the remainder of England, as compared with the Number in London
The almost incredible Length of Distance traversed periodically by the London Omnibuses
The constant Increase in the Number of London Omnibuses
The Metropolitan Omnibus Traffic greater in the Number of Passengers than the Metropolitan Railway Traffic
The Condition of the London Omnibus Men, and their present Numbers
Their Sunday Occupation in the Metropolis of a professedly Christian Country scarcely less than on Week-days, and sometimes greater, while an Extreme Amount of Toil is imposed on them during the Week
Lord Shaftesbury's Testimony of the Success of an Omnibus Proprietor who Discontinued Sunday Work
Testimonies as to the Toil of Omnibus-men from the Early Closed Association
From an Occasional paper of the Church Pastoral-Aid Society
From the Rev. J. T. Baylee's 'Statistics and Facts in reference to the Lord's-day'
Extract from 'Silverpen' as to the Wives and Families of Omnibus Servants
Medical Testimony as to the Injury of Labour so hard on the Constitution of the Men
Testimonies given to Mr. Mayhew as to the Severity of the Labour, by a Driver, a Conductor, and a Time-keeper
Their Wages
Their Temptations to Drink
Their Temptations to Embezzlement
Urgent Appeal as to the Heathenism of so Large a Body of Men
Reference to the Efforts of the London City Mission, in a Pamphlet entitled 'The Omnibus Men of London'
Recent Efforts of Omnibus Servants themselves to Improve their Condition
The Grand Junction Omnibus Comopany
The Introduction of Omnibuses has brought more together the different Parts of London
Concluding Appeal
Chapter V: The Irish of London
The Irish of London
Their Numbers
Their Country and their Race
St. Patrick
Subsequent Wars
Conquest of Ireland by Henry II, and its subsequent Oppression by the English
The Reformation in Ireland
The Protestant Colony of Ulster Established
The Battle of the Boyne, and its Consequences
The Union
Remarkable Increase of Population in Ireland during the close of the 18th and the commencement of the 19th Centuries
The pleasing Peculiarities in the irish Character
Their Hospitality
Their strong Natural Affection
The Native irish Poor more virtuous than the English Poor
Even the Good Qualities of the Irish cause them especially to need Faithful and Judicious Counsel and Visitation
Their Claim as Immigrants into, to them, a Strange Land
The Excellences of the Irish Character are beheld in London in their rudest form
How Popery has Marred and Debased the Irish Character
The Irish have been made thereby Idle
They have no Proper Feeling of Independence
Their Disloyalty
Their Spirit of Persecution and Hatred to Protestants
The Irish of London require 100 Missionaries or Scripture-readers, in order that the Gospel may be brought to their Abodes
The same Agency, for the effecting the same Results, is what is especially required for the Irish of London
Cardinal Wiseman's recent Denunciation of this Agency in London
Soundness of Protestant Feeling among the English working-classes
'The testimony of no single missionary is materially different'
The Persecution which the recent London Converts have had to endure
General Expectations of Irish Romanists that Ireland will soon become a Protestant, and England a Popish Country
The Causes of the Extensive Immigration of Irish to London in Recent Years
The better Class of Poor emigrate from Ireland to America, and the worst Class to London
The Divisions of the Irish of London into Cockneys and Grecians
The Irish of London, as divided into Connaught and Munster Men
Immigration of Immoral Irish Women
The Numbers of the Irish of London who can read English and Irish respectively estimated
Irish Protestants possess more Scriptual Knowledge than English Protestants
Extreme Ignorance on Scriptural Subjects of Irish Romanists, illustrated by Examples
The Irish, on arriving in London, rapidly lose their previous Religious Habits
London considered by the Irish as an Infidel City, in which, without Loss of Character, they may live in the Neglect of all Religious Observances
The Prevalence of Drunkness among the Irish and English compared
The Rookeries are the Parts of London in which the Irish Chiefly dwell
The Occupations of the Irish of London
Especial Suitableness of Irish Scripture-readers and Misisonaries for Irish Districts and the more Especial Facilities with which they may be obtained
Future Hopes
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