The million-peopled city

Garwood, John


In A.D. 1851.


The Report for commences with the following general statement :-" I have free access to every part of the Hospital. No obstacle whatever is thrown in my way. My visits are thankfully received, with a very few exceptions. If there is


one class of individuals more than another who demand our sympathy, they are the pensioners, who are tottering on the verge of eternity, and who are daily passing away into an eternal world. The vast majority, I have reason to fear, are unprepared for the solemn change. There are many, however, who are truly pious, of whom some owe the change to God's blessing on the efforts of the . A portion of these were once sunk deep in depravity, but they are now living exemplarily, and giving very practical evidence of the reality of the change which has been effected in them."

Then follows a narration of particular cases of usefulness which had occurred during the year.

First, an old pensioner is referred to, who during the year had become a communicant at the . He had been long entirely ignorant of spiritual things. An attend- ance at the missionary's meeting, 3 years before, had first opened his understanding. The consistency of his conduct in the interim testifies to the impression made on his mind.

Then comes the case of a man who had been at sea 7 years, and in several skirmishes, although in no general engagement. At he had been laid up with yellow fever, which carried off thousands. To use his own words, "If I had died then, I should have gone direct to hell, for a greater drunkard could not have been." He had been in the Hospital 10 years, and had then attended the meetings of the missionary a year and a-half. Up to that time his habits of drinking had been continued; and he had generally a heavy score against him at the public-house. He is now a sober man, and the old scores have been long since cleared off. Nor is evidence wanting of the heart as well as the life having experienced a great change.

A narrative succeeds of a man of colour from , who had been 35 years at sea, and was in the battle of


Navarino, as well as in other engagements, but had never hought of the mercy of God in preserving him in the midst of so many and imminent dangers, both in the days of battle and while crossing the mighty deep. At , shortly after an engagement, although he escaped the enemy's hand, he was smitten by an unseen power with a paralytic stroke, which deprived him of the use of one side. He was then sent home as unfit for further service, and after entering the Hospital, although so afflicted, he remained a rebel against God for nearly 6 months, and was frequently the worse for liquor. At length one of his cabin mates invited him to attend the meeting, when what he heard came home with Divine power to his heart. He at once abandoned his former companions, and for 2 years at that time he had been an altered man. He was to be constantly seen in the ward with his Bible before him, which before he never thought of reading. He subscribed his penny a-week towards the support of the missionary. He would put his hand on his breast, and say, in his own peculiar and characteristic phraseology, " The promises come in here with sweetness. It was the best day's work I ever did, when I came into . I had been overboard all my life before, but now, thank God, He has taken me into the life-boat."

Next comes the case of a very aged pensioner of 84, who, until he attended the meetings two and a-half years before, considered that he was a very good man, who had never injured any one, and against whose character no one could bring a charge. He always attended his church, when able, and was wrapt up in his own self-righteousness. He has now long been'convinced that he is a very wicked sinner. For some period he was quite cast down with the conviction, and could scarcely be brought to entertain the belief that there was hope in the Gospel even for him. Having, how- ever, first deeplyhumbled him, God in his mercyhas now filled


him with "joy and peace in believing." Confinement in the Infirmary had at length prevented his attendance at the meeting, but he had for a long time sent his shilling a-month for the benefit of the , in gratitude for its efforts on his behalf.

Passing over the next two cases, that the reader may not be wearied, although they possess interest, we come to the case of a pensioner, who had been a marine for about 17 years, and had, on his discharge, worked on different railways as a navvy, but had at length entered the Hospital. The very day after his admission, the missionary met him by the Thames and presented him with a tract, entitled, "." He received it with almost the expression of a fiend, and began to pour forth a volley of abuse on the bishops, the clergy, and all ministers of the Gospel, calling them " a set of villains," "oppressors of the poor," &c., &c. All that the missionary said was treated with contempt. Eight months passed on before the missionary again spoke to him. He was then seated by the fire in his ward, with about 20 of his cabin mates. He was equally abusive as before, and told the missionary that he would not thus go about if he was not well paid for it. " The parsons," said he, "are all alike in this. It is nothing more than a money- getting system." The missionary immediately admitted that he was paid; appealed to him, if he would work without being paid for it; and asked him how it was possible for a missionary or a minister to live without food any more than himself. The missionary then proceeded to expose to him the folly of his course, and to assure him that, if he continued in it, it would certainly end in his eternal ruin. He only sneered at these remarks. On the following morning the missionary, while on his way to the meeting, happened, how- ever, to meet him again, and invited the old man to accom- pany him, telling him, that it was the best thing he could


do with himself. He refused, but without abuse; and, to the missionary's surprise, he saw him enter the room soon after he had himself arrived. He listened with apparent attention to the Word of God and its exposition. And, not- withstanding the great ridicule to which an attendance at these meetings exposes the pensioners from their comrades, he has ever since daily attended them with regularity, both morning and evening. He stands firm against the laugh which is directed to him. He also daily studies the Bible for himself. He has left off both drunkenness and swearing, to both of which he was previously greatly addicted; and he has himself become a subscriber to the missionary's support. This case, as well as several others here referred to, has been carefully inquired into by parties well competent to form a judgment, and it appears most genuine and unmis- takeable.

Again, passing over a case which, from the grossness of the sins described, would render it scarcely suitable to be here recorded, although this very circumstance renders the alteration effected the more remarkable, the Report concludes with the case of a pensioner, much younger than usual. He went to sea very young, and had been in the service only a year and a-half when he lost his leg. He was then dis- charged with a pension of 121. a-year, and worked at his trade as a tailor. After having been foreman in a tailoring establishment for some time, he was taken ill, and admitted into the infirmary of the Hospital. Here he had been 3 years, and it is not likely that he will ever leave. He is to be seen now with the Bible continually before him. How different this is to what it was, will appear from his own observation to the missionary: " Before I came here, I would as soon have taken a serpent into my hand as the Word of God, but now it is all my delight. I can now say, with David, 'Lord, how love I thy law; therein do I meditate


day and night.' He is in the habit of receiving the Lord's Supper monthly from one of the College clergy, and appears to understand the nature of that sacrament, and to be a suitable person to partake of it. The missionary's instruc- tions have been especially useful to him.

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 Title Page
Chapter I: Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
A distinct Class from Adult Thieves
Their extreme Youth, and sometimes Childhood
Great Severity of British, as compared with French, Law on Juvenile Offenders
Their especial Claim, when resident in London
Their supposed Numbers
The Classes from which they are drawn
The Training for Crime which they receive
Their Gradations in Proficiency
Importance of Missionary Operations among this Class
The Ragged School Movement
The Connexion of the Ragged schools with the Operations of the London City Mission
Ragged Schools in an especial manner free from the Difficulties of Difference of Creed and Interference with the Duties of Parents
Early Approaches to the Ragged School System
The first Ragged School in Lonon, as established in 'the Old Stable' at Westminster
The Report of this School, as printed by Order of the House of Commons
Mr. Charles Dicken's Account of the Plot of Ground on which this School stood, called 'The Devil's Acre'
Letter of the Children of this School to the City Missionary
New Pye-street Girls' School, April 10, 1843
Dickens's narrative of Emigrants from this School
The Field-lane ragged School described, as a second Illustration of these Institutions
Description of the adjacent notorious 'Thieves' Houses'
Formation of the School
Dickens's Narrative of different Visits to this School, and of the Improvements effected in the interim
Narrative of a Visit to this School, from 'Chambers's Edinburgh Journal'
This School first interested Lord Shaftesbury in the 'Movement'
Erection of a New Schoolroom with a large Dormitory
Review of the subsequent Progress of London Ragged Schools to the present Time
Industrial Schools
Sergeant Adams's Eulogy of the Efforts of Ragged School Teachers
Three Cases of Usefulness from the Ragged School Union Magazine
Case of Usefulness reported to the Author by a Clergyman
Two other Cases of Usefulness from the 'London City Mission Magazine'
The Shoe-blacks a most remarkable Illustration of the Success of the Efforts made to benefit this Class
Broomers, and how they might be made to cleanse London
Steppers and Ragged Nursery
Comparison of the Expenses of Schools and Prisons
The especial Claims of Girls
Voluntary Effort, and that by the Masses, rather than Government Aid, to be especially rested on
Appointment of a Missionary by the London City Mission
Importance of Increased Exertions, in order to bring the whole of this Class under Ragged School Instrution
Concluding Remarks
Chapter II: Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Hospitals fit Adornments to the two Shores of England's Metropolis
Greenwich Hospital
The Pensioners
Their Ages
Their Present Number
The Yearly Deaths
The Infirmary for the Sick and Dying
Religious and moral Character of the Pensioners, and Providsion made for their Instruction
The Pensioners not allowed to marry, and the bad Effects of this Rule
The Royal Hospital Schools
Law Agency in a peculiar manner important with these Men
The London City Mission, the only Agency of this Character in the Hospital
Need of a Second Paid Lay Visitor
Description of the Meeting of Pensioners held daily by the Missionary
Striking Cases of Usefulness among the Pensioners by this Agency
In A.D. 1851
In A.D. 1852
In A.D. 1853
Case of Usefulness among Out-pensioners, from the Scripture Readers' Association 'Occasional paper'
Chelsea Hospital
Its Origin
Nell Gwynne's Grant of the Building
Number of In-pensioners admitted
Their Character
The Pensioners' Opinions of the late Duke of Wellington, and of Lying-in-State
The Crowds of the Public who assembled to see the Spectacle
Number of Out-pensioners in different Years, according to the Prevalence of Peace or War
The immense Cost of the Pensioners to the nation, even at the Present Day
The Hotel des Invalides in Paris, established before Chelsea Hospital in London, and a Standing Army established in France before its Establishment in Enbland
How the Disabled and Aged Soldier was previously supported in this Country
The College was not completed till the Revolution
The Interest of William the Third and Fourth in the College
The College is for Invalids also
Ages of the Pensioners
Number of Deaths annually
The Burial-ground of Chelsea Hospital, and its Remarkable Epitaphs
Burial Registers
The Funeral of a Pensioner described
Flags and Trophies recently removed from St. Paul's Cathedral to Chelsea Hospital
Specimens of Certificates of Service given to Pensioners on their Admission to the College by their Commanding Officers
The Clasps worn by Pensioners to denote the Number of Battles in which they have engaged
Guard kept at the College in Military Style
Foreigners and different Creeds among the Pensioners
The heavy Manner in which Time hangs on their Hands
Cards, &c. introduced by the Authorities of the College to remedy this
Library, and its Defects
Gardening introduced by Lord John Russell
These Gardens were the former famed Ranelagh
Great Abuses in the Management of Chelsea Hospital abolished by Lord John Russell
Regulations as to Marriage more favourable to Morals at Chelsea than at Greenwich
The Royal Military Asylum for Boys
The Wellington Fund now raising for the Children of Officers
Gratitude of the Pensioners for Religious Instruction, and their Visit to City Missionaries, when the latter had been ill
Their Interest in Religious Tracts
Their Desire of Further Instruction
Number of Out-pensioners resident in the Metropolis
Facilities for, and Importance of, Benefitting these Men
Extracts from the Reports of a Missionary of the London City Mission
The especial Claims which Pensioners present on the Christian Benevolence of the Nation, and not of the Inhabitants of London only
Thankfulness for Peace
Immense Cost of War as compared with the Insignificant Amount which would now add greatly to their Comfort, and promote their Best Interests
Danger of Delay with Men so Aged
Chapter III: The London Cab-Driver
The London Cab-Driver
The Introduction of Coaches into London in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
The riding Horses in previous Use
Coaches when introduced only by the very Highest Class of Society, and regarded as an effeminacy
On other Classes beginning the use of Coaches, the higher Classes continued to add to the Number of the Horses by which their Coaches were drawn, in order to retain a Superiority
The Introduction of Hackney Coaches kept at Inns, in the Reign of James I
Hackney Coach-stands in the Public Streets established
These Prohibited by the Proclamations of succeeding Kings, but in vain
The Two Centuries of Hackney-coach continuance
The Last Days of London Hackney-coaches
The Cabriolets of Paris
Their subsequent Introduction in London
The immense Increase in their Number during the Twenty Years of their Existence
Their present Number
The Cab-driver
The extensive Use of London Cabs on Sundays, and its injurious Effects on the Drivers
The Extortion complained of in Cabmen
The unlicensed Driver, and the extreme Depravity of this Class
Cab-drivers as a Body exposed to unjust Odium
Recent Alteration in the System of Licensing, and its Effects
Great Difference in the Character of London Cab-stands
The Waterman
First Efforts for the Religious Welfare of Cabmen as a Body, as made by the London City Mission
A Missionary appointed by that Society to visit them, and his Great Success
A Second Missionary appointed, but soon discontinued, through want of Funds for his Support
Cases recorded of his Usefulness
The Emigration of the First Missionary, and the Appointment of his Successor, with Review of his Efforts and Success
Cases of Usefulness recorded by the Cab Missionary of the London City Mission, last Year
Chapter IV: The London Omnibus Man
The London Omnibus Man
The Introduction of Omnibuses into London, and their previous Establishment in Paris
The Enterprise of Mr. Shillibeer, in starting Omnibuses in the English Metropolis, the Difficulties he encountered, and his subsequent Ruin
The Paris and London Omnibuses of the present day compared
The constant Litigation between the Proprietors of London Omnibuses after Mr. Shillibeer's Failure, and the consequent Establishment of large Omnibus Companies for the sake of Mutual Protection
The Immense Amount of the Capital and Annual Expenditure of the London Omnibus Trade
The vast Sums of Money spent by the London Population in Omnibus Riding
The Large Amount of Revenue which London Omnibuses produce to the Government
The very small Number of Omnibuses in the remainder of England, as compared with the Number in London
The almost incredible Length of Distance traversed periodically by the London Omnibuses
The constant Increase in the Number of London Omnibuses
The Metropolitan Omnibus Traffic greater in the Number of Passengers than the Metropolitan Railway Traffic
The Condition of the London Omnibus Men, and their present Numbers
Their Sunday Occupation in the Metropolis of a professedly Christian Country scarcely less than on Week-days, and sometimes greater, while an Extreme Amount of Toil is imposed on them during the Week
Lord Shaftesbury's Testimony of the Success of an Omnibus Proprietor who Discontinued Sunday Work
Testimonies as to the Toil of Omnibus-men from the Early Closed Association
From an Occasional paper of the Church Pastoral-Aid Society
From the Rev. J. T. Baylee's 'Statistics and Facts in reference to the Lord's-day'
Extract from 'Silverpen' as to the Wives and Families of Omnibus Servants
Medical Testimony as to the Injury of Labour so hard on the Constitution of the Men
Testimonies given to Mr. Mayhew as to the Severity of the Labour, by a Driver, a Conductor, and a Time-keeper
Their Wages
Their Temptations to Drink
Their Temptations to Embezzlement
Urgent Appeal as to the Heathenism of so Large a Body of Men
Reference to the Efforts of the London City Mission, in a Pamphlet entitled 'The Omnibus Men of London'
Recent Efforts of Omnibus Servants themselves to Improve their Condition
The Grand Junction Omnibus Comopany
The Introduction of Omnibuses has brought more together the different Parts of London
Concluding Appeal
Chapter V: The Irish of London
The Irish of London
Their Numbers
Their Country and their Race
St. Patrick
Subsequent Wars
Conquest of Ireland by Henry II, and its subsequent Oppression by the English
The Reformation in Ireland
The Protestant Colony of Ulster Established
The Battle of the Boyne, and its Consequences
The Union
Remarkable Increase of Population in Ireland during the close of the 18th and the commencement of the 19th Centuries
The pleasing Peculiarities in the irish Character
Their Hospitality
Their strong Natural Affection
The Native irish Poor more virtuous than the English Poor
Even the Good Qualities of the Irish cause them especially to need Faithful and Judicious Counsel and Visitation
Their Claim as Immigrants into, to them, a Strange Land
The Excellences of the Irish Character are beheld in London in their rudest form
How Popery has Marred and Debased the Irish Character
The Irish have been made thereby Idle
They have no Proper Feeling of Independence
Their Disloyalty
Their Spirit of Persecution and Hatred to Protestants
The Irish of London require 100 Missionaries or Scripture-readers, in order that the Gospel may be brought to their Abodes
The same Agency, for the effecting the same Results, is what is especially required for the Irish of London
Cardinal Wiseman's recent Denunciation of this Agency in London
Soundness of Protestant Feeling among the English working-classes
'The testimony of no single missionary is materially different'
The Persecution which the recent London Converts have had to endure
General Expectations of Irish Romanists that Ireland will soon become a Protestant, and England a Popish Country
The Causes of the Extensive Immigration of Irish to London in Recent Years
The better Class of Poor emigrate from Ireland to America, and the worst Class to London
The Divisions of the Irish of London into Cockneys and Grecians
The Irish of London, as divided into Connaught and Munster Men
Immigration of Immoral Irish Women
The Numbers of the Irish of London who can read English and Irish respectively estimated
Irish Protestants possess more Scriptual Knowledge than English Protestants
Extreme Ignorance on Scriptural Subjects of Irish Romanists, illustrated by Examples
The Irish, on arriving in London, rapidly lose their previous Religious Habits
London considered by the Irish as an Infidel City, in which, without Loss of Character, they may live in the Neglect of all Religious Observances
The Prevalence of Drunkness among the Irish and English compared
The Rookeries are the Parts of London in which the Irish Chiefly dwell
The Occupations of the Irish of London
Especial Suitableness of Irish Scripture-readers and Misisonaries for Irish Districts and the more Especial Facilities with which they may be obtained
Future Hopes
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