The million-peopled city

Garwood, John


The Crowds of the Public who assembled to see the Spectacle.


" But, whatever might be the private opinion of the people respecting the Duke and his lying-in-state, they manifested a universal desire to witness what would probably be the last specimen of the funereal pageantry of kings in a bygone age. Many of the higher and more intelligent classes of society came, no doubt, to pay a tribute of respect to departed worth, but the overwhelming majority were mere sightseers. The train of carriages which conveyed the elite of the country to the hall of state was truly surprising. At one hour of the day there could not have been less than one mile and a-half's length of carriages waiting to set down their passengers, and the day was exceedingly rainy. Ladies, dressed in the most costly manner, might have been seen bespattered with mud, and wading through dirt with their slender shoes, because, when they had seen the sight, their carriages were unable to get sufficiently near to take them


up at the point of egress. To many of the coachmen and footmen I gave tracts.

"The first day of public admission commenced, and at an early hour entrance into the hall was easy; but the full tide of human beings had set in towards the Hospital, and the mass soon became enormous. The lady of my respected local superintendent, whose house overlooks the entrance of the Hospital, thus describes the scene, as it appeared from their windows :-' At about 11 o'clock, the , between the College and the green opposite, was one dense, black line of innumerable people and carriages. It soon became apparent that the police were under some measure of alarm. We could distinguish them, mounted on the iron rails and cabs, and exhorting the people to keep back. There was much screaming and evident suffering in the crowd, and the steam from them rose, as a cloud of smoke, the whole length of the road. A few minutes more, and 2 bodies were carried past, the way for them being made through the crowd by mounted police. About noon a new arrangement was adopted by opening the green, which relieved the pressure, by allow- ing the crowd to return another way. The returning crowds pressed under our windows, and we saw many women fainting with exhaustion, some with their clothes torn from them, and some who had lost one or both shoes.'

" At night men were set to work to erect barriers, to lay down gas, and to make entirely new arrangements for Monday. The whole of Sunday was occupied with these preparations.

" Monday morning opened with crowds greater than ever, surrounding the Hospital, but owing to the barriers erected, to prevent the crowds pressing too densely on one another, no very serious accident occurred. One woman who had been pressed in the crowd I saw vomiting blood in Smith- street. Another had the skirts of her gown torn completely


away, and the soles of her shoes trodden off the upper parts. The mud had been worked up around the Hospital by the rain and the large concourse of pedestrians, so that every person was greatly bespattered by it. This almost emptied my district of men and youths. Providing themselves with a stool each, and brushes and blacking, they lined the pave- ments around the Hospital for many score of yards, and allured the returning visitors to expend a penny on the polishing of their miry shoes, each one assuring the public that theirs was the true Wellington polish, or that theirs was the genuine Victoria blacking. Soon, however, the were in the field, and secured to themselves a full share in the rich harvest my people had been reaping. Nor were these the only persons who turned a public loss into a private advantage. Correct portrait sellers and medal vendors were very numerous; and men and children earned a good large sum by holding horses, and finding carriages for those who had been in the hall. Many people opened their houses as tea and coffee-houses, and touted at the doors for customers. The public-houses in the neighbourhood were also filled to overflowing.

" Tuesday brought greater crowds than ever to witness the splendid ceremonial. It was with the greatest difficulty that I could get from my home to my district. The broad mass of persons waiting for admission at one part of the day reached about 600 yards. So densely were they packed, that the lady of the clergyman, to whom I have before referred, saw a gentleman who had the seals of his letters melted in his pocket by the heat of the crowd. Fainting females were very numerous. My kind superintendent's house being very convenient, he generously opened it as an asylum in such cases. In the evening he was not able to count up the number of cases which had been brought in and nursed during the day.

"On Wednesday the people seemed to have gathered together more numerously than ever. Many who had been disappointed several times on previous days in trying to reach the hall of death, were determined to make a last effort to-day. So great was the crowd, that it reached from the College, through the Green, through , and a long distance up and down , besides those who were admitted through and the . At the close of the day, many who had come hundreds of miles to see the sight went away dis- appointed.

"' Having described in some measure the masses who came to witness the lying-in-state, I will now relate some of the Christian efforts made to turn this solemnity to the further- ance of the . Finding it impossible to pursue my work on my district, I gathered up a large number of tracts which had remained to me out of former months' distri- bution, and went amongst the crowd, giving them to such persons as seemed likely to profit by them. There were few cases in which they were not kindly and eagerly received. Seven hundred tracts were distributed by me in a few hours, and I went home for more. I continued it each day, and had the satisfaction of seeing many to whom I had given tracts stand in the crowd reading them. The police also were most willing to receive tracts, and to many I gave them. Several of my brother missionaries were similarly employed. Nor were some of the clergy and Christian people in the neighbourhood unmindful of this excellent opportunity of making known their Lord's will. My respected local superintendent gave away a large number of tracts; and such was the rush of the people and policemen to receive them, that his wife was compelled on Wednesday to leave the door, and go into the balcony to distribute them. Indeed, nothing could exceed the


thankfulness with which the people in general received tracts.

" How the people behaved on the occasion, when they were assembled in such vast masses, it must be interesting and important to know. Of this there can be but one opinion, and that is in their favour. Nothing could exceed the quietness and patience with which they waited for their turn of admission to the Hospital, nor the orderly manner in which they moved forward in subjection to the police, nor the regard and ready assistance which they bestowed on females fainting in the crowd from heat and pressure. The tedium of delay was beguiled by lively sallies of wit, and a continuous current of cheerful conversation. In such a crowd pressure was to be expected, but no serious accident occurred after the first day. Very large numbers of females had put on some articles of mourning, but it was to be gathered from the conversation, that this was partly owing to the impression that no one would be admitted to the hall without it. If the gatherings of a nation be any index of its sense of decency and propriety, England has reason to congratulate herself, and take courage. Even vice on this occasion was content to wear the appearance of virtue, or to hide itself in the recesses of the neighbouring beer-shops.

"But I must not forget to notice the praiseworthy conduct of the police in keeping order. Time was when the people and the police could by no means agree, but during the lying-in-state they appeared on the most friendly terms. The police joked with the people, and the people with the police, so that it was frequently very amusing to hear them. To distressed females the police were particularly attentive. Wherever there was danger they used the utmost exertions to avert it. Their arrangements were most complete and satisfactory, after the first day's admission, from which time no serious accident occurred.

"In conclusion, I would suggest to all men to consider whether so much orderly and peaceful behaviour, manifested by all classes of society on so exciting an occasion, and con- trasting so strikingly with popular gatherings in days gone by, may not be traceable to the socializing influence of religion, as applied to the masses through the , and a regular ministry more alive to the requirements of the people."

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 Title Page
Chapter I: Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
Criminal and Destitute London Juveniles, or the Ragged School Class
A distinct Class from Adult Thieves
Their extreme Youth, and sometimes Childhood
Great Severity of British, as compared with French, Law on Juvenile Offenders
Their especial Claim, when resident in London
Their supposed Numbers
The Classes from which they are drawn
The Training for Crime which they receive
Their Gradations in Proficiency
Importance of Missionary Operations among this Class
The Ragged School Movement
The Connexion of the Ragged schools with the Operations of the London City Mission
Ragged Schools in an especial manner free from the Difficulties of Difference of Creed and Interference with the Duties of Parents
Early Approaches to the Ragged School System
The first Ragged School in Lonon, as established in 'the Old Stable' at Westminster
The Report of this School, as printed by Order of the House of Commons
Mr. Charles Dicken's Account of the Plot of Ground on which this School stood, called 'The Devil's Acre'
Letter of the Children of this School to the City Missionary
New Pye-street Girls' School, April 10, 1843
Dickens's narrative of Emigrants from this School
The Field-lane ragged School described, as a second Illustration of these Institutions
Description of the adjacent notorious 'Thieves' Houses'
Formation of the School
Dickens's Narrative of different Visits to this School, and of the Improvements effected in the interim
Narrative of a Visit to this School, from 'Chambers's Edinburgh Journal'
This School first interested Lord Shaftesbury in the 'Movement'
Erection of a New Schoolroom with a large Dormitory
Review of the subsequent Progress of London Ragged Schools to the present Time
Industrial Schools
Sergeant Adams's Eulogy of the Efforts of Ragged School Teachers
Three Cases of Usefulness from the Ragged School Union Magazine
Case of Usefulness reported to the Author by a Clergyman
Two other Cases of Usefulness from the 'London City Mission Magazine'
The Shoe-blacks a most remarkable Illustration of the Success of the Efforts made to benefit this Class
Broomers, and how they might be made to cleanse London
Steppers and Ragged Nursery
Comparison of the Expenses of Schools and Prisons
The especial Claims of Girls
Voluntary Effort, and that by the Masses, rather than Government Aid, to be especially rested on
Appointment of a Missionary by the London City Mission
Importance of Increased Exertions, in order to bring the whole of this Class under Ragged School Instrution
Concluding Remarks
Chapter II: Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Pensioners
Greenwich and Chelsea Hospitals fit Adornments to the two Shores of England's Metropolis
Greenwich Hospital
The Pensioners
Their Ages
Their Present Number
The Yearly Deaths
The Infirmary for the Sick and Dying
Religious and moral Character of the Pensioners, and Providsion made for their Instruction
The Pensioners not allowed to marry, and the bad Effects of this Rule
The Royal Hospital Schools
Law Agency in a peculiar manner important with these Men
The London City Mission, the only Agency of this Character in the Hospital
Need of a Second Paid Lay Visitor
Description of the Meeting of Pensioners held daily by the Missionary
Striking Cases of Usefulness among the Pensioners by this Agency
In A.D. 1851
In A.D. 1852
In A.D. 1853
Case of Usefulness among Out-pensioners, from the Scripture Readers' Association 'Occasional paper'
Chelsea Hospital
Its Origin
Nell Gwynne's Grant of the Building
Number of In-pensioners admitted
Their Character
The Pensioners' Opinions of the late Duke of Wellington, and of Lying-in-State
The Crowds of the Public who assembled to see the Spectacle
Number of Out-pensioners in different Years, according to the Prevalence of Peace or War
The immense Cost of the Pensioners to the nation, even at the Present Day
The Hotel des Invalides in Paris, established before Chelsea Hospital in London, and a Standing Army established in France before its Establishment in Enbland
How the Disabled and Aged Soldier was previously supported in this Country
The College was not completed till the Revolution
The Interest of William the Third and Fourth in the College
The College is for Invalids also
Ages of the Pensioners
Number of Deaths annually
The Burial-ground of Chelsea Hospital, and its Remarkable Epitaphs
Burial Registers
The Funeral of a Pensioner described
Flags and Trophies recently removed from St. Paul's Cathedral to Chelsea Hospital
Specimens of Certificates of Service given to Pensioners on their Admission to the College by their Commanding Officers
The Clasps worn by Pensioners to denote the Number of Battles in which they have engaged
Guard kept at the College in Military Style
Foreigners and different Creeds among the Pensioners
The heavy Manner in which Time hangs on their Hands
Cards, &c. introduced by the Authorities of the College to remedy this
Library, and its Defects
Gardening introduced by Lord John Russell
These Gardens were the former famed Ranelagh
Great Abuses in the Management of Chelsea Hospital abolished by Lord John Russell
Regulations as to Marriage more favourable to Morals at Chelsea than at Greenwich
The Royal Military Asylum for Boys
The Wellington Fund now raising for the Children of Officers
Gratitude of the Pensioners for Religious Instruction, and their Visit to City Missionaries, when the latter had been ill
Their Interest in Religious Tracts
Their Desire of Further Instruction
Number of Out-pensioners resident in the Metropolis
Facilities for, and Importance of, Benefitting these Men
Extracts from the Reports of a Missionary of the London City Mission
The especial Claims which Pensioners present on the Christian Benevolence of the Nation, and not of the Inhabitants of London only
Thankfulness for Peace
Immense Cost of War as compared with the Insignificant Amount which would now add greatly to their Comfort, and promote their Best Interests
Danger of Delay with Men so Aged
Chapter III: The London Cab-Driver
The London Cab-Driver
The Introduction of Coaches into London in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth
The riding Horses in previous Use
Coaches when introduced only by the very Highest Class of Society, and regarded as an effeminacy
On other Classes beginning the use of Coaches, the higher Classes continued to add to the Number of the Horses by which their Coaches were drawn, in order to retain a Superiority
The Introduction of Hackney Coaches kept at Inns, in the Reign of James I
Hackney Coach-stands in the Public Streets established
These Prohibited by the Proclamations of succeeding Kings, but in vain
The Two Centuries of Hackney-coach continuance
The Last Days of London Hackney-coaches
The Cabriolets of Paris
Their subsequent Introduction in London
The immense Increase in their Number during the Twenty Years of their Existence
Their present Number
The Cab-driver
The extensive Use of London Cabs on Sundays, and its injurious Effects on the Drivers
The Extortion complained of in Cabmen
The unlicensed Driver, and the extreme Depravity of this Class
Cab-drivers as a Body exposed to unjust Odium
Recent Alteration in the System of Licensing, and its Effects
Great Difference in the Character of London Cab-stands
The Waterman
First Efforts for the Religious Welfare of Cabmen as a Body, as made by the London City Mission
A Missionary appointed by that Society to visit them, and his Great Success
A Second Missionary appointed, but soon discontinued, through want of Funds for his Support
Cases recorded of his Usefulness
The Emigration of the First Missionary, and the Appointment of his Successor, with Review of his Efforts and Success
Cases of Usefulness recorded by the Cab Missionary of the London City Mission, last Year
Chapter IV: The London Omnibus Man
The London Omnibus Man
The Introduction of Omnibuses into London, and their previous Establishment in Paris
The Enterprise of Mr. Shillibeer, in starting Omnibuses in the English Metropolis, the Difficulties he encountered, and his subsequent Ruin
The Paris and London Omnibuses of the present day compared
The constant Litigation between the Proprietors of London Omnibuses after Mr. Shillibeer's Failure, and the consequent Establishment of large Omnibus Companies for the sake of Mutual Protection
The Immense Amount of the Capital and Annual Expenditure of the London Omnibus Trade
The vast Sums of Money spent by the London Population in Omnibus Riding
The Large Amount of Revenue which London Omnibuses produce to the Government
The very small Number of Omnibuses in the remainder of England, as compared with the Number in London
The almost incredible Length of Distance traversed periodically by the London Omnibuses
The constant Increase in the Number of London Omnibuses
The Metropolitan Omnibus Traffic greater in the Number of Passengers than the Metropolitan Railway Traffic
The Condition of the London Omnibus Men, and their present Numbers
Their Sunday Occupation in the Metropolis of a professedly Christian Country scarcely less than on Week-days, and sometimes greater, while an Extreme Amount of Toil is imposed on them during the Week
Lord Shaftesbury's Testimony of the Success of an Omnibus Proprietor who Discontinued Sunday Work
Testimonies as to the Toil of Omnibus-men from the Early Closed Association
From an Occasional paper of the Church Pastoral-Aid Society
From the Rev. J. T. Baylee's 'Statistics and Facts in reference to the Lord's-day'
Extract from 'Silverpen' as to the Wives and Families of Omnibus Servants
Medical Testimony as to the Injury of Labour so hard on the Constitution of the Men
Testimonies given to Mr. Mayhew as to the Severity of the Labour, by a Driver, a Conductor, and a Time-keeper
Their Wages
Their Temptations to Drink
Their Temptations to Embezzlement
Urgent Appeal as to the Heathenism of so Large a Body of Men
Reference to the Efforts of the London City Mission, in a Pamphlet entitled 'The Omnibus Men of London'
Recent Efforts of Omnibus Servants themselves to Improve their Condition
The Grand Junction Omnibus Comopany
The Introduction of Omnibuses has brought more together the different Parts of London
Concluding Appeal
Chapter V: The Irish of London
The Irish of London
Their Numbers
Their Country and their Race
St. Patrick
Subsequent Wars
Conquest of Ireland by Henry II, and its subsequent Oppression by the English
The Reformation in Ireland
The Protestant Colony of Ulster Established
The Battle of the Boyne, and its Consequences
The Union
Remarkable Increase of Population in Ireland during the close of the 18th and the commencement of the 19th Centuries
The pleasing Peculiarities in the irish Character
Their Hospitality
Their strong Natural Affection
The Native irish Poor more virtuous than the English Poor
Even the Good Qualities of the Irish cause them especially to need Faithful and Judicious Counsel and Visitation
Their Claim as Immigrants into, to them, a Strange Land
The Excellences of the Irish Character are beheld in London in their rudest form
How Popery has Marred and Debased the Irish Character
The Irish have been made thereby Idle
They have no Proper Feeling of Independence
Their Disloyalty
Their Spirit of Persecution and Hatred to Protestants
The Irish of London require 100 Missionaries or Scripture-readers, in order that the Gospel may be brought to their Abodes
The same Agency, for the effecting the same Results, is what is especially required for the Irish of London
Cardinal Wiseman's recent Denunciation of this Agency in London
Soundness of Protestant Feeling among the English working-classes
'The testimony of no single missionary is materially different'
The Persecution which the recent London Converts have had to endure
General Expectations of Irish Romanists that Ireland will soon become a Protestant, and England a Popish Country
The Causes of the Extensive Immigration of Irish to London in Recent Years
The better Class of Poor emigrate from Ireland to America, and the worst Class to London
The Divisions of the Irish of London into Cockneys and Grecians
The Irish of London, as divided into Connaught and Munster Men
Immigration of Immoral Irish Women
The Numbers of the Irish of London who can read English and Irish respectively estimated
Irish Protestants possess more Scriptual Knowledge than English Protestants
Extreme Ignorance on Scriptural Subjects of Irish Romanists, illustrated by Examples
The Irish, on arriving in London, rapidly lose their previous Religious Habits
London considered by the Irish as an Infidel City, in which, without Loss of Character, they may live in the Neglect of all Religious Observances
The Prevalence of Drunkness among the Irish and English compared
The Rookeries are the Parts of London in which the Irish Chiefly dwell
The Occupations of the Irish of London
Especial Suitableness of Irish Scripture-readers and Misisonaries for Irish Districts and the more Especial Facilities with which they may be obtained
Future Hopes
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