England under Charles II. from the Restoration to the Treaty of Nimeguen, 1660-1678: English History from Contemporary Writers

Taylor, W. F.


Act of Uniformity. Lauderdale in Scotland. The First Indulgence.


R. Coke: Detection of the Court and State. London , p. 115, et seq.


Lauderdale .. was taken prisoner after the fight at Worcester, and from that time kept prisoner in Windsor Castle, from whence he was set free upon the king's restoration; but became so poor that it is said he could not meet the king for want of money to pay for a pair of boots. . . . In the late wars between the king and Parliament, he, with sir John Cheesley were ordered commissioners by the Kirk Faction to the Parliament in England for propagating the Presbyterian government; but this being most detestable at court, Lauderdale, to raise himself, set himself with all his skill to oppose it; and by it at first got to be made principal secretary of state of Scotland, and as renegadoes from Christianity become the greatest persecutors of Christians, so was Lauderdale of the Kirk and Presbyterian government. However, Lauderdale seemed zealous for calling a Parliament in Scotland, and demolishing the forts that bridled the Scots, which Monk opposed. hereby Lauderdale became popular in Scotland, so that all applications to the king from thence were by Lauderdale.

In this state it was not easily determined who should be commissioner in Scotland, in case a Parliament should be called; for affairs were not yet ripe to make a Popish one, nor would the court trust a Presbyterian one; and Lauderdale would not forsake his place at court, where he governed all, but continue it, that all the motions in Parliament might receive their life from him, At last it was agreed that Middleton (who first served the Kirk against the king, Charles I, and after changing sides, made some bustle in Scotland after the king left it) should be created an earl, and made a commissioner, and a Parliament should be called in Scotland.

The nobility and gentry of Scotland clearly saw there was no other way to redeem Scotland from being a conquered nation, and a province to England, but by an entire submission to the king. Lauderdale knew this as well as they, and therefore resolved to make them pay dear for their deliverance; and now you shall see the nobility and gentry, which with the Kirk united against Charles I., divide under his son, and sacrifice the Kirk, and all their discipline, to make an atonement for themselves. The first act which was shewed herein was upon this occasion.

The fiery zeal of the Kirkmen burnt up all rules of prudence, or the consideration of the present state of Scotland, so that even in this state, crowns and sceptres must submit to the Kirk; and that the king might know his duty, a company of them met together, and drew up a supplication (as they said), but in nature a remonstrance to the king, setting forth


the calamities they groaned under in the time of the usurpers, by their impious encroachments upon the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the liberties thereof, which of themselves they were not able to suppress and overcome, and the danger of the popish and prelatical party, now beginning again to lift up their head, and press him to mind his oaths and covenant with God, &c.

The committee of estates well knowing how ungrateful this would be to the king, upon the 23rd of August, , sent a party and apprehended these men, whereof one Mr. James Guthrie was the chief (of whom you'll hear more hereafter), and committed them prisoners to Edinburgh Castle, and from thence Guthrie was sent prisoner to Dundee for treasonable and seditious reflecting on his Majesty, and on the Government of England, and the constitution of the committee of State, and tending to raise new tumults, and kindling a new civil war among his Majesty's good subjects.

This was the first spark, which soon burnt into such a flame as totally consumed the whole Kirk party in Scotland and left them in a much worse plight than before, when they suffered under the usurpation (as they called it) of the English.

For during the late usurpation, the Kirk enjoyed a liberty of conscience; but it's the nature of some men, that unless they may persecute other men, to exclaim they are persecuted themselves, and therefore (since they were not able to do it themselves) they minded the king of his covenant with God, to extirpate


heresy, schism, and profaneness, and to remove the stumbling which the king had given them, in admitting prelacy, ceremonies and service book in the king's chapel, and places of his dominions. But these men were mistaken in their measures, for after the king was expelled from Scotland, by Cromwell, he little (I may say never) observed the directory of worship, confession of faith, and catechisms in his family, according to the national and solemn league and covenant, as he repeated in his coronation oath [at Scone], and less the establishing the Presbyterian government in England and Ireland, and least of all in Scotland.

For one of the first acts of the first session was an anniversary thanksgiving, to be observed upon every 29th May, with this proëm:

"The states of Parliament of the kingdom of Scotland, taking into their consideration the sad condition, slavery and bondage, this ancient kingdom has groaned under these twenty-three years" (the time when the troubles arose in king Charles the First's reign) "in which under very specious pretences of reformation a public rebellion has been, by the treachery of some, and mispersuasion of others, violently carried on against sacred authority, to the ruin and destruction, as far as was possible, of religion, the king's Majesty and his royal government and laws, liberties and property of the people, and all the public and private interests of the kingdom, so that religion itself hath been prostituted for the warrant of all these treasonable invasions made upon the


royal authority, and disloyal limitations upon the allegiance of the subjects. Therefore upon the 29th of May be set apart for a Holy Day, &c." Yet so soon after the king's restoration, he wrote to the presbytery of Edinburgh, promising to countenance the church as by law established; but Lauderdale knew his mind better.

Here it's observable that in , when the Kirk were so zealous, with lifted up hands in the presence of the eternal God, to swear to establish their national covenant, there was not one of the nobility (but the Popish) except the marquis of Hamilton and the earl of Traquair, but joined with the Kirk, expressly against the king's command : Traquair the Kirk party proceeding against as an incendiary ; and after, Hamilton secretly joined with the Covenanters, for which king Charles I. made him prisoner in Pendennis Castle; from whence he was discharged when Fairfax had it surrendered : and not one of the nobility (except Argyll and Cassilis) but declare this, and all the Kirk proceedings since, treasonable rebellion against the laws, liberties and property of the people, and prostitution of religion; and this declaration was celebrated with a double sacrifice, the marquis of Argyll being executed as a traitor for holding correspondence with Cromwell; and his head set where Montrose's stood on the Monday before: and Mr. Guthrie on the Saturday after, for refusing to own the jurisdiction of the judges in ecclesiastical affairs; and his head set upon one of the posts of Edinburgh. This was a sad presage to


the Kirk of what followed . . . The next Act (I cannot say Parliamentary, for it was purely arbitrary)

. . was the total rooting out of the Presbyterian government in Scotland . . . upon this occasion

... . Mr. James Sharp, Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Fairwell, Mr. Loghton (but whether sent for by the king or sent by the Kirk party I do not find) came in , to London, and were ordained deacons and presbyters, and after, consecrated bishops, by the bishop of Winchester and two other bishops. The acceptance of such a renunciation of their Presbyterian ordination; nay, it was a declaration of the invalidity of their former ordination, and thereupon, the king on the sixth of September, , issued out a proclamation declaring his royal pleasure to be for the restoring the government of the Church in Scotland to be by archbishops and bishops, as it was exercised in the year ; and that he had nominated and presented archbishops and bishops to their several bishoprics, and to have the same authority they had in the reign of his grandfather .

In obedience to this proclamation the Privy Council, the ninth of January following, did discharge all ecclesiastical meetings in synods, presbyteries, and sessions until they be authorised by the archbishops and bishops upon their entry unto the government of their respective sees, which was to be done speedily.

Though this proclamation and intimation of the Privy Council had prevented the Parliament, yet to make sure work of both the Parliament, in their


second sessions, redintegrated the bishops to the exercise of their episcopal functions and to all their privileges, dignities, jurisdictions, and possessions, due and formerly belonging thereunto.

And another act did ordain all ministers to repair unto their diocesan assembly and concur in all acts of church discipline, and as they should be required by the archbishops or bishops of the diocese under pain of being suspended from their office and benefice till the next diocesan meeting, for their first fault; and if they amended not, to be deprived and the church to be declared vacant. . . Though the high commission which Laud so zealously endeavoured to erect in Scotland was put down by Act of Parliament , in England, yet the king by the inherent right of his crown, and by virtue of his prerogative royal and supreme authority in causes ecclesiastic, erected one in Scotland: the commissioners were partly ecclesiastics and partly laymen, who (or five of them, whereof one to be a bishop) had more arbitrary power given them over the clergy than was practised in England, under Laud, and more than Laud could have expected, for an high commission for Scotland, in the king's father's reign.

Thus you see the Kirk which would be a distinct table and independent upon the crown of Scotland are by the prerogative of it committed to the arbitrary mercy of the prelates, whom for above four-and- twenty years they had been railing against and by many oaths sware to extirpate.

For the year after, viz. . .


the king granted a toleration and indulgence to dissenters from the Church. Thinking men thought this strange, that the king should the year before pass the Act of Uniformity, as the best means to secure the Church against Popery and fanaticism, and thus grant a toleration. It could not be in favour of them termed fanatics, who kept him from his crown ; and that year Venner with his party would have expelled him again; and this year swarms of pamphlets were spread abroad, to defame his person and Government, for printing some of which, Twyne, the printer, was hanged.

Thinking men considered, too, the time when this indulgence was granted; for as the king in the sale of Dunkirk chose to do it in the interval of the sitting of Parliament, so he did grant this indulgence . . . in November, when the Parliament was prorogued to February.

But though the Parliament would take no notice of the sale of Dunkirk, they did of this; and therefore the Commons, upon their meeting, entered into a serious debate about it, and made an address to the king, humbly requesting how it would reflect upon the wisdom of Parliament to have such an alteration made so soon, and that for aught they could foresee would end in Popery; and sure the Commons were true prophets herein. However, whether the fearing the continuance of the indulgence might retard the Commons in giving him money, or that the time was not yet ripe enough to insist upon it at present, he recalled his declaration,


so that though the king did establish an High Commission in Scotland by his prerogative inherent in his crown, yet this indulgence had not the like effect in England.

This indulgence may seem more strange where the Irish this very year were contriving a massacre of the Protestants, and holding intelligence with the French king, which you may read at large in Plunket's trial, and this proved by Popish witnesses. I do not find the Irish had any countenance herein by the king, nor do I believe the French king acquainted his brother of England with it; yet the insincerity of the king's intentions of any benefit the Protestant dissenters should have by this indulgence will appear when the Parliament, seeing the danger which the prosecution of Protestant dissenters might bring upon the nation, had prepared bills for the ease of Protestant dissenters that the king would not pass them.

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 Title Page
Andrew Marvell's description of Charles II Works, ed.
Sept. 3, 1658 -Death of Oliver Cromwell; his personal peculiarities. Reresby's Memoirs, ed. 1735 vol. i. pp. 1-2
1658-1660 -State of affairs after the death of Cromwell. Memoirs of Sir John Bramston. Camden Soc. 1845 p. 112
Monk marches south, his further proceedings Ibid
April 20, 1658 -More particular accounts of Monk. Monk suspected by the Republicans. Lord Fauconberg to Henry Cromwell in Ireland
October 12, 1658 -His professions against Charles. Monk to Thurloe, secretary of the Parliamentarian Council of State.
January 16, 1660 -And protestations in favour of the Commonwealth.Ludlow's Memoirs, ed 1698-99 , vol. ii., p. 822
What he said in a conversation with General Ludlow. Ludlow's Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 834.
March 8, 1660.-Reported to have declared for a free Parliament. Report of a correspondent at the Hague to Thurloe
March 12, 1660 -The House orders the organisation of the Militia. From the Printed Act, printed March 16,1660
Mar. 12, 1660 -Monk fears that counter sedition in the army will spoil his plans. John Barwick to Sir Edward Hyde
March 16.-The Long Parliament dissolves itself by its own authority; writs are issued for a new Parliament. From the Printed Act, printed March 20,1660
March 19, 1660 -Form of writ issued by the Rump as ' Keepers of the liberties of England.1660 From a broadside of the year
March 20, 1660 -Thurloe is informed with certainty of Monk's plans. Elizabeth Einzy, letter of information to Thurloe.
April 7, 1660 -The royalist hopes of return. Mercurius Politicus, 1660 No. 615, p. 1139.
April 21, 1660 .-Monk presses the raising of the militia, not yet completed.Mercurius Publicus, 1660, No. 17, p. 272.
April 25, 1660 -The Convention Parliament assembles. Parliamentary Intelligencer, 1660 No. 18, p. 280
Monk shows himself in his true colours. Ludlow's Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 875.
Charles by Monk's advice sends the Declaration of Breda to the Convention Parliament. Ludlow's Memoirs, vol. ii., p. 875.
The Declaration of Breda. Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 19, pp. 289, 290.
May 1, 1660, -Its reception by the Lords. Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 19, pp. 291, 292.
May 1, 1660 -How the Commons received the declaration. Parliamentary Intelligencer, No. 19, p. 293.
May 3, 1660 -The Commons thank Grenville for bringing it. Mercurius Publicus, No. 19, p. 292.
May 8, 1660 -Both Houses pass resolutions urging the King to return. Mercurius Publicus, No. 19, p. 304.
May 10, 1660 -Charles transports his Court to the Hague. Mercurius Publicus, No. 20, p. 320.
May 6, 1660 -Whilst at the Hague he receives a public visit from the States General. Public Intelligencer, No. 11, p. 162
Charles sets sail, lands at Dover, and proceeds to Canterbury. Mercurius Publicus, No. 22, p. 342.
Monk and his friends made members of the Privy Council. History of the reign of Charles II. Clarendon, ed.1755 vol. I, p. 13.
May28, 1660 -Charles' further progress to London, his meeting with Parliament and the general rejoicings. Mercurius Publicus, No. 22, pp. 349-351.
Charles' entertainment at the Hague, its reasons. Letter from Francis Newport to Sir R. Leveson
Effect of the Restoration upon trade. Letter from Francis Newport to Sir R. Leveson
The House of Commons proceeds to the Act of Indemnity. Letter from Francis Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660 May 15, London
'Charles' well affected clemency whilst still at the Hague. Letter to Monk to be communicated to the Officers of the army May 26, 1660
Charles I.'s Judges are summoned to appear. Mercurius Publicus, No. 23, p. 359
June 5, 1660 -A sum of money is ordered to be paid to Monk.Mercurius Publicus, No. 23, p. 366.
Monk's title as Peer. Letter from Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660 June 26.
How the Commons went on with the Act of Indemnity. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660, June 9.
The list of exceptions completed; the subsidy to the king, &c. The same to the same.June 20, 1660
July 11, 1660 -The Act of Indemnity is sent up to the Lords. Parliamentary Hist. Cobbett, ed. 1808 , vol i. Column 80.
Charles beseeches Parliament to be clement. Secret History of the reign of Charles II. Clarendon, ed. 1792 vol. i., p. 80.
The Lords continue the debate. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660 , Aug. 2
The Bill of Indemnity is sent down. The same to the same. 1660, Aug. 11.
What the Commons did with it. The king eats his own words. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660, Aug. 16.
Monk appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland. Pepys's Diary, ed. 1854 , v. i., p. 103. Aug. 21, 1660
The final form of the Act of Indemnity. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660, Aug. 25
The king's assent to the Act of Indemnity. Parl. History, vol. i. Column II 4. Aug. 29
Immediate results of the Act.-Trial of Harrison. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Oct. 11, 1660
Execution of Harrison, more sentences passed. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660 , Oct. 13, London
Execution of Carew, Peters, Cooke, and the rest. William Smith to John Langley. 1660 , Oct. 20
The king adjourns Parliament. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Sept. 13, 1660
The king's brother, the duke of Gloucester, becomes ill and dies. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1661, Sept. 4.
Secret History of the Reign of Charles II., vol. i., p. 145, ed. 1792 1660, Sept. 13.
>General mourning for the duke of Gloucester. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Sept. 15, 1660
Arrival of the Princess Royal at Whitehall. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Sept. 25, 1660
Rumours of the marriage of Anne Hyde and the duke of York. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Oct. 8, 1660
First acquaintance between Anne Hyde and the duke of York. Secret History of Charles II. Clarendon, vol. i., ed. 1792 , p. 148
Conference between the bishops and Presbyterian ministers, and what happened whilst it was sitting. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Oct. 23, 1660, London
Henrietta Maria comes to England. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Oct. 20, 1660
Henrietta Maria arrives at Whitehall. Mercurius Publicus, No. 44, p. 715. Nov. 2, 1660
What the English thought of her. Pepys' Diary. Lond. 1854 , vol. i., p. 19. Nov. 2.
Reasons for the Queen's unpopularity. The Queen-mother complains of Charles's want of confidence so early as 1655
Her wrath at the Duke's mesalliance. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Dec. 11, 1660
The marriage of Princess Henrietta to the Duke of Anjou is announced. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1660, Nov. 6.
Parliament reassembles. Parliamentary Inteligencer, No. 46, p. 724. Wednesday, Nov. 6.
Charles desires the disbandment of the army, and the fixing of the revenue. Secret Hist. of Charles II. Clarendon, ed. 1792, vol. i., p. 34.
The army ordered to be disbanded. From the Printed Act, 15, xii., Car. ii.
The army ordered to be disbanded. From the Printed Act, 15, xii., Car. ii.
More pay for the troops is voted; the progress made in disbanding the soldiers. Samuel Terrick to Sir R. Leveson. 1660, November.
The bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw, and Pride ordered to be exhumed. Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. Dec. 6.
A grant of tonnage and poundage to the king. Taken from the Printed Act, 4, xii., Car. ii.
Other money granted to the king. From the Printed Act, 23, xii., Car. ii.
Death of the Princess Royal. Mercurius Publicus, No. 53, pp. 8, 28, 829.
>Dissolution of the Healing Parliament. Mercurius Publicus, No. 54, pp. 841, 845, 846.
Various Bills of the Healing Parliament. From Printed Acts of the Year, xii., Car. ii. 24, xii., Car. ii.
Complications arising from the disbandment of the army. Rugge's MS. Diary, vol. i., pp. 228, 229. Dec.
The Scotch Parliament summoned. Mercurius Publicus, No. 46, p. 722. Oct. 10, 1660
Various proceedings of the Scotch Parliament. Mercurius Publicus, No. 49, p. 783. November 29, 1660
Rugge's MS. Diary, vol. i., p. 227. December, 1660
Swinton and Argyll sent under guard to Scotland. Rugge's MS. Diary, vol. i., p. 227. December, 1660
Swinton and Argyll arrive at Edinburgh. Mercurius Publicus, No. 54, p. 846. Thursday, Jan. 3, 1661
Argyll is attainted of high treason. From the Printed Charge, pubd. Feb. 18, 1661 Jan. 23rd, 1661
Argyll imprisoned in the Tolbooth. Mercurius Publicus, No. 21,1661, p. 336. Edinburgh, May 23, 1661
Argyll receives his sentence. Mercurius Publicus, No. 22, 1661, p. 344 Edinburgh.
Account of the death of Argyll. Mercurius Publicus, No. 23,1661, p. 358. May 27, 1661
Others executed in Scotland. Mercurius Publicus, No. 23, p. 369. Edinburgh, June 1, 1661
Rebellion of the Anabaptists under Venner. Reresby's Memoirs, Lond. 1735, pp. 8, 9 1661, Jan. 6.
Charles is crowned.Bramston's Memoirs, Camden Soc.,1845 p. 118
The Houses appoint a day of thanksgiving for the coronation. From a Proclamation of the Year. April 26,1661
Writs issued for a new Parliament. Kingdom's Intelliencer, No. 10, 1661, p. 160. Westminster, March 1.
The new Parliament assembles. Mercurius Publicus, 1661, No. 18, p. 287
A Test Act is passed. From a Broadside ent. A vote of the Commons House of Parliament. May 13th, 1661
Venner and his associates have their heads mounted on London Bridge. Rugge's MS. Diary, vol. i., p. 256.
Acts for the recall of the bishops to the House of Lords and for allowing a benevolence. Letter from Andrew Marrvell to the Mayor of Hull. May 30, 1661
Title of act for the recall of the bishops. From the Printed Act, 2 xiii., Car. II.
The act passed for allowing a benevolence. From the Printed Act, 4 xiii. Car. II.
The heads of the act. From MS. notes of the period in the British Museum.
Its effects. Pepys' Diary, ed., p. 213, vol. i Aug. 31st, 1661
The husband of Charles' mistress, Barbara Palmer, née Villiers, is created earl of Castlemaine. Pepys' Diary, ed. 1854, vol. i., p. 240. Dec. 7, 1661
Satire on Charles and lady Castlemaine. Sir John Denham. Directions to a painter, 1667, p. 39.
Death of Cardinal Mazarin. Cook's Historian's Guide. London, 1679 Feb. 27,1661
Rumours of Charles' marriage with Christina of Sweden. Dr. Kirtou at Florence to Sir R. Verney, Jan. 27, 1652
Which however want confirmation. The same to the same, Feb. 3, 1652
Various other rumours of Charles' marriage. Letter from Stephen Charlton to Sir R. Leveson. 1661, Feb. 19, London.
Letter from Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1661, March 5, London.
Stephen Charlton to Sir R. Leveson. 1661, March 9, London
Andrew Newport to Sir R. Leveson. 1661, March 12, London.
Charles receives his wife Catherine of Braganza at Portsmouth. Reresby's Memoirs, London, 8, 1735, p. 9.
Sir Harry Vane excepted from the Act of Parliament only as regards estate so early as 1660 Mercurius Publicus, No. 24.,
He is however tried and executed. Pepys's Diary, vol. 1., pp. 281, 288, 290., ed. 1854 May 22, 1662
Reasons why he should not have been put to death. Burnet: Hist. of his own Times., Lond. 1724 , fol., vol. I., p. 163.
Sale of Dunkirk to the French. Burnet: Hist. of his own Times, Lond., 1724, fol., vol. I, p. I72. 1662
The issue of Butler's Hudibras. Pepys's Diary, ed. 1854 Dec. 26, 1662
Formation of the Royal Society, 1662 Burnet: History of his own Times, Lond., 1724, fol., vol. i., p.192, 193.
Characters of important personages at the court of Charles II. The King.
Royal resolutions
The Duke of York
The Duke of York's love for the Irish (Papists)
The Duke of Ormond
Buckingham and St. Albans
The King's fondness of his natural children, his dislike for the Queen
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury
Further particulars of Clarendon's disgrace. Character of Buckingham
1668 -Attempts to get rid of the Queen
Dissoluteness of the court
The King's Mistresses
1669 -The Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford opened.
Deaths of the Duke and Duchess of Albemarle
1670 -The King's sister, the Princess Henrietta of Orleans, is sent over by Louis XIV. to persuade Charles to a second war with the Dutch, and other matters of importance
1670 -Louise de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth
Immediate results of the Princess Henrietta's visit
Death of the Princess Henrietta
Death of the Duchess of York
Colonel Blood after attempting to steal the Crown jewels is pardoned
London rebuilt
The Duchess of Portsmouth
The Duchess of Portsmouth
A public fast had been proclaimed for the War four days before
Battle of Southwold Bay and Death of Lord Sandwich
Shaftesbury takes the Great Seal as head of the Cabal
1672 - -The Cabal in existence. Opinion of the French Court concerning the members of the Cabal.
The King closes the Exchequer. National Bankruptcy
Parliament re-assembles
How the Parliament was constituted
A Resume of Religious Affairs from the Restoration to the year 1672. Charles burns the League and Covenant to which he subscribed during his exile
Act of Uniformity. Lauderdale in Scotland. The First Indulgence
Burnet on the Declaration of Indulgence. Clarendon and Bristol
Lauderdale and Middleton
Middleton returns to London
The Conventicle Act
Public Opinion on the Conventicle Act
The Five Mile Act
1672 The Second Declaration of Indulgence brought about by Lauderdale at the instance of the French Court: its Consequences. Concerning the Second Declaration of Indulgence granted by King Charles II. in the beginning of the year 1672
Its effect upon Parliament. Address of both Houses against the growth of Popery
The King's Answer to the Address
The King cancels the Declaration of Indulgence
The Test Act read a third time
Recapture of St. Helena
The Cabal broken up, Shaftesbury out of office joins the Opposition
Butler's Satire upon Shaftesbury
Second Marriage of the Duke of York
Buckingham in disgrace, reasons for it
Other and stronger reasons