Account of the Civil Government of the City by Portreves, Bailiffs, and Mayors, with a list of the latter-Ceremonies to be observed by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, on particular occasions.
No authentic documents are in existence to show what was the nature of the government of London, during the time it was under the dominion of the Romans and Saxons; and as, when it was brought under the Danish yoke, they made no other use of it but as a place of security to fly to, in case of necessity, for shelter and defence; there is, therefore, no probability that a regular government existed during that period. In , Alfred having dislodged these freebooters, and restored London to its former splendour, committed the government thereof to Ethelred, earl of Mercia, who had married Elfleda, his daughter; but as to the government exercised therein by Ethelred nothing is known, for we have not the least account transmitted to us, whereby we can form an idea of the government of this city, before the Norman conquest, other than a few scraps taken from a charter addressed to the portgrave, and said to be granted by Edward the Confessor to the city of London, whereby all her ancient customs and usages were confirmed; and by an additional grant, every servant or vassal, repairing to London, and residing therein during a year and a day, without being claimed by the lord or master, became in all respects a freeman of this city, as if he had been born and bred therein.
By this charter it appears, that the chief officer of the city before the Norman conquest, was denominated portreve, or portgrave. Various are the derivations of this epithet, some taking port to signify a town, whereas in truth it means an haven or harbour; and grave, an intendant, governor, or collector, is derived from the Saxon Grau, that is, gray or hoary-head; such were, by the ancient Saxons, for their age and experience, chosen judges, as the Roman senators and aldermen of England were on the same account; but this appellation at last becoming general, it was indifferently applied to a judge, governor, magistrate, warden, keeper, and receiver; as is manifest by the following ancient German titles, viz. margrave, a warden of the marches; landgrave, an itinerant judge; burgrave, a governor, or chief magistrate of a city; and portgrave, a collector, or general receiver of the public duties of a commercial port; such a was the portgrave of London under the Saxons, who was likewise at the head of the civil government of the city.
In the survey, commonly called the Domesday-Book, made in
|the of William the Conqueror, anno , it appears, that many cities and boroughs in England were held of the Saxon kings, nobility, and clergy, in demesne or vassalage; and whose several properties being cantoned out into sokes and liberties in the said cities and boroughs, at gave rise to the appellation of ward, to each of the said divisions; this is not only in some measure corroborated by the wards of Baynard's-castle, and Portsoken, but likewise by several wards of London being anciently alienable.|
In the reign of Henry I. an additional magistrate was added to the government of this city, by the name of provost: but what his office was, is not mentioned, though probably either that of sheriff or bailiff.
The chief officer of this city under the Saxons (as before mentioned) was the portgrave; but the Normans having by conquest reduced the English, they were in all things forced to submit to the conqueror; wherefore the appellation of portgrave was obliged to make way for the exotic of mayor; from the French word (a Latin derivative from ) wherewith the chief magistrate of the city of Rouen, the capital of the province of Normandy, was then dignified.
The earliest mention of the appellation of mayor, is towards the close of the reign of Henry II.
In the year , the citizens of London obtained the privilege of chosing their own mayor, but with a condition that he should be presented annually to the king, or in his absence to his justices, to be sworn into his office.
The elections for the mayor and city officers, were at made tumultuously by all the citizens, without distinction; but this giving rise to great disturbances and commotions in the city, the magistrates were afterwards chosen by a select number out of each ward, and these were called the commonalty. This mode of election by delegates continued from the reign of Edward I. or perhaps earlier, to that of Edward IV., in whose reign the elections were made by the liverymen of the respective companies, which method has continued ever since, and is established by act of parliament.
The necessary qualifications for the office of lord mayor, are that the nominee shall be free of of the city companies; have served the office of sheriff, and be, at the time of election, an alderman of of the wards of the city. When a citizen has gone through this gradation of honours, he is presumed to be possessed of wealth and talent enough to fill, with credit to the city and himself, the post of its chief magistrate; and it is only where
|notorious misfortunes have reduced an individual from affluence to poverty, that he ever loses his chance of succession to this highest of civic dignities.|
The election takes place on Michaelmas day, at a court of hustings held in , under the presidency of the sheriffs. All the aldermen who have not passed the chair, but have served the office of sheriff, are proposed successively in the order of their seniority, and the livery testify, by a show of hands, the degree of favour in which each is held. The sheriffs make a return to the court of aldermen, of the members of their body, who have united the greatest number of suffrages; and it remains with that court to determine on which of the the election has fallen. The candidates are not, however, absolutely bound by the show of hands; for it is open to any of them or their friends to demand a poll, a privilege which has of late years been frequently exercised.
The lord mayor, though elected by the citizens, must be approved by the king, or as has been invariably the case since Henry III., in the of his charters to the city, permitted the alternative by the lord chancellor on his majesty's behalf. Although the crown, however, does possess this power, there is no instance of its having exercised it, since the revolution at least, and it may be now regarded as a matter of formal observance entirely.
The royal approbation having been obtained, the mayor elect, on the , takes the oath of faithful administration, in presence of the citizens assembled in the ; and next day he is finally installed into office, by the barons of the exchequer at .
This day is the carnival of London, but within the last few years it has been sadly curtailed. Of its splendour of the former appearance of the lord mayor's procession, or show, little remains.
The account of this annual expedition known to have been published, was written by George Peele, for the inauguration of sir Wolstone Dixie, knight, on the . On that occasion, as was customary to the times, there were dramatic representations in the procession--of an allegorical character. Children were dressed to personify the city, magnanimity, loyalty, science, the country, and the river Thames. They also represented a soldier, a sailor, and nymphs, with appropriate speeches. The show opened with a moor on the back of a lynx. On sir Thomas Middleton's mayoralty, in , the solemnity is described as unparalleled for the cost, art, and magnificence of the shows, pageants, chariots, morning, noon, and night triumphs. In , the city pageants, after a discontinuance of about years, were revived. Edmund Gayton, the author of the description for that year, says, that
In the show of , an European, an Egyptian, and a Persian, were personated. On lord mayor's day, ,
| the king, queen, and duke of York, and most of the nobility being present, there were |
and the like, in , and , when the king
The king, queen, duke, and duchess of York, prince Rupert, the duke of Monmouth, foreign ambassadors, the chief nobility, and secretary of state, were at the celebration of lord mayor's day, in , when there were
The printed description of these processions are usually entitled
though they are more commonly called the
all of them are scarce, and some of such extreme rarity as to bear a price at the rate of and guineas a leaf. The description of sir Patience Ward's show, on the , composed by Thomas Jordan, is an interesting specimen of the setting out and pageantry of this procession. The lord mayor being of the livery of the merchant-tailors' company, at o'clock in the morning, liverymen of the rank, appointed to conduct the business of the day, assembled at merchant-tailor's-hall, to meet the masters, wardens, and assistants, in their gowns, faced with foyns (the skin of the martin.) In the rank, others in gowns faced with budge (lambs'-skin, with the wool dressed outwards,) and livery-hoods. In the rank, a number of foyn-bachelors, and budge-bachelors, both attired in scarlet-hoods and gowns. gentlemen-ushers, in velvet coats and chains of gold, bearing white staves. more in plush and buff, bearing colours and banners. of the king's trumpeters, with silver trumpets, headed by the serjeant-trumpeter, he wearing scarfs, the lord mayor's, and the other the company's colours. The king's drum-major, followed by of the king's drums and fifes. other drums and fifes, wearing vests of buff, with black breeches and waste scarfs. city marshals on horseback, with attendants. The foot-marshal, with a rich broad shoulder-scarf, to put them in rank and file, attended by others. The fence-master, with attendants, bearing bright broadswords drawn. Poor pensioners, with gowns and caps, bearing standards and banners. A troop of poor persons, in azure gowns and caps. more with javelins and targets, bearing the arms of their benefactors. Being all assembled, they are by the foot-marshal's judgment, arranged into divisions, ranked out by and . The division contains the ensigns of the company, followed by the poor company of pensioners. drums and fife. Pensioners in coats as before described. Persons of worth, each bearing a standard or banner. trumpets. merchant-taylors' ensigns, bearing their supporters and crests. gentlemen-ushers. The budge-bachelors, marching in measured order. division. trumpets. gentlemen, bearing the coats of arms of the city, and the merchant-tailors' company. gentlemen,
| wearing gold chains. The foyns-bachelors. division. gentlemen in velvet coats with banners. gentlemen-ushers in coats and chains of gold, as before described. A large body of the livery in their gowns and livery-hoods, followed by |
In their rear divers of the city trumpets. gentlemen bearing the arms of the city and the lord mayor. Gentlemen-ushers. The court of assistants. drums. trumpets. gallants bearing the banners of the diadem. The king's, queen's, and city's ensigns, attended by gentlemen as pages. The master and wardens of the merchant-taylors' company. Thus formed, they march from merchant-tailors' hall to the lord mayor's house, where his lordship and the aldermen take horse, according to their degree, and the whole body proceed in state to . Being met at the gate by the old lord mayor, and there attired with the gown, fur hood, and scarf, and guarded by knights, esquires, and gentlemen, they all march through down to -Crane-wharf, where the lord mayor and aldermen, discharging some of the attendants, take barge at the west end of the wharf; the court of assistants' livery, and the rest of the gentlemen-ushers, taking barge at the east-end. The rest of the ushers, with the foyns and the budge-bachelors, remain ashore, with others, to await the return of his lordship, who proceeds with several city companies by water, and is rowed all along by the strand to ; a pleasure boat with great guns on board saluting him all the way. At New Palace stairs they disembark, and making a lane to the hall, the lord mayor passes along to take the oath and go through the usual ceremonies. These being completed, he makes a liberal donation to the poor of , re-embarks with all his retinue, and being rowed back to Blackfriars stairs, he lands there under beat of drum and a salute of volleys from the artillery company, in their martial ornaments, some in buff, with head-pieces, many being of massy silver. From Blackfriars they march before the lord mayor and aldermen through to . The pensioners and banners who went not to , being set in order to march, the foot-marshal in the rear of the artillery company, leads the way along by the channel up , through Ludgate, into , and so into , where his lordship is entertained by the pageant, consisting of a large stage, with the coat armour of the merchant-tailors' company, eminently erected, consisting of a large tent royal, , fringed and richly garnished, , lined, faced, and doubled, This stage is winged or flanked by other stages, bearing excellent figures of lively carved camels, the supporters to the company's coat. On the back of camel, a black native Indian, in a golden robe, a purple mantle fringed with gold, pearl pendants in his ears, coronet of gold with feathers, and golden buskins laced with scarlet ribbons, holds a golden bridle in his left, and a banner of the company, representing Treasure, in his right hand.
| On the other camel, a West Indian, in a robe of silver, scarlet mantle, diamonds pendant from his ears, buskins of silver, laced with purple ribbons, a golden crown feathered, holds a silver bridle in his left, and a banner of the lord mayor representing, |
in his right hand. On of the camel stages figures sit on pedestals, at each corner, representing
on the other camel-stage, in like manner,
all richly habited in silk or sarsenet, bear splendid emblems and banners. The royal tent, or imperial pavilion, between these stages, is supported on side by a minister of state, representing
and on the other side by another representing
each in rich robes of honour , wearing on their left arms shields , with this motto in gold,
bearing a banner of the king's, and the other of the city's banners. On a high and eminent seat of throne-like ascension is seated
in royal posture and alone, with black curled hair, wearing an imperial crown, a robe of purple velvet, lined, faced, and caped with ermine, a collar of SS, with a George pendant; bearing in hand a golden globe, in the other a royal sceptre. On a seat beneath, are
all richly habited. On the next seat, gradually descending beneath, are, .
shaped like a scholar and soldier, holding in hand, clad with a golden gauntlet, a silver spear, in the other a book: .
wearing an earl's coronet for the court, a loose robe of scarlet-coloured silk for the city, underneath a close coat of grass green plush for the county; .
as a knight of the shire in parliamentary robes. On the lowest seat, an
with brown curling hair, in ancient armour, as worn by chief commanders, the coat of mail richly , crimson and velvet scarf fringed with gold, a quiver of arrows in a gold belt on side, a sword at the other, buskins laced with silver and gold, a silver helmet with red and white plume, in hand a large long bow, and a spear in the other. This personage, representing
a merchant-tailor of martial renown under Edward III. when he conquered France, as soon as he perceives the lord mayor prepared, with attention riseth up, and with a martial bow exhibiteth a speech in verse of lines, in compliment to the merchant-tailors and the lord mayor. His lordship testifying his approbation, rideth with all his brethren through the throng of spectators, till at end, he is intercepted by the pageant, which is a chariot of ovation, or peaceful triumph, adorned with delightful pieces of curious painting, and drawn by a golden lion and a lamb. On the lion is mounted a young negro prince, richly habited, according to the royal mode in India, holding a golden bridle, and in the other hand banner, representing
On the lamb is mounted a white beautiful seraphim-like creature, with long bright flaxen
| curled hair, and on it a golden coronet of cherubims, heads and wings, a carnation sarsenet robe, with a silver mantle, and wings of gold, silver, purple, and scarlet, reining the lamb by a silver bridle in his left hand, and with his right bearing an angelical staff, charged with a red cross representing |
In the chariot sitteth persons, . . . . . . . . . . , (whose habits, and those of other characters already and hereafter mentioned, are not described here for want of room) and . , a lady of great gravity, with masculine aspect, wearing a lovely dark brown peruke, curiously curled, on which is planted a crown imperial; she wears a robe of French green velvet, pleasantly embroidered with gold, a crimson-coloured silk and silver mantle, and sitting majestically alone in front, upon the approach and fixation of my lord mayor, improves the opportunity, riseth up and delivereth an oration. This consists of lines in verse, wherein she acquaints his lordship that the other characters are her attributes, recommends unity, because division is the policy of the pope and the jesuits, expresses her belief that if the lion and the lamb fall out she should run to ruin, descants upon magistrate-like virtues, and in the end tells his lordship,
You have done all things fair, no action foul;
Your sherevalty gave relish of good rule;
Nor need they doubt your mayoralty, therefore,
Begging your pardon, I shall say no more.
This speech being concluded, his lordship exhibiting a gracious aspect of favourable acceptation, advanceth further toward , but is civilly obstructed by another scene, and in regard his lordship is a merchant, and his company merchant-tailors, the triumphal scene, or pageant, is a ship called the
with masts and sails, fully rigged and manned, the captain whereof addresseth to my lord a speech beginning,--
What cheer, my lord? I am return'd from sea,
To amplifie your day of Jubilee,
In this tried vessel, &c. His lordship having surveyed the ship, and the trumpets sounding, he continueth his determined course toward , but by the way is once more obstructed by another scene, called the
which is a triumphal ionic arch of excellent structure, where in distinct and perspicuous situations, sitteth beautiful and pleasant ladies, whose names, natures, and ornaments are consentaneous. I. Jollity. . Delight. . Fancy. . Felicity. . Wit. . Invention. . Tumult. . Slaughter. . Gladness: all of them properly enrobed and adorned; and to augment their delight, there are several persons properly habited, playing on sundry loud
|instruments of music, of which, with a voice as loud and as tuneable as a treble hautboy, chanteth out a ditty in commendation of the merchant-tailors' trade, commencing thus,|
This song, containing more verses, being ended, the foot-marshal places the assistants, livery, and the companies on both sides of , and the pensioners with their targets hung on the tops of the javelins; in the rear of them the ensign bearers; drums and fifes in front; he then hastens the foins and budge-batchelors, together with the gentlemen ushers, to , where his lordship is again saluted by the artillerymen with volleys more, which concludes their duty. His land attendants pass through the gallery or lane so made into ; after which, the company repairs to dinner in the hall, and the several silk-works and triumphs are likewise conveyed into Blackwell hall; and the officers aforesaid, and the children that sit in the pageants, there refresh themselves until his lordship hath dined. At the dinner in , his lordship and the guests being all seated, the city music begin to touch their instruments with very artful fingers. Their ears being as well feasted as their palates, and a concert lesson or succeeding,
sings a song called
the burden whereof is
and the subject against the catholics. The song being ended, the musicians play divers new airs, which having done, or
and of them chaunteth forth
in stanzas, the of which ends with
The present arrangement of the civic pageant is as follows:
On the morning of the , being the day on which the lord mayor elect enters upon his office, the aldermen and sheriffs repair to his residence, from whence they attend him to , in a procession formed by coaches, which, about noon, proceed to Blackfriars-bridge, where the lord mayor, aldermen, recorder, and sheriffs, go on board the city barge, attended by several corporations of the citizens, in their formalities, and stately barges, elegantly adorned with a great number and variety of flags and pendants; and thence proceed to .
The lord mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, recorder, &c. go in procession to the court of exchequer, where the lord mayor is sworn in, and solemnly addressed by the chief baron. The procession afterwards proceeds to all the other courts, the recorder inviting the judges, &c. to dinner. On returning to their barges the whole of the splendid regatta return to Blackfriars-bridge; here the lord mayor is received by the company to which his lordship belongs; and the procession returns, preceded by several persons on horseback, dressed in polished armour. Next march the lord mayor's officers and servants, followed by his lordship in the city state-coach; and after him come the aldermen, recorder, sheriffs, chamberlain, common-serjeant, town clerk, &c. in their several carriages and splendid equipages; and in this manner they proceed to , where an elegant entertainment is provided. The procession being over, the several companies repair to their respective halls, where they are sumptuously entertained.
The exact time when the title of right honourable was given to the chief magistrate of this city cannot be ascertained, though it is extremely probable it was conferred by the great patron of London, Edward III. in the year . At the return of Henry VI. from his being crowned King of France at Paris, Anno , the mayor was apparelled in a gown of crimson velvet, a furred cap, with a girdle of gold and a golden chain about his neck; and the aldermen in scarlet gowns and sanguine hoods.
The wear of robes being established, and the various colours agreed upon, a regulation was published by the court of lord mayor and aldermen, in , for fixing the days whereon their several coloured robes should be worn, and a small tract was published by John Day, containing the customs and orders for meeting on particular days, and for wearing the habits. On account of its extreme scarcity and curiosity, it is here introduced.
Upon Midsummer day, for the election of the sheriffs of London, &c. my lord mayor and the aldermen, with the sheriffs, meet at the , at o'clock in the morning, apparelled in their violet lined, and their cloaks of scarlet lined, without their
And when they have been together in the council-chamber a certain time, concerning the nomination of certain persons to be elected, my lord and the aldermen come out, and put on their cloaks in the orphans'-court, and then go down in order to the hustings-court; and there being set, Mr. recorder standeth up and maketh his obedience, to my lord, and then unto the commons, and declareth unto them wherefore they are assembled together, showing unto them that it is for the election of of the sheriffs of London and the sheriff of Middlesex for the year next ensuing, and the confirmation of the other sheriff nominated by my lord mayor, according to his prerogative, and also for Mr. chamberlain and other officers. Of late years, however, the election is for both sheriffs.
But my lord and the alderman go up to my lord's court, and there remain until the sheriff be named and chosen, the door shut to them.
Then the sheriffs, Mr. chamberlain, Mr. common-sergeant, Mr. town-clerk, and the counsellors of the city, and other officers remain still in the hustings-court to take and receive the name of him that shall seem by their judgments freely and with consent to be nominated and elected, and justly tried out, not only by voice, but also by hands, to be sheriff for the year following.
Then the commons go to the election of Mr. chamberlain, the bridgemasters, the auditors of the city and bridge-house accounts, and the surveyors of beer and ale, according to the accustomed manner.
That done, the sheriffs, master chamberlain, master common serjeant, master town-clerk, the counsellors of the city, the secondaries, the wardens of the head companies, master common-crier going before them with his mace, carry up the report to my lord and the aldermen of their said election.
Which report received, my lord and the aldermen come down again to the hustings-court, and there being set in order and placed, master recorder standeth up as he did before, and maketh rehearsal of the names of those whom they have nominated and chosen, asking them whether it be their free election, yea or no? And they
|grant yea, yea. Then master recorder giveth them thanks, and so they arise and depart home.|
The aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs, at the Chapel, at of the clock after dinner, in their violet gowns lined, and their horses, without cloaks, and there hear evening prayer; which being done, they take their horses and ride to Newgate, and so forth of the gate, entering into the , and there make a proclamation. The proclamation being made, they ride through the , and so return back again through the church-yard of Great St. Bartholomew to Aldersgate, and so ride home again to the lord mayor's house. So many aldermen as do dine with my lord mayor and the sheriffs be apparelled in their scarlet gowns lined, and after dinner their horses be brought to them where they dine; and those aldermen which dine with the
|sheriffs ride with them to my lord's house, to accompany him to the wrestling. Then when the wrestling is done, they take their horses and ride back again through the fair, and so in at Aldersgate, and so home again to the lord mayor's house.|
The next day, if it be not Sunday, for the shooting, as upon Bartholomew-day; but if it be Sunday, the Monday following.
My lord mayor and she- ride to St. Magnus' church, in their scarlet gowns lined, without their cloaks, after dinner, at of the clock, and there the aldermen meet my lord, and after the evening prayer they ride through the fair till they come to , and farther to Newington-bridge, or to St. Thomas of Waterings, to the stories that point out the liberties of the city (if it be so their pleasures), and they return back again unto the bridge-house, and have a banquet there, and then over the bridge, and there the aldermen take their leave of my lord, and depart the next way every to his house. And after all is done, and my lord brought home, my lord mayor's officers have a supper made them by the bridge-masters.
What day soever it falleth, so many of the aldermen as be bidden to dinner to either of the sheriffs, come thither to breakfast, or else to drink, at of the clock in the morning, in their violet gowns furred, with their violet cloaks furred, brought with them without horses. And if the sheriff be an alderman, then they must put on their cloak, and the sheriff likewise his cloak, and so go the between of the grey cloaks; and if the sheriff be no alderman, then to come between of the aldermen without cloaks, and the sheriff in his livery gown and his hood. And after. when he is sworn, then to put on his violet gown and cloak, and his chain thereon; and the aldermen must bring him home to his place, with their cloaks to dinner, and so after dinner take their pleasure.
All the aldermen meet my lord mayor and the sheriffs at of the clock in the morning at , in their scarlet gowns and their cloaks furred, and their horses: and after they have been a certain time together in the council-chamber, they come forth into the orphans' court, and put on their cloaks, and so go in order to the chapel, there hearing service and sermon, and my lord with certain aldermen receive the communion.
And then after the communion ended, and they have offered, return again into the council-chamber, and pausing awhile, return to the place where the hustings is kept, and being set in order, master recorder ariseth up, and maketh his obeisance to my lord, and after to the commons, and declareth unto them, that they of old custom know, that the cause of their assembly and meeting together is for the election of the lord mayor of the year ensuing; declaring unto them divers grants from the king's progenitors for this their election from time to time. That done, my lord mayor and aldermen go up into my lord's court, and there tarry (the door being shut to them) till the election be brought to them. Then standeth up master common serjeant, (the sheriffs standing on either side of him, and by the sheriffs, master chamberlain, master town-clerk, the secondaries, and the counsellors of the city) in the said hustings-court before the commons; and he, the said common-serjeant, maketh a short rehearsal of that Mr. recorder had spoken to them before, saying, there resteth no more for him to say, but to put them in remembrance in what order and sort they should use themselves in their election; that is, how they must nominate and choose , of the which my lord and aldermen must confirm . Which being nominated, elected, and chosen, Mr. common-serjeant, the sheriffs, with the rest
|beforenamed, and certain of the head wardens of the chief companies, go up to my lord and the aldermen, and there present the names of those which the commons have nominated in their election.|
The lord mayor and the aldermen proceed by scrutiny to elect of these persons which the said commons had before nominated. Then cometh down my lord again to the hustings-court, and he whom they have chosen on his left hand, and so my lord and the aldermen sit down again in order; but he who is chosen sitteth next unto my lord on his left hand. Then standeth Mr. Recorder up, and readeth unto them the names of the persons whom they have nominated and chosen, of which my lord and the aldermen have admitted , whose name is N. asking them, whether it be their free election, yea or no? And the commons answer,
Then the sword-bearer taketh off his tippet, and hath it for his labour, and putteth on his chain, and the mayor new elected standeth upon the hustings-court, and giveth thanks, &c. That being done, the old mayor doth likewise give them thanks, &c. Then they arise up and put off their cloaks, and my lord mayor hath the lord elect riding with him, to the eldest sheriff's to dinner.
) Then after dinner my lord elect goeth to my lord chancellor (or lord-keeper) if he be at home at his place, or near unto it, with or of the aldermen and master recorder with him, in their violet gowns, either by foot or by water, as the dwelling-place of the chancellor (or lord keeper) requireth. The common hunt, with the extraordinary officers, and those that be at liberty, attend on him.
All the aldermen must be at the sheriffs houses in the morning at of the clock, in their violet gowns furred, and their horses, without cloaks: but my lord, master recorder, and the sheriffs, must be in their scarlet gowns furred, and their cloaks borne to with them, and so ride to the , and from thence to the Vinetree, and there taking barge, land at Westminster-bridge, and in the hall put on their cloaks, and so go up to the exchequer; and there the new sheriffs be presented, and the old sworn to their account.
Then they put off their cloaks, and take barge, landing again at the Vinetree, and there take horse, and my lord mayor rideth to the eldest sheriff's to dinner, Mr. recorder and the sheriffs riding next my lord, the sheriffs carrying white rods in their hands, and their bench-men going after them.
The old mayor shall have so many of the aldermen as dine with him, come to his place at of the clock in the morning, in their violet gowns furred, and horses, and the sheriffs to fetch him to the hall, and there tarry in the council-chamber until the new mayor cometh, and the rest of the aldermen come, with the company of either of the lords before them : and after they have been together a certain space, come forth into the Orphans'-court, and put on their furred cloaks, and go to the hustings-court; and there being set in order, the common crier maketh proclamation, commanding every man to keep silence.
Then Mr. town-clerk giveth him his oath; and when he hath taken his oath, the old lord ariseth and giveth the new lord his place, the old lord taking the new lord's place; and then Mr. Chamberlain delivereth to him the sceptre, next the keys of the
|common seal, lastly, the seal of the office of the mayoralty; after Mr. Sword-bearer giveth him the sword. Then they arise and put off their cloaks, and the old lord rideth home with the new lord to his place, and there leaveth him, and as many of the aldermen as dine with him. And the old lord, with the rest of the aldermen, ride to his place, the sword borne before him; and so after dinner the aldermen depart home at their pleasure.|
All the aldermen and the sheriffs come to my new lord at of the clock, in their scarlet gowns furred, and their cloaks borne with them, and their horses, and so ride to , and the bachelors and the livery of my lord's company before him.
But the old lord rideth from his own place to the hall alone, having no officers to wait upon him but the common hunt, as a gentleman-usher, going, and those officers that be at liberty, and the common hunt his man (with his own men following him) and so tarrieth at the hall.
And after they be come all together, they take their horses and ride to the Vinetree, and there take barge to Westminster-bridge.
And after they be landed, the lord mayor and aldermen put on their cloaks, within the palace, and go round about the hall, making courtesy in the hall, and so go up to the exchequer to be sworn. Then after the oath taken in the exchequer, they come down and go to the king's-bench, then to the common-pleas, and so put off their cloaks, and go about the king's tombs in , and then take barge again, and being landed, he rideth to the to dinner, and all the companies of the city with him; and at their coming into the hall, the new lord mayor, with of the ancient aldermen, Mr. recorder, and the sheriffs, go up to my lord's table to bid them welcome, and likewise all the other guests there, and from thence to the lady mayoress' table, and so come out to the gentlewomen's table to the judges; and so from thence my said new lord mayor goeth into the chamberlain's office, where he dineth; and the old lord mayor, at their coming into the hall, goeth up to the high table in the hustings, and there keepeth the state for that feast; and after the hall is almost served of the , then the new lord mayor goeth, with master recorder, and those aldermen that dine with him, to bid the old lord and all the guests in the hall welcome. Then after dinner goeth to , with all the companies waiting before my lord.
The lord chief baron then expresses his majesty's approbation, and the new lord mayor takes an oath for the faithful discharge of the duties of the office.
A warrant is then read by Mr. recorder, appointing an attorney for the mayor, commonalty, and citizens, and moves that the same may be recorded, which is granted.
The late lord mayor, as escheator, is then called, and a warrant is read by the recorder, and he moves that his lordships' appearance may be recorded, which is granted, and the senior baron administers an oath to the late lord mayor, that he will faithfully account.
A warrant is then read by the
|recorder, appointing a/ deputy escheator, which he moves may be recorded, and it is granted.|
A warrant is read by the recorder, stating that the lord mayor, as gauger, came in his proper person, and moves that his appearance may be recorded, which is granted, and the next baron swears the old mayor as gauger.
A warrant is then read by the recorder, of the late lord mayor having deputed--to be gauger, which upon motion is also recorded, and the junior baron administers the oath to Mr.--as deputy gauger.
Mr. recorder then invites the barons to dine with the lord mayor and sheriffs, and upon returning from the court of exchequer, the procession proceeds round the hall, where invitations are also given to the judges of the other courts, and similar warrants filed in the court of king's bench and common pleas, and afterwards proceeding in the same order till they arrive at the platform near the water side, where the several officers form a line, and wait to receive the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. and when they have passed they follow according to seniority. The barge then proceeds to Blackfriars-bridge, where the same order is observed in landing as before, the seniors going , and the procession proceeds from thence to .
All the aldermen and the to my lord's place in their scarlet gowns furred, and cloaks and horses, and from thence ride to the , my company and the bachelors before him, and there hear evening prayer; and when prayer is done, they ride to , and there both the new lord mayor and the old put on their cloaks, and go up to the quire, and there hear the sermon; which done, they go about the church, and there put off their cloaks where they put on. Then they take their horses again, and the aldermen bring my lord home; and then they have spice-bread and hippocras, and so take their leave of my lord.
The lord mayor and every alderman is to sit in his ward, in his violet gown and cloak, furred.
For Christmas-holidays, until Twelfth-day, if my lord and the aldermen go abroad to any public meeting they are to wear scarlet ; but on the working-days within -days, if my lord go to the , markets, or streets, they wear black.
The aldermen dine at my lord's, and the sheriffs in scarlet; but the ladies wear black.
My lord and the aldermen meet at , at of the clock in the morning, in their scarlet gowns, furred, and their cloaks furred, without horses, to
|receive of their wards their indentures of the wardmote inquest, and for the swearing of the constables and scavengers. My lord and the aldermen meet at St. Paul's-cross, at of the clock, to hear the sermon, in their pewk gowns, and without their chains and tippets.|
All the aldermen and sheriffs come unto my lord's place before of the clock, to breakfast, in their scarlet gowns, furred, and their cloaks and horses, and to Spital, and there put on their cloaks, and so sit down in order to hear the sermon; which done, they ride homeward, in order, till they come to the pump within Bishopsgate, and there so many of the aldermen as do dine with the sheriffs, take their leave of my lord, and the rest go home with him.
Like as before, in the other days, save that my lord and the aldermen must be in their violet gowns, and suitable cloaks; but the ladies in black.
All the aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs, at school, in their scarlet gowns, furred, without their cloaks or horses, to hear the sermon.
All the aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs, at the new church-yard, in their scarlet gowns, lined, without cloaks; which being ended, they depart.
All the aldermen
|must meet my lord mayor and sheriffs, at in their scarlet gowns, without cloaks, to hear the sermon.|
All the aldermen meet my lord, either at the Cranes, if the king be at , or at St. Mary-hill, if the king be at Greenwich, by of the clock in the morning, in their scarlet gowns, and cloaks borne with them; and, after morning prayer, they take a barge to the king's palace, where they attend till that ceremony be ended, and so go home with my lord mayor to dinner.
|the aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs at , in their scarlet gowns, furred or lined, without cloaks or horses, as the time of the year requireth, when the term beginneth.|
All the aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs, at , at of the clock, in their violet gowns, and their cloaks furred or lined, as the time of the year when they shall be chosen requireth, and sit in the hustings-court while the commons choose them. The order is,. that they must choose master recorder for of their knights, and grey cloak for the other, and commoners for the burgesses; which done, they depart.
For the lords and commissioners coming down to assess the subsidies, my lord mayor and the aldermen wear their black gowns, as at other times; and the commissioners are to be warned by master sheriff's officers.
My lord and the aldermen sit in the hustings-court while they be chosen, in their violet gowns, without their cloaks, and do not remove until the election be done.
All the aldermen meet my lord and the sheriffs at the Cranes, or the Vinetree, at the hour of their summons, in their scarlet gowns, and cloaks borne with them, lined, or furred, according to the time of the year, where, taking barge, they land at , and there they attend in the Chequer-chamber (being served with wine and cakes), until they are called by the heralds: then they put on their cloaks.
From Michaelmas to Whitsuntide, violet, furred; and from Whitsuntide till Michaelmas, scarlet, lined.
The lord mayor, and those knights that have borne the office of mayoralty, ought to have their cloaks furred with grey amis; and those aldermen that have not been mayors, are to have their cloaks furred with calabre.
And, likewise, such as have been mayors are to have their cloaks lined with changeable taffaty, and the rest are to have them with green taffaty.
The day of every quarter sessions, in the forenoon only, my lord and the sheriffs wear their violet gowns and cloaks furred; but at Midsummer quarter sessions, the day they wear violet gowns and scarlet cloaks, and on the other days black.
The aldermen must be in their violet gowns, except such as have their friends black gowns. When any alderman dieth, master sword-bearer is to have a black gown,
|or and pence in money; and if he giveth my lord a black gown, master sword-bearer is to have another, or in money, the price thereof, and so carry the sword in black before my lord.|
Master chamberlain is not to wear his tippet, but when my lord mayor or aldermen wear their scarlet or violet.
My lord weareth his black gown and violet cloak, and both the sheriffs black gowns.
My lord and the aldermen meet at the in their violet gowns, without cloaks; but my lord mayor must have his cloak.
This court the common-crier warneth.
For the election of the governors of the several hospitals, the lord mayor and aldermen wear their black gowns.
Though the office of lord mayor is only elective, yet it may in some measure be said to be perpetual; for his authority ceases, neither on the demise, or abdication of the king, as that of all commission officers do. When such circumstance happens, the lord mayor is the principal officer in the kingdom, and takes his place accordingly in the privy council, until the new king is proclaimed ; in proof of which, when James I. was invited to come and take possession of the throne of England, Robert Lee, the then lord mayor, signed the invitation before all the great officers of state and the nobility. His power is very considerable; for he is not only the king's representative in the civil government of the city, but also commissioner of the lieutenancy, perpetual coroner, and escheator, within the city and liberties of London, and the borough of , chief justice of Oyer and Terminer and gaol delivery of Newgate, judge of the court of wardmote at the election of an alderman, conservator of the rivers Thames and Medway, perpetual commissioner in all affairs relating to the river Lea, and chief butler of the kingdom at all coronations, his fee being for that service a golden cup and cover with a golden ewer. He also sits every morning at the Mansion-house, to determine any differences that may happen among the citizens, and to do the other business incident to his office of chief magistrate.
The person of the lord mayor is inviolable, and it is a high crime to assault or resist him. Thus, in the year , in the mayoralty of Andrew Aubrey, he, with some of his servants, being assaulted in a popular tumult, headed by persons of the names of Haunsart and Brewere, these ringleaders were apprehended and tried for that offence, at , and, being convicted, were immediately beheaded in .
As by the Norman conquest the appellation of sheriff was obliged to make way for the more modern appellation of bailiff; so was that of portreve to that of provost; this title being soon after converted into that of mayor.
It will be observed, in several instances, that lord mayors are set down for year; this circumstance has occurred in consequence of the death of the elected. In such case, if the event happens in term, the lord mayor is sworn in as usual by the barons of ; but if a vacation, he is sworn in by the constable of the town as his deputy.
When or on what occasion a sword was at carried before this magistrate, we cannot ascertain. Mr. Maitland considers it was not before the reign of Henry VIII. for Pope Leo the , anno , presented that prince with a consecrated sword, and a cap of maintenance, the former being an offensive weapon to destroy the enemies of the church, and the latter armour to defend the head. This being the cap of maintenance we read of in England, it was regarded by Henry as the greatest favour Leo could confer upon him; therefore the king, as an additional honour to the metropolis of his kingdom, might grant the citizens a privilege to use both the sword and cap of maintenance.
 Maitland, i.-1192
 It was formerly considered necessary for the lord mayor to be free of one of the twelve principal city companies.
 To show how far the customs of the city have varied since the publication of the above tract, we have appended the modern manner in which the same ceremonies are observed, with others which have been created since that period. Our authority is a pamphlet, entitled The names and address of the several officers of the city of London, the dates of their appointments, and an abstract of their respective duties; and also a state of the customs on elections, and other public occasions, prepared by the direction of the court of common council.12mo, 1789.
 On Midsummer-day, the aldermen are summoned to meet at Guildhall, in their violet gowns; the lord mayor, attended by the sheriffs, comes in state from the Mansion-house to Guildhall, where he meets the aldermen present. At one o'clock, the lord mayor goes from the council-chamber to the hustings, preceded by the two marshalls and the city officers, the juniors going first, the chaplain, the sword-bearer and common-crier, with the mace, and followed by all the aldermen, according to seniority. The recorder next the junior alderman who had passed the chair, and the procession closed by the sheriffs; being come on the hustings, the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. take their seats. The town-clerk dictates to the common-crier, who opens the common-hall with oyes, three times, and a declaration for all that are not liverymen to depart the Hall, on pain of imprisonment. The recorder, or, in his absence, the common serjeant, comes forward and acquaints the livery with the nature of the duty they are called upon to discharge, and afterwards reads over the names of the persons in nomination for sheriffs, chamberlain, bridge-masters, ale-conners, and auditors; the lord mayor, recorder, and aldermen, preceded by the sword-bearer, then retire into the common-council chamber, and the sheriffs, assisted by the common-serjeant and city officers, proceed to the election, which is determined by show of hands, unless a poll is demanded. The election being over, the sheriffs, attended by the officers, go to the common-council chamber; and, after making three bows, stand at the bar. The common-serjeant, in the name of the sheriffs, reports the election; the lord mayor, aldermen, and recorder (if there is no poll) immediately go down upon the hustings again, and the recorder declares the persons elected to the common hall, and retires to his seat; the common-crier, dictated to by the town-clerk as before, then dissolves the hall, and the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. depart; but if there is a poll, the sheriffs report the same to the lord mayor and aldermen as before, and afterwards proceed on the poll, according to the act of 11 Geo. I. His lordship and the aldermen thereupon depart the hall.-Pamph., 191.
 Guildhall chapel was used as a court of requests, when the corporation discontinued the service in the building, and it has since been pulled down.
 The wrestling and shooting have been discontinued many years.
 Embroidered cap, pearl, sword, collar of SS without hood. Southwark fair, and the consequent ceremony, have been long discontinued.
 On the 21st of September, being St. Matthew's day, the aldermen meet the lord mayor in the great hall of Christ's Hospital, in their violet gowns, and proceed from thence to Christ-church, to hear divine service and a sermon. They afterwards return to the great hall, to hear orations in Latin and English by the two senior scholars, and the lists of the governors of all the hospitals are returned and delivered to the town-clerk, and the several beadles deliver up their staves to the lord mayor and aldermen, which are afterwards re-delivered to them by order of his lordship
 On the 28th of September, being the day of swearing the sheriffs, the aldermen are summoned to meet at Guildhall, in their violet gowns. The mayor and sheriffs come in state from the Mansion-house, the sheriffs elect having previously invited the aldermen to breakfast and dine with them at the hall of one of the companies they belong to, attended by the liveries of the companies of both sheriffs, come in their new chariots from the hall of the company of the senior sheriff, with such aldermen as please to attend them to Guildhall; where, being arrived, the livery form a lane in the hall, and if either of the sheriffs be an alderman, he is conducted between two aldermen above, the chair; and if a commoner, between two aldermen below the chair, into the common-council chamber; and the lord mayor, near 2 o'clock, goes on the hustings, preceded and attended in the same manner as on the election of the sheriffs, the sheriffs elect following in their livery gowns, with their under-sheriffs and chaplains, the liveries of both companies preceding them, and when the lord mayor, &c. are seated on the hustings, the common-crier commands silence; and, being dictated to by the town-clerk, calls the sheriffs elect by their names to come forward and take upon them the office of sheriff of London and sheriff of the county of Middlesex. The sheriffs then come to the table, when the town-clerk, in the presence of the lord mayor, &c. administers the oath of office, and the oaths prescribed by act of parliament; and after subscribing the same, the sheriffs put off their livery gowns, and put on violet, a sheriffs officer attending, and putting on their chains. They then present their under-sheriff, who, kneeling down at the table, is in like manner sworn by the town-clerk. The ceremony being over, the lord mayor departs, and the sheriffs, preceded by the liveries of their companies, return again in procession to the hall of the senior sheriff's company, attended by the aldermen, city officers, &c. in coaches.
 On the 29th of September, being the day appointed for the election of the lord mayor (unless it happens on a Sunday, then by act of common council it is directed to be on the day next following), the aldermen are summoned to meet at the Guildhall in their scarlet gowns, the lord mayor and the new sheriffs come in state from the Mansion-house, where they meet the aldermen, and about twelve o'clock go to Saint Lawrence's church, attended by the city officers, to hear divine service, and the sermon preached by the chaplain, then return again to the council chamber, and immediately, being preceded by the officers in the same manner as on the election of sheriffs, the lord mayor, aldermen, recorder, &c. go upon the hustings, where being seated, the common crier, being dictated to by the town clerk, opens the common hall with Oyes! three times, and a declaration for them that are not of the livery to depart the hall; then the recorder, or common serjeant in his absence, acquaints the livery with the occasion of their being assembled, and reads over the names of the aldermen in rotation, who have served the office of sheriff. The lord mayor, aldermen, and recorder then retire, preceded by the sword-bearer, into the common council room; the sheriffs attend, as usual, proceed to the election of a lord mayor, which being ended (and no poll demanded) they go, preceded by the city officers and common crier with the mace, into the common council room, and, making three bows, stand at the bar and report the election, and the recorder, common sergeant, and town clerk then go to a table at the lower end of the room; and the aldermen, beginning with the junior, go to the table and scratch for lord mayor; that being over the three officers go up to the bar with three bows and report the scrutiny to the court, when the alderman, who has the majority, is declared mayor, the sword-bearer conducts the mayor elect to the seat at the left hand of the lord mayor; then the aldermen, according to the seniority, go up to the mayor elect with compliments of congratulations, and in return his lordship makes a short speech. Upon which the lord mayor elect, attended as before, goes down again upon the hustings, and the recorder declares him elected to the common hall. The new lord mayor, after the chain is put on him by one of the household,/ comes forward and address the livery in a speech, then the lord mayor elect accompanies the lord mayor to the Mansion house, attended by the aldermen and city officers in coaches.
 On a day appointed by the lord chancellor, previous to the 9th of November (usually the day after the first seal before Michaelmas term) the lord mayor elect meets the recorder and aldermen at Guildhall in their violet gowns, and proceed from thence to the residence of the lord chancellor for the time being; when Mr. Recorder presents the new elected mayor for his majesty's approbation, which being signified by his lordship, the procession returns in the same order, with respect to precedence, as is observed on the 9th of November, the senior going first.
 The lord mayor's company and the lord mayor elect's company meet their lordships and the aldermen at the Mansion-house, about twelve o'clock, where breakfast is provided; at half-past one the lord mayor sets off from the Mansion-house in his private coach and six, attended by the sword-bearer, common crier, and chaplain; when arrived at Guildhall, they go into the council chamber to meet the aldermen. The violet gown is worn on this occasion; sometimes a court of aldermen is held to return thanks to the lord mayor before his going out of office; then they go on the hustings preceded by the officers, the companies being on each side in waiting; after the lord mayor, aldermen, &c. have taken their seats, the common crier, with the mace on his shoulder, makes three low reverences walking up to the table, the same way where he stands with the mace placed before him on the floor, then the town clerk on the left side of the hustings makes a low reverence, afterwards two others, and kneels down on a stool at the side of the table and administers the oaths to the lord mayor elect, who stands on the opposite side while taking them. When his lordship has signed his name, the old lord mayor surrenders his seat and sits on the left side of the lord mayor elect, and the town clerk retires, and the aldermen go from their seats to the lord mayor and shake hands with him; then the chamberlain, or in his absence his principal clerk, making three reverences, kneels on the stool at the right side of the table, presents the late lord mayor with the diamond sceptre, who delivers it to the new lord mayor, then retires, and advancing again in like manner, presents the seal of the office of mayoralty and retires as before; when advancing a third time, presents the purse, then retires, and immediately a junior clerk, who is the cushion-layer, advances with three reverences, and kneeling takes the sceptre, seal, and purse off the table and retires; the sword-bearer next advancing in like manner, kneels on the stool and presents to the late lord mayor, by whom it is transferred to the new lord mayor, the sword- bearer holding it in his hand; [The sword-bearer, at the present time delivers the sword to the lord-mayor, in the other regalia is presented to him. This alteration took place since the office of sword-bearer was changed by the corporation from a purchased to a donative situation. EDIT.] he then retires making three reverences, which concludes the ceremony. The two lord mayors then walk together out of the hall, preceded by the officers and followed by the aldermen present, and return together in the lord mayor's coach to the Mansion-house.Pamphlet, 104.
 A velvet hood, cap of maintenance.
 A velvet hood for both mayors.
 A velvet hood for both. All Saints'-day is the last day that the old lord rides with the new cap of maintenance. This ceremony is discontinued.
 If it be not on Sunday.
 No cloak.
 No state.
 The lord mayors of London had no fixed place of residence till the year 1753, when the Mansion-house was finished for that purpose.
 On Plow Sunday, (which is the first Sunday after the Epiphany) the aldermen are summoned to meet at Guildhall in their scarlet gowns, the lord mayor, attended by the sheriffs, comes in state from the Mansion-house to Guildhall, and with the aldermen present, proceed first to St Laurence's church to hear divine service and a sermon preached by the chaplain; afterwards the lord mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, and others, receive the sacrament and return in procession to the Mansion-house.(Pamphlet, 77.)
 Black sword.
 The attendance at the cathedral is now discontinued; the lord mayor's chaplain, however, preaches on the occasion.
 A hood for my lord, cap of maintenance.
 The Mansion-house.
 It is almost unnecessary to notice that in the present day, the lord mayor and city dignitaries have adopted the more luxurious and less elegant accommodation of carriages for the cloaks and horses of former days.
 The Spital sermons are now preached at Christ church. That on the Monday by a bishop, and on the Tuesday by a dean or a doctor, who are previously requested so to do by the court of aldermen
 The duty of this day is discontinued.
 If his pleasure be to go.
 The duty of this day is discontinued.
 This custom has become obsolete.
 This custom has become obsolete.
 My lord in a crimson velvet gown, collar of S. S. and sceptre. No cloak.
 Beginning upon Michaelmas even.
 This custom has become obsolete.
|View all images in this book|
|CHAPTER I: History of London, from the Accession of William and Mary, to the reign of George the Second|
|CHAPTER II: History of London during the reign of George the Second|
|CHAPTER III: History of London from the Accession of George the Third, to the year 1780|
|CHAPTER IV: History of London continued to the Union|
|CHAPTER V: History of London from the Union to the Jubilee, 1809|
|CHAPTER VI: History of London from the Jubilee to the Peace of 1814|
|CHAPTER VII: History of London continued to the accession of George the Fourth|
|CHAPTER VIII: Account of the Civil Government of the City by Portreves, Bailiffs, and Mayors, with a list of the latter...|
|CHAPTER IX: An account of the Aldermen and Sheriffs, with a list of the latter|
|CHAPTER X: Lists and brief Accounts of the various Officers and Courts within the City|
The Chamberlain of London
List of Chamberlains
The Common Serjeant
List of Common Serjeants
The Town Clerk, or Common Clerk
List of Town-Clerks
The Coroner of London
The City Remembrancer
The Water bailiff
The Lord Mayor's officers, and their days of waiting, according to the Pamphlet before referred to
The Sheriffs' Officers
The Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen
The Court of Common Council
The Court of Husting
The Lord Mayor's Court
The Sheriffs' Courts
The Court of Orphans
The Coroner's Court
The Court of Escheator
The Court of Conservacy
The Court of Requests
The Court of Wardmote
The Chamberlain's Court
The Court of Hallmote
The Court of the Tower of London
|CHAPTER XI: Some account of the Ecclesiastical Government of the city of London, with a List and Biographical Notices of the Bishops of the see|
|CHAPTER XII: Some Account of the Military Government of London, and the Artillery Company|
|CHAPTER XIII: An Account of the twelve principal Companies of the City of London|
|CHAPTER XIV: An Account of the Companies of the City of London, alphabetically arranged|
Armourers and Braziers, 22
Coach and Coach Harness Makers, 79
Fan Makers, 84
Felt Makers, 64
Gold and Silver Wire-Drawers, 81
Hat-Band Makers, 75
Long Bow String-Makers, 82
Parish Clerks, 88
Tallow Chandlers, 21
Tylers and Bricklayers, 37
Tin-Plate Workers, 72
The Names of the Company of Pastelers from the Record in the Chapter-house
The Names of the Company of Sporyars from the Record in the Chapter House
|CHAPTER XV: An Account of the River Thames|
|CHAPTER XVI: Historical and topographical account of London Bridge, Westminster Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge, and the Thames Tunnel|
|CHAPTER XVII: Topographical and Historical Account of the Tower of London|