The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 1
On the , peace was proclaimed in London between the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and France, with the usual solemnities, by Garter and Norroy kings at arms, assisted by the lord mayor and aldermen in their scarlet robes.
On the , the principal corporations of London sent out companies, consisting of men, to be mustered in Greenwich park before the queen; whereof were pikemen in bright armour, harquebusses in coats of mail and helmets, and halberdiers in German rivets. These troops were attended by whifflers, richly dressed, and led by the principal wardens of the aforesaid corporations. well mounted, and dressed in black velvet, with ensigns in white satin, faced with black sarsnet and rich scarves.
The populace at this time not only destroyed all the statues and portraitures of their saints in the Popish churches, but likewise most of their rich robes, altar-cloths, books, and sepulchral banners.
The mayor at this time was that eminent citizen and clothworker Sir William Hewet, the son of Edmund Hewet, of Wales, in Yorkshire. This knight was possessed of an estate, value per ann. at his death, and was blessed with an issue of sons and daughter; of which daughter we have the following tradition from the most noble family of the Duke of Leeds. Sir William, her father, living at that time on London-bridge, it happened that the maid-servant, as she was diverting the infant miss on the edge of an open window, accidentally let her drop into the Thames, and, to all appearance, without hope of being saved: but a young gentleman named Osborne, then apprentice to Sir William, the father, and of the ancestors of the Duke of Leeds in a direct line, seeing the accident, immediately leaped into the river after her boldly, and brought the child out safe, to the great joy of its parents, and admiration of the spectators. This brave and friendly action so engaged the affections of Sir William, the infant's father, that, when she was grown to woman's estate, and asked in marriage by several persons of quality, especially the Earl of Shrewsbury, the knight rejected all their advantageous proposals, and with a deep sense of gratitude, betrothed his daughter, with a very great dowry, to her deliverer, and with this emphatical declaration, Osborne saved her, and Osborne shall enjoy her. Part of the estate given with her in marriage was the estate of Sir Thomas Fanshaw, late of Barking in Essex, and several other lands now enjoyed by the most noble family of the Duke of Leeds, in the parishes of Harthil and Wales, in the county of York. This remarkable story is represented in a painting, carefully preserved by that most noble family. Sir William was buried
|under a very magnificent tomb, between that of Dean Collet on the west, and that of Sir William Cockain, knight and baronet, on the east, and on the north side of the south aisle in .|
Richard Hills, merchant taylor, , gave towards the purchase of an house, called the Manor of the Rose, wherein the merchant-taylors founded their free school in London. He also purchased a plot of ground and some cottages, on , where he built alms-houses for old women; which he vested in the same company.
In the year , there was such a scarcity of grain of all sorts, that Sir William Chester, Mayor of London, and the principal magistrates were obliged to procure a supply of wheat and rye from the continent; by which means the citizens were greatly relieved from the calamity.
On Wednesday, the , there fell a prodigious quantity of rain, attended with dreadful claps of thunder. steeple was struck by a thunderbolt, within a yard of the top: at a little fire appeared, resembling the light of a torch, which so soon communicated itself to the weather-cock, that it fell down in minutes after: the wind being high, within an hour, the fire destroyed the whole steeple, down to the battlements; there, receiving the timber that fell from the spire, it burnt so violently, that the iron and bells were melted, and fell down upon the stairs in the church; and the roof catching fire, was entirely destroyed before o'clock at night: to stop its progress, many houses were pulled down in the church-yard, near the north door; and a pinnacle, on the east end, fell on a house, in which were many people, but luckily no received any hurt.
In the year , the plague again broke out violently in London; and, on the , the Lord Mayor, by her majesty's command, ordered the master and wardens of the company of clerks to inquire the number of those who died of this dreadful distemper within their respective parishes, and to make a certificate thereof; and that the curates and churchwardens should give notice to them of such houses where the plague appeared, and to forbid every person in such a house coming to church for the space of month following after the plague had been in it; and to fix a blue cross on the door of every house where the plague was, with a writing underneath, signifying that the infection was there, and to avoid it. It was further ordered, on the , that every housekeeper, in each street or lane, should make bonfires times a week, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, till the infection should cease. In the beginning of August the Lord Mayor issued a proclamation for killing all dogs that should be found in the streets either by night or day. The number of people that died in this year in the parishes within the city of London, was ; whereof died of the plague; and in the out
|parishes the whole number of deaths amounted to , and of these, died of the plague.|
In addition to this dreadful evil, the citizens of London were also afflicted with a temporary stoppage in the Flemish trade, which involved them in great pecuniary embarassments.
The author of the
But this is an erroneous assertion, and, as is probable, was only a new branch of the manufacture, since Sheffield was famous for knives in the days of Chaucer; who says, in his Reve's Tale,
The English company of Merchant-Adventurers, who had prevailed on Edward VI. to revoke the privileges of the Hanseatic Company, obtained, in the year , a charter from Queen Elizabeth, which constituted them a corporation or body politic. She hereby granted them a common seal, perpetual succession, liberty to purchase lands, and to exercise their government in any part of England. In this charter, however, was the following clause:
This year an act of common council was passed, in which it was ordained, That all such citizens as should thenceforth be constrained to sell their household goods, leases of houses, or such like, should cause the same to be cried through the city by a man with a bell, and then to be sold by the common outcrier appointed for that purpose; and he to receive farthing in the pound for his trouble.
At the earnest request of the armourers, part of the ceremony of the city watch was this year renewed, on eve;
On the , there was a great flood in the river Thames, by which all the adjacent marshes were overflowed, and many cattle drowned. And on the a frost began, which was so severe, that by New-Year's day, all sorts of diversions were practised upon the ice, and the Thames was more crowded with foot passengers than the most public street in London.
In , the foundations of the Bourse, or ,
|were laid by the munificent Sir Thomas Gresham, and the buildings were completed in the following year.|
Though mutual jealousies were daily arising between the English and Spanish nations, yet some of the latter continuing to arrive in this city, gave umbrage to the queen, that they were come upon no good design; therefore, to provide against all attempts they might make against the public tranquillity, it was judged necessary to come at the number of them residing in London, in order to make a suitable provision to defeat all the dangerous measures they might enter into. Wherefore, orders were given to take the names, quality, and professions of the respective strangers that resided in the several wards of the city ; whose numbers, upon enquiry, were found to be Scots, French, Spaniards and Portuguese, Italians, Dutch, Burgundians, Danes, and Liegeois.
Sir Thomas Rowe, Knight, Lord Mayor of the city of London in , a worthy brother also of the Merchant Company, besides his charitable cost and charges in building the new churchyard in Bethlehem, now Old Bedlam burial ground, containing near acre of ground, and enclosed with a wall of brick, for the burial of the poor citizens gratis, and a sermon to be preached every Whitsunday in the morning, in the presence of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen; as also giving to be lent to poor men; gave to the Merchant Taylors lands or tenements, out of them to be given yearly, to maintain poor men for ever, such as were not brethren of his own society, but chosen out of several companies, viz. Clothworkers, Armourers, Carpenters, Tylers, and Plaisterers; as considering, that by over-toiling, labor, dangers, falls, bruises, and such like inconveniences, they were soonest like to become impotent, and unable to help or maintain themselves. Therefore, to each of these men he freely gave the sum of , quarterly to be paid them at Merchant Taylors' Hall, during their lives; and then to succeed to other men in the same companies, according to the due consideration of just cause, and most necessity.
In this year, for the better supplying the city with water, a conduit was erected at the corner of Wallbrook, for the reception of Thames Water.
In the year , a Lottery was set on foot in , where it was begun to be drawn at the west door of the church, on the , and continued incessantly drawing day and night till the following. The prizes were of plate, and the profits were appropriated to the repair of the sea-ports.
The city being at this time greatly pestered by sturdy beggars, and loose, idle, disorderly people of both sexes, the following orders were devised and executed with rigor: beadles
|belonging to the hospitals were enjoined to take up all vagrants, &c. and to carry them to ; all sick, lame, blind, aged, and to carry them to St. Bartholomew's; and all children beggars, under the age of , to . These orders were made in , in this form:|
All which are to be diligently attended, over and above these orders hereunder prescribed; that is to say,
, That there do attend at all the gates of this cittie everie morning from of the clocke until in the forenone and from in the evening until at nyght; and also at the tyde tymes falling in the nyght, as well at Byllingsgate as at Lyon's-Keye, of the sayde xvj Beadles, thear to watch the comeing of all vagabonds, beggars, children, and masterless men and women, to the intent they may by them be apprehended. Provided allwais, that the said Beadles so agree and accord together, that they indifferentlie appoynt themselves for the accomplishment of their attendance in this behalf, so that attend as moch and as often as another.
, That the Beadle (in whose Circuite standeth anie of the gates of this Cittie) faile not to see the same gates continually attended all the daie long, from vij of the clock in the forenone, until vij at night; and soche other of them as be not occupied at the gates, to continue in walking the Circuite whereunto they are appointed.
, In walking their Circuites before-mentioned, that they faile not to go once every daie to the collectors houses, in every parish within the Circuite, to understand of them, or some of their neighbours, if either vagabond, beggars, children, or masterless men or women, be in the streates of their parishes, that by them they may be apprehended.
, That of the said beadles twyse everie daie (that is to saie, at vij o'clock in the morning, and at in the afternoon) shall repair to the treasurer of the howse where he serveth, to know his pleasure.
For London-bridge, the barges of Gravesende, and other tide boates coming up in the daie tyme, the better to apprehend the vagabonds, beggars, children, and masterless men and women, and the bringers of them, whereuppon there is iiij Beadles appointed to attend every day; that is to say, ij of them from vij of the clock in the morning until at afternone; and th'other twaine for to be ij of onlie, for that it is in their own Circuit; and they to remain from of the clock until vij at night; and of the twaine (when the tyde happeneth in tyme of their attendance, either in the forenone or afternone) shall repair to Billengesgate, and to the Lyon-Key, to the purpose before declared: Provided always that of the same ij Beadles there appointed, be of them last admitted; to the intent he may growe the more perfect in his dewtie, by the instruction of his fellow: and the appointment of the forenones attendance shall be as followeth:
, Those Beadles which serve the said place fower tymes in week, shall serve but iij tymes the next week following.
, When the vagabonds be set on work abroad, the iiij Beadles that shall attend dailie uppon them, shall be appoynted in the like order as the appointment is for London-bridge, saving that those which serve the bridge day, shall serve in the attendaunce of the vagabonds the day next following, and to be of every howse. And they shall conduct them from their lodging to their work, wheresoever it shall happen to be, and very diligentlie attend that they loyter not; and at night also conduct them to there appointed lodginge.
, That all the vagabonds and sturdie beggars, with all the masterless men or women, by them apprehended, shall be carried to , and to none other place, of what howse soever the Beadles be that take them.
, That all the aged, impotent, sick, sore lame, and blind persons, taken by any of the said Beadles, shall by them be apprehended and carried to St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas's Hospitals.
, That all the children taken by them (being under the age of xvj years) be brought to .
, It is agreed by the said court, that yf anie of the said xvj Beadles neglect anie part of their dutie which to them is appointed, either by these foresaid orders prescribed, or other for them appointed, or hereafter to be appointed, or at any tyme they take any manner of bribes, or the poore people's monie from them; the governoures of that house wheare they serve (by an ordre taken before the Lorde-Maior and Courte of Aldermen) shall not only deprive the said persone of his office, staff, and livery, and place another at their discression, but further punish the said offender according to his deserts in that behalfe.
But notwithstanding the former order, and the charges committed to the beadles of the hospitals to clear the city of vagabonds and beggars, it had not its full effect. For in the very next year, we read, that the city swarmed again with beggars; many whereof were valiant and sturdy rogues, and masterless men and vagrants, and maimed soldiers. For the preventing the mischief occasioned by some of these, and the great annoyance they gave the city, the city took a more regular course, and appointed a committee to treat with some fit persons to be marshals of the city; who should take some good course with these wandering people, for the clearing of the streets of them, and appointing them to their several places and punishments, if they deserved it. And these were to be armed and well assisted with servants, for the safer execution of their office. These committees chose able persons, viz. William Sympson and John Read, to take upon them this office, to be the city marshals, for the consideration of a day, for them and their horses, and persons a-piece to attend on each day, at a-piece, which is a day for either of them. The appointment of
|those men to be left unto the Marshals themselves, to make the better choice of fit men for their purpose. They required, morever, that month's pay, amounting to at days to the month, for them and their attendants, might be paid them beforehand, the better to furnish them in their preparation and want. And to help forward this work, tending to so notable a purpose, with all speed to be expedited, the committee thought convenient that this month's pay might, by way of loan, be supplied among the aldermen: and in that mean time, and upon the well proceeding therein, the commons might be moved to the establishment of a settled supply for the continuance thereof in some convenient manner; and that then after there might be a weekly payment of their salary by Mr. Chamberlain, and the aldermens' disbursements satisfied, when that contribution should be established. It was also thought convenient, fair partizans, suitably and conveniently armed, should be presently provided by the chamberlain for this service, at the charge of the city; and coats or mandilions for the attendants upon the Marshals.|
It was also thought by the committees, that name of Marshal for the disorderly persons in the city of London, would be most proper, and might be best used without offence. And this seems to have been the beginning of the office of the City-Marshal, there being no mention of such an office in this corporation in former times.
The Midsummer after, the pompous cavalcade of the city marching watch was entirely laid aside, for saving the vast expence of such an unnecessary procession; and in lieu thereof was substituted a standing watch, as at present; which is more useful and less chargeable,
John Basiliowitz, Emperor of Russia, having sent Andrew Gregoriwitz Saviana, his ambassador extraordinary to the court of England, he arrived at London, and landed at the Tower wharf, on the ; where he was received by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs in their formalities, attended by the English company of Russia merchants, in black velvet, mounted on stately horses, magnificently accoutred, by whom he was conducted to a house in Seeding-lane, appointed for his residence.
The plague beginning to rage in this city, it occasioned the adjourning of Michaelmas term to that of Hillary.
On this melancholy occasion, the court and city greatly terrified by the frequent returns of this pestilential visitation, orders were made by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen for preventing its spreading, and for hindering idle persons going about, that might carry it among them, in this form:
All which orders abovesaid the aldermen and their deputies are every in their place to see performed, both in themselves and others; and in cases of doubt, to yeld their opinions, and give direction.
In this same year, for cleansing the city ditch between and the postern, and making a new sewer and wharf of timber, from the head of the postern into the Town-ditch, the sum of was laid out. Before which time the ditch lay
|open, without either wall or pale; having therein great store of very good fish of divers sorts. This charge of cleansing was soon after spared, and great profit made by letting out the banks, and the whole soil of the ditch.|
Our intercourse with the city of Antwerp, which was formerly in a manner the Treasury of the Kings of England, from whence, upon any emergency, they could have what sums of money they had occasion for immediately advanced, being stopped by the Duke of Alva, and the queen in great want of money, she was obliged to apply to the company of merchant-adventurers of the City of London for a loan; who, through great inadvertency, were thought to have spurned at the message, by bringing the affair before a general court, where, to her majesty's great dishonour, her demand was rejected by the holding up of hands. But this proceeding being highly resented by the privy council, as appears by a letter sent by of the secretaries of state to the said company, importing,
divers of the aldermen and merchants, to the number of , and Lady Joan Laxton, lent the queen, for the term of months, , at per cent. and each of them received a bond for the money by him or her advanced; which was then prolonged on the same terms for months longer.
On the d of January, in the year , her majesty, attended by the nobility, went into the city, and dined with Sir Thomas Gresham, knight, at his house in . After dinner, her majesty returned through , went into the Bourse, newly built by Sir Thomas, and, after viewing it in all parts, commanded proclamation to be made by a herald, with sound of trumpet, that thenceforth it should go by the appellation of the .
A dispute arose about this time between the lord-mayor of this city, and the Bishop of Ely's tenants in , concerning the exercise of his authority among them, they alleging they were not within the city jurisdiction. To compose this difference in an amicable manner, the lord-mayor and bishop agreed to refer the point in controversy to the arbitration of the Lord-keeper Earl of Leicester, the chief justices, and the Chancellor of ; and, after divers hearings of both sides, the arbitrators agreed to refer the farther consideration thereof to the chief justices, who were to report their opinion to the other referees touching the same: When, after having seriously and deliberately considered the proofs and allegations of both parties, in presence of all the other gentlemen concerned, they declared the right to be in the lord-mayor and citizens of London; and that, for the future, the mayor might as justly exercise his authority in the bishop's rents in , as in any other part of the city.
On the days of , a
The challengers were Edward, Earl of Oxford, Charles Howard, Sir Henry Lee, and Chrisopher Hatton, Esq.
In this and the following year, several persons were executed in London for high treason; among whom was Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, who was beheaded on .
Upon the petition of the lord-mayor and the citizens of London, it was by Parliament enacted, That, for the greater convenience and advantage of the city, a navigable canal should be made from the River Lea, at Ware, to London, at the charge of the citizens, within the space of years. But this design was never put in execution, as hereafter will appear.
Queen Elizabeth, by her letters to the lord-mayor, commanded him to cause a considerable number of the strongest and most robust young men in the city to be selected from among the citizens, in order to their being instructed in the military art, that upon all emergencies they might be ready for the defence of the city. The mayor, in obedience to the royal precept, summoned the masters and assistants of the several companies to meet in their respective halls, for chusing a certain number of such young men out of their respective corporations. In obedience to the mayor's order, the several fraternities assembled on the and , and chose out of all their several societies of the most sizeable and active young citizens; part whereof being appointed musketeers, and the rest pike-men, they were armed with breast-plates and head-pieces; over whom were appointed officers of great experience, to instruct them in the military art; wherein they soon became such proficients, as to have the honor of being reviewed by the queen in Greenwich Park about the beginning of May.
About the same time the poulterers of London, by a combination, greatly increased the prices of poultry, to the great grievance of their fellow citizens: wherefore the court of lord-mayor and aldermen, on the , ascertained the prices of poultry ware, as appears in the following table:
The queen, intending a progress, strictly enjoined the lord mayor to have a special regard to the good government and peace of the city during her absence; and, for the better accomplishing of which, gave him, as assistants, the Archbishop of Canterbury,
|Bishop of London, &c. and upon that occasion, wrote to him the following letter:|
In the year , an excessive dearth raised the price of wheat to the quarter, of pease to , and of oatmeal to ; whereby the price of meat was so much affected, that beef was sold for the stone. This scarcity extended to butter and all sorts of victuals, and was chiefly occasioned by the secret exportation of them, and all sorts of grain, to the Netherlands, then laid waste by a civil war, as Sir Lionel Ducket, Lord Mayor at that time, signified in a remonstrance to the Lord Treasurer of England; and suggested that, unless the ministry would see redress thereof in time, the scarcity must be felt more powerfully, even by those in the highest station of life.
On the , such a great and violent shower of rain fell, that the channels were so swelled, that a youth of eighteen years of age endeavouring to leap over that on , was seized by the torrent, which, maugre all assistance, carried him away, and put a period to his days.
The plague having again broke out in this city, the queen, out of her tender regard to the welfare of her people, and care to prevent the spreading of the infection, enjoined the Lord Mayor not to give any entertainment at , on the anniversary of his going to , thereby to prevent the vast resort of people from all parts, which usually assembled there on such an occasion, whereby the pestilential malady might be carried into all parts of this great metropolis. And the citizens in common-council observing, that the ancient and innocent recreation of stage-plays, or interludes, which, in former days, ingenious tradesmen and gentlemens' servants sometimes practised, to expose vice, or to represent the noble actions of their ancestors, at certain festival times, or in private houses at weddings, at other splendid entertainments, for their own profit, was now in process of time become an occupation; and that many there were that followed it for a livelihood; and, which was worse, that it was become the occasion of much sin and evil ; great multitudes of people, especially youth, in Queen Elizabeth's reign, resorting to these plays; and being commonly acted on Sundays and Festivals, the churches were forsaken, and the playhouses thronged, and great disorders and inconvenience were found to ensue to the city thereby, forasmuch as it occasioned frays, and evil practices of incontinency. Great inns were used for this purpose, which had secret chambers and places, as well as open stages and galleries; where maids, especially orphans, and good citizens' children under age, were inveigled and allured to privy and unmeet contracts; and where unchaste, uncomely, and unshamefaced speeches and doings were published; where there was an unthrifty waste of the money of the poor; sundry robberies, by picking and cutting purses, uttering of popular and seditious matter, many corruptions of youth, and other enormities; besides sundry slaughters and maimings of the queen's subjects, by falling of scaffolds, frames, and stages, and by engines, weapons, and powder, used in the plays; and believing that in the time of God's visitation by the plague, such assemblies of the people in throngs and presses were very dangerous for spreading the infection; they regulated these plays, lest the people, upon God's gracious withdrawing of the sickness, should, with sudden forgetting of the visitation, without fear of God's wrath, and without some respect of those good and politic means (as the words of the act ran) that were ordained for the preservation of the commonwealth and people in health and good order,
|return to the undue use of such enormities. Therefore, for the lawful, honest, comely use of plays, pastimes, and recreations in good sort permitted, by the authority of the common council, it was enacted,|
The public players petitioned the queen and council for license to act as usual ; but, after due consideration, and a full hearing of argument for and against them, they could obtain no permission, except on condition that they hold them content with playing in
|private houses, at weddings, &c. without public assemblies. That if it were thought good they should be tolerated, that then they be restrained to the order in the act of common council, made in the time of Hawes, mayor. That they play not openly till the whole deaths have been, by days, under a week, nor longer than shall so continue. That no plays be on the sabbath. That no plays be on holidays, but after evening prayer, nor any received into the auditory till after evening prayer. That no playing be in the dark, nor continue any such time, but as any of the auditors may return to their dwellings in London before sunset, or at least before it be dark. That the queen's players only be tolerated; and of them their number and certain names to be notified in the Lord Treasurer's letters to the Lord Mayor, and to the justices of Middlesex and Surry; and those her players not to divide themselves into several companies. And that for breaking any of these orders their toleration cease.|
But all these prescriptions were not sufficient to keep them within due order; but their plays, so abusive oftentimes of virtue, or particular persons, gave great offence, and occasioned disturbances; whence they were now and then stopped and prohibited. So in the year , Hart mayor, complaint was made of them to the Lord Treasurer, who signified the same to the mayor; and he sent for all the players in town, (and there were some companies of them, as belonged to the Lord Admiral, and another to the Lord Strange) and charged them to forbear till further order.
On the following, an exceeding high tide happened in the river Thames, which, after high water, having ebbed about an hour, a preternatural reflux returned with such an amazing impetuosity, that it soon overflowed its banks, and, filling all the neighboring cellars, subterraneous warehouses, and vicinal marshes, occasioned incredible damage.
The Lord Chancellor Bacon, in the Star-chamber, having taken minutes of several regulations to be made for reforming of public grievances, among which was that of suppressing a number of superfluous alehouses, he communicated the same to the Lord Mayor; who, calling to his assistance the recorders of and , set about a reformation, by putting down above alehouses in their several jurisdictions: which example was quickly followed by those of , Duchy of Lancaster, Liberty of Tower Hamlets, and other parts of Middlesex contiguous to London.
At this time, the Lord Mayor, Recorder, and other magistrates, did so effectually exert themselves in putting the laws in execution against vice and immorality, that, at the assizes then held for the city of London, there was not criminal to be tried; the reason whereof is set forth in the following letter from William Fleetwood, Recorder of London, to the Lord Treasurer, then
|with the court at Buxton, viz.|
The only cause that this reformation taketh so good effect here about London, is, that when, by order, we have either justly executed the law, or performed the council's commandment, we were wont to have either a great man's letter, a lady's ring, or some other token from such other inferior persons, as will devise untruth or other to accuse us of, if we perform not their unlawful requests. The court is far off; here we are not troubled with letters, neither for the reprieve of this prisoner, nor for sparing that fray-maker. These secretaries, chamber-keepers, and solicitors in the court, procure many letters from their lords and ladies upon untrue suggestions; the which letters do great hurt.
In , upon digging the well in , wherein the present pump is placed, near the end of , about the depth of feet, upon the virgin earth, was discovered a hearth built of Roman bricks, with charcoal thereon; but what use the said hearth was appropriated to is unknown.
Under the date , Stow records the following extraordinary examples of ingenuity.
William Lamb, some time a gentleman of the chapel to Henry VIII. citizen and clothworker, having drawn together several springs of water into a head, now from him denominated Lamb's Conduit, near the , at the upper end of , in ; whence, in a leaden pipe yards long, he conveyed the same to ; where having re-edified a ruinous conduit long in disuse, and now
|entirely demolished, he laid his water into the same, to the great advantage and convenience of that neighbourhood. This conduit, finished , though removed a little from its place, still retains the name of its rebuilder; together with that of the other parts of the work, amounted to He also founded a Free , at Sutton Valence, the place of his nativity, in Kent, with a master at and an usher at per ann. and an almshouse for poor people, endowed with yearly. He gave per annum to the Free School, at Maidstone, in Kent, for the education of needy mens' children; to the poor clothiers in Suffolk, Bridgnorth and Ludlow, in Shropshire. He left to the Clothworkers' company his dwelling-house, a little to the south-west of Cripplegate, with lands and tenements to the value of per annum, for paying a minister to read divine service on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, every week, in the chapel adjoining to his house, called St. James, in the wall by Cripplegate; and for clothing men with a frize gown, lockram shirt, and a good strong pair of winter shoes; and women with a frize gown, a lockram smock, and a good pair of winter shoes, all ready made for wearing; to be given to such as are poor and honest, on the . He also gave towards the bells and chimes of without Cripplegate; yearly to the company of Stationers, for the relief of poor people of the parish of St. Faith, under , at the rate of in money, and in bread, to each of them, on every Friday during the year; per annum, and to purchase land, for the relief of children in ; to in ; besides some other charities to the prisons, and for portioning poor maids.|
At this time John Casimir, son to the elector Palatine, arrived in England; and landing at the , on the , at night, he was received by many of the principal nobility, the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and leading citizens, who conducted him by torch-light to the house of Sir Thomas Gresham, in ; where he was received by sound of trumpet and other musical instruments, and on the was magnificently entertained by Sir Thomas Ramsey, the Lord Mayor.
William Kympton, an alderman of this city, was, by the Lord Chancellor, committed prisoner to the Fleet-prison, for concealing a letter sent him by the vicar of Hadley in Middlesex, which advised him of an insurrection at Northall, where the people had tumultuously pulled down some pales; which offence being deemed a misprision of treason, the alderman was, by the court of Star-Chamber, amerced in the sum of , and imprisoned during the queen's pleasure.
On the and ,
in London, that
and when driven by the wind,
The snow continued to fall till the , and
In , on the , an earthquake was felt in London, and though its duration did not exceed a minute, the shock was so severe that many churches and houses were much shattered, and several people killed and hurt.
This earthquake extended into many parts of England: in Kent there were shocks, and much damage was done.
On the , in the same year, by a proclamation dated at Nonsuch, all persons were prohibited from building houses within miles from any of the city gates of London; and various other regulations were ordered to be enforced to prevent any further resort of people to the capital from distant parts of the country. This ordinance was issued from the -fold consideration of
In the following November, when the Lord Mayor elect went to the exchequer to take the official oaths, he was strictly enjoined by the Lord Treasurer to enforce the proclamation.
The cross in having been frequently presented by the inquest as a public nuisance, in obstructing carriages, to the great detriment of the inhabitants of that street, but without redress; it was so highly resented by the neighbourhood, who were likewise offended at the figures wherewith the cross was decorated, that in the night-time it was almost demolished by persons unknown; who not only stripped it of its puppets, but likewise robbed the Virgin Mary of her son; and breaking both her arms, had, by the assistance of a rope, almost destroyed her body, which they left in a tottering condition. Upon which a proclamation was published for discovering and apprehending the person or persons concerned in this deformation, with a reward of upon conviction.
The Turkey company was incorporated in this year, and the governor was Sir Edward Osborn, an alderman of London. The ambassador who was sent by Elizabeth to negotiate their friendly reception in Turkey, sailed on board the ship Susan, of London,
|mounting guns; a vessel of considerable magnitude at that period.|
In the year , the luxury of the times having greatly prevailed among people of all degrees, in their apparel, particularly apprentices, the Lord Mayor and common-council enacted,
That no apprentice whatsoever should presume, And it was further enacted,
That no apprentice should frequent or go to any dancing, fencing, or musical schools; nor keep any chest, press, or other place for keeping of apparel, or goods, but in his master's house, under the penalties aforesaid.
In the year , day in the month of July, there were great feasts at London, at Grocer's Hall and the other at Haberdashers' Hall, (as perhaps there was in all the rest upon some public occasion). Sir Edward Osborne, mayor, and divers of his brethren, with the recorder, were at Haberdashers' Hall; where the said mayor, after the course was come in, took the great standing cup, the gift of Sir William Garret, being full of hypocrase, and silence being commanded through all the tables, all men being bare-headed, my lord, openly, with a convenient loud voice, used these words:
This spoken, all men desired the same. The sword-bearer in haste went to the Grocers' feast, where Mr. Alderman Massam was at dinner, and did openly declare the words that my Lord Mayor had used; whereunto silence made, and all being hush, the alderman answered very modestly in this sort: And this said, both he and all the company pledged my Lord, and gave him thanks.
On the following, the citizens held a very splendid shooting-match, under the direction of the captain of the London archers, who was stiled the Duke of , on the following occasion: King Henry the having appointed a great shooting-match at Windsor, it happened that towards night, when the diversion was almost over, Barlow, a citizen of London, and inhabitant of , out-shot all the rest; wherewith Henry was so exceedingly pleased, that he told Barlow, that thenceforth he should be called the Duke of : which appellation the captain of the London archers enjoyed for ages after.
This captain of the band of London Archers summoned his nominal nobility to accompany him with their several companies on so solemn an occasion, under the following titles, viz. The Marquisses of Barlow, Clerkenwell, , , and Shacklewell, and the Earl of Pancras, &c. who being met at the time and place prefixed, the pompous march began from Merchant-Taylors' Hall, consisting of archers, sumptuously apparelled, whereof having chains of gold about their necks. This splendid company was guarded by whifflers and billmen, to the number of , besides pages and footmen; and marching through , the residence of the duke, their captain, continued their march through , by Finsbury to Smithfield; where, after having performed their several evolutions, they shot at the target for glory.
The Queen, after her progress, being returned to , was attended by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and many of the principal citizens, to the number of , mounted on stately horses, and dressed in velvet, with golden chains about their necks, accompanied by a citizens on foot, belonging to the several corporations, attended by the same number of servants, with each a torch (it being by night) or flambeau in his hand; by whom her majesty, in a congratulatory address, was welcomed to her capital and residence.
Elizabeth, being greatly apprehensive of an invasion from Spain, not only by repeated advices, but likewise by the prodigious naval
|preparations making in that country, took all the precautions necessary, such as fitting out of ships of war for sea service, and raising and disciplining of men for that of the land, to keep the nation prepared against any unforeseen attack. The several corporations of this city sent a handsome body of men into the field at their own expence; who, assembling on Blackheath in May, about in number, completely armed, encamped thereon about a week; during which time, they had the honor of being reviewed divers times by the queen. The companies of Grocers, Haberdashers, and Merchant-Taylors on this occasion sent each men; the Mercers ; and the other companies according to their several abilities.|
In the August following, a considerable body of soldiers were fitted out, by and at the expence of the aforesaid companies; who, being completely armed, and clothed in red, were sent to the assistance of the Dutch against the Spaniards.
At a sessions in , this may be worthy to be related, as it was written by Fleetword, the recorder, to the lord treasurer: That he, and some others that were then upon the bench, spent a day about searching out sundry that were receivers of felons, and a great many were found in London, , , and places about the same. And they got the names of masterless men and cut-purses, whose practice was to rob gentlemen's chambers and artificers' shops in and about London; and houses of entertainment for such in London, more in , more in the suburbs, and in . Among the rest, they found Wotton, a gentleman born, and some time a merchant of good credit, but fallen by time into decay. This man kept an alehouse at Smart's-Key, near , and after, for some misdemeanor, put down, he reared up a new trade of life, and in the same house, he procured all the cut-purses about the city to repair to his house. There was a school-house set up to learn young boys to cut purses. devices were hung up-- was a pocket, and another was a purse: the pocket had in it certain counters, and was hung about with hawk's bells, and over the top did hang a little sacring bell. The purse had silver in it; and he that could take out a counter without any noise, was allowed to be a ; and he that could take a piece of silver out of the purse without noise of any of the bells, was adjudged a judicial , according to their terms of art. A was a pickpocket, a was a pick-purse, or cut-purse.
It gave great encouragement to evil-doers about these times, and good men complained of it, that thieves and malefactors condemned were so frequently and commonly spared; and this evil came from the court, insomuch that the recorder aforesaid, a wise and honest
|man, observed to the lord treasurer, that it was grown a trade in the court to make means for reprieves.|
In , a conspiracy was entered into by the apprentices and other ill-designing persons of this city, for a general insurrection to be made against foreigners, but especially against those of the French nation: which wicked design was founded upon the same principles with those of Evil May-day, in the year ; but, by a timely and happy discovery, the innocent were saved from destruction, and many of the conspirators were apprehended and committed to Newgate.
The same year was productive of Babington's memorable conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth, and free the Queen of Scots from a captivity, in which she had now passed almost eighteen years. persons had engaged to kill the queen, and were all drawn in picture, with Babington in the middle, and a Latin motto annexed, () obscurely hinting their design. Through the watchfulness of Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth's secretary, the plot was discovered, and he contrived to get the picture shewn to the queen before the arrest of any of the conspirators. At length, however, they were seized about the middle of July, to the number of ,
These proofs of attachment were so acceptable to the queen, that she addressed the following letter to the lord mayor and aldermen:
Right Trustie and Wel-beloved, we greet you well. Being given to understand how greatly our good and most loving subjects of that citie did rejoyce at the apprehension of certain divelish and wicked-minded subjects of ours, that through the great and singular goodnesse of God have been detected, to have most wickedly and unnaturally conspired, not only the taking away of our owne life, but also to have stirred, as much as in them lay, a general rebellion throughout our whole realme. Wee could not but by our own letters witness unto you the great and singular contentment wee received upon the knowledge thereof, assuring you that wee did not so much rejoice at the escape of the intended attempt against our owne person, as to see the great joy our most loving subjects took at the apprehension of the contrivers thereof, which, to make their love more apparent, they have (as we are to our great comfort informed) omitted no outward shew, that by any externall act might witness to the world the inward love and dutiful affection they beare towards us.
And as we have as great cause with all thankfulnesse to acknowledge God's great goodnesse towards us, through the infinite
|blessings he layeth upon us, as many as ever prince had, yea, rather as ever creature had; yet do we not, for any worldly blessing receive from his divine majesty, so greatly acknowledge the same, as in that it hath pleased him to incline the hearts of our subjects, even from the beginning of our raygne, to carrie as great love towards us, as ever subjects carryed toward prince, which ought to move us, (as it doth in very deede,) to seeke with all care, and by all good means that appertaine to a Christian prince, the conservation of so loving and dutiful subjects; assuring you, that we desire no longer to live then while we may, in the whole course of our government, carry ourselfe in such sort, as may not only nourish and continue their love and goodwill towards us, but also increase the same. Wee think meet, that these our letters should be communicated in some general assembly to our most loving subjects the commoners of that cittie.|
Given under our signet at our Castle of Windsor, the , in the year of our reigne.
In the September following, the conspirators were tried at , and of them were adjudged guilty on their own confessions: the others were condemned by the jury. They were all The ill-starred Mary, whose imprisonment had given rise to various attempts against the queen's life, is said to have been implicated in Babington's conspiracy; and this, whether true or false, furnished a plausible pretence for those proceedings which soon afterwards condemned her to the block. The sentence against her was proclaimed with particular ceremony at different places in London and , on the , The city magistracy, with divers earls, barons, &c. attended this judicial promulgation.
On the , the remains of the gallant and accomplished Sir Philip Sydney, who was mortally wounded at Zutphen, in Flanders, were conveyed, with great funeral pomp, from the convent of the Minorites, without , to , and solemnly interred. These obsequies were attended by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen
by the Grocers' Company, of which Sir Philip was a member, and by many of the citizens
This year a general scarcity of corn happened in England; and the scarcity increasing, the dearth became so excessive, that wheat
|was sold in this city the spring following at the quarter, and in divers places of the kingdom at .|
The queen, continuing to make the most formidable preparations for securing the kingdom against the attempts of the Spaniards, sent the following letter to the Lord Mayor:
Trusty Well-beloved, we greete you well.
Whereas upon information given unto us of great preparations made in foreign parts, with an intent to attempt somewhat against this our realme, wee gave present order that our said realme should be put in order of defence; which wee have caused to be performed in all parties accordingly, saving in the cittie of London.
Wee therefore knowing your readiness, by former experience, to perform any service that well-affected subjects ought to yealde to there prince and sovereign, do lett you understand, that within our sayde cittye our pleasure is, that there be forthwith put in a readiness to serve for defence of our own person, upon such occasions as may fall out, the nomber of hable men, furnished with armour and weapons convenient; of which number, our meaning is, that be enrolled under captaines and ensignes, and to be trained at tymes convenient, according to such further direction as you shall receive from our privye councell, under of their hands, which our pleasure is you do follow from tyme to tyme, in the ordringe and training of the said nombres of men. And this our letters shall be your sufficient warrant for the doing of the same.
Given under our signet, at our mannor of Greenwich, the e, , in the thirtieth year of our raigne.
days after, the queen's letter was followed by the subjoined from the privy council:
After our harty commendations.
Whereas the Queenes Majestie having received divers advertisements of preparations in forreine parties, with intent and purpose to attempte somewhat on this realme, did very providently give speedy order for to provide all things necessary to withstand any invasion or attempt that might be offered; and, to that end, did direct her letters to you, thereby willing and requiring you to put in a readiness the number of armed men within the cittye, and the liberties of the same, being the principal and chief cittye in all the realme, to serve as well for the defence of the same, as for the safe-garde of her majestic's person, if needed should so require; whereof were to be enrolled, and to be reduced under captaines and ensignes.
And for the better ordering and disposing of the said soldiers, you were required to follow such directions as you should from tyme to tyme receive from us. Theis are therefore to let you understand, that we have thought good to require our loving friends Sir Francis Knowles, Knt. treasurer of her majestic's housholde, and
|Sir John Norris, Knt. to conferre with you in that behalf, to appointe convenient tyme for the better trayninge of the said , and for the better ordringe and sorting them with armour and weapons, and reducing the same under captaines and ensignes, to the ende that they may be trayned and made expert to use their weapons, and disciplined, whereby they may be the more serviceable, and better instructed to serve either for the defence of the said cittye, or to joyne with that armye that shall be appointed for the defence of her majestie's person, as occasion shall serve.|
And that the other men also have their several armour and weapons appointed unto them, and to be commanded to be in a readiness to serve also in case of necessitie for like purposes as is aforesaid; wherein wee are to praye you, that you will use the aide and help of Mr. Treasurer, and omit no care and diligence to see this her majestie's pleasure put in execution, tending to your owne preservation and safe-garde, as becometh all good subjects to do; and to advise us of the order you shall have taken, as well in training of the , as having in a readiness the residue.
So we bid you hartely farewell. From the court at Greenwich, the .
Your very loving friends,
These letters being read in the common council, it was unanimously resolved to grant her majesty the desired number of troops, which were to be raised in the several wards of the city, by the aldermen and common-councilmen thereof respectively. And for the more effectually supplying the aforesaid number of men, with all the necessaries of war, the common council appointed a committee of of their members, to consider of ways and means for that purpose.
And the better to enable the citizens to raise the sum necessary for this great undertaking, a deputation was sent by the common council to the privy council, to entreat that right honorable board, that the inhabitants of the several pretended privileged places within the city and liberty thereof, together with all strangers, might be obliged to contribute towards the said necessary charges; and that the city might appoint officers duly qualified to train and command the said troops, as should be approved by the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen.
The danger of an invasion from Spain still approaching, the lords of the privy council sent the following letter to the Lord Mayor:
After our harty commendations to your lordship.
Whereas her majestie hath thought it convenient, that as well such numbers of trayned bandes and others, as by former orders
|have been erected in the several counties in the realme, should be disposed and divided, some to repair to the sea coastes, as occasion may serve, to impeache the landing, or withstandinge of the enemie upon his descent; some other parte of the said forces joine with such numbers as shall be thought convenient to make heade to the enemie after he shall be landed, yf it shall so fall out; and another principal parte of the said trayned nombers to repair hither, to joyne with the armye that shall be appointed for the defence of her majestie's person.|
Theis shall be to praye your lordshipe to give present order that of those numbers which were appointed to be levyed, you commit the number of men sorted with weapons, according to such proportion as hath been heretofore set down unto you, and reduced into bandes, may be in a readiness with convenient armour, furniture, and other necessaryes, agreeable with the directions heretofore given, upon an hours warning, to repair either to the court to attended on her majestie's person, or to such place as shall be appointed, to joine with the armye which shall be specially assembled for the making heade to the enemies, upon notice given you, either from her majestie or from us, or from such person of qualitie as shall be notified unto you to be appointed by her majestic to be the general of the armye, either to attende upon her hyghnesse person, or to goe against the enemies: wherein nothing doubtinge but that your lordshipe will give spedye and special direction,
We bid your lordshipe very hartely farewell. From the court at Grenewich, the .
According to a manuscript in the royal library, the London quota of troops were raised and armed in the several wards of the city, according to the following proportions:
The citizens, on this extraordinary occasion, being willing to exert themselves to the utmost, on the in the same year the common council passed a resolution to grant the queen a supply of of the largest ships in the river Thames, and pinnaces or light frigates. Pursuant to which, they took the said ships into their service, fitted them out with the greatest expedition, and plentifully supplied them with all the necessaries of war; and, during the time of their being in the service of the public, defrayed the charge thereof, as well as that of the men above-mentioned.
On the defeat of the armada, Elizabeth, in grateful piety, ascribed all the glory to Providence. was the motto she adopted for her medals, and she commanded a day of solemn thanksgiving to be observed over the whole kingdom. She herself set the example, and, on the , rode in great state to on a triumphal car, from which was suspended the standards and streamers taken from the Spaniards. She was accompanied by all the chief officers of state, the members of both houses of parliament, the female nobility, and
The procession set out from , and was received at Temple-bar by the Lord Mayor and his brethren in scarlet, whilst the city companies, in their liveries, lined the way on each side within a double railing covered with blue cloth. At the great west door of the cathedral, Elizabeth dismounted from her chariot, and was received, says Stow,
She then attended divine service in the choir, and was afterwards conducted to a closet
where she heard a sermon preached by Dr. Pierce, Bishop of Salisbury. This ended, she
and she was afterwards reconveyed
The fleet sent by the queen, under the command of Norris and Drake, to the assistance of Don Antonio, late King of Portugal, against the Spaniards, being returned, and the soldiers and sailors, who had been inured to plunder, disbanded, they confederated themselves to the number of , with an intent to pillage
|Bartolomew-fair, and, for the execution of their villainous design, assembled at ; which Sir Richard Martin, the mayor, receiving intelligence of, he, with the utmost expedition, raised about citizens completely armed, and marched against those freebooters; which they being advised of, instantly dispersed, and shifted for themselves after the best manner they could. Whereupon the citizens returned to their several habitations without striking a blow.|
Soon after, the city lent the queen , for which she allowed per cent interest; and on the following, they supplied her with a men, whom she sent into France to the assistance of Henry, King of Navarre, who then claimed that crown.
In , a combination being entered into by the owners of the coal-works at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the price of coals in this city thereby enhanced to an excessive rate of the chaldron; whereas the common price, for several years before this iniquitous confederacy, was only .
In the succeeding year, according to Stow, the Thames was almost empty of water for the space of days. And this same year, a contest arose between the Lord Mayor and citizens of London, and the Lord High Admiral of England, in respect to the right of coal meterage; but on the mayor and citizens shewing their indubitable right to the same, the admiral receede from his pretensions, and acknowledged the property to be in them. Wherefore, to prevent all controversies in that respect for the future, the citizens had this right confirmed by the queen, at the intercession of their fast friend, the lord treasurer Burleigh.
Soon after a few wild enthusiasts and wicked impostors appeared in this city; William Hacket, the chief whereof, gave out that he was Jesus Christ come to judge the world; which was soon proclaimed throughout the city of London by Edmund Coppinger and Henry Arthington, of his disciples; who, going from Hacket's lodgings at Broken-wharf, through and the , amidst an excessive multitude to , they mounted an empty cart near the end of , and entering into particulars, declared themselves the prophets of mercy and vengeance, called to assist Hacket in his great work; affirming, that all who believed them not, and
The queen's council, alarmed at the tumult, and probably apprehending some deeper design than appeared openly, had all the visionaries immediately arrested and examined. Hacket was soon brought to trial
and was condemned to die, for having spoken
| maliciously thrusting |
of a picture of the queen
days afterwards, he was drawn upon a hurdle to a gibbet raised near the
and was there
though all his words and whole demeanour exhibited the raving maniac. On the day following, Coppinger died in ,
and Arthington died shortly after in the compter.
The plague having again broke out in this city, it raged with such violence, that application was made to the queen and council, that, upon the infection of any house, the sound might be removed from the infected to proper places for their preservation; and that provision might be made for the poor, who were reduced to the greatest extremities. And to prevent the spreading of the contagion, the term was adjourned to Hertford.
The plague continuing to increase and rage in this city, it occasioned the publishing a proclamation for the more effectual preventing the spreading of the contagion, as will appear by the following extracts:
And therefore, to prevent those dangers, her majestie doth nowe command, that in the usual place of Smythfeilde there be no manner of market for any wares kepte, nor any stalles or booths for any manner of merchandize, or for victualls, suffered to be set up; but that the open place of the ground called Smythfeilde be only occupied with sale of horses and cattle, and of staule wares, as butter, cheese, and such like, in grosse, and not by retaile; the same to continue for the space of dayes only.
And for vent of woollen clothes, kerseis, and linnen clothe, to be all sold in grosse, and not by retail, the same shall be all brought within the close-yard of St. Bartholomew's, where shoppers are there continued, and have gates to shut the same place in the nightes, and there such clothe to be offered to sale, and to be bought in grosse, and not by retail; the same market to continue but dayes, that is to say, the even, the daye of St. Bartholomew, and the morrow after.
And that the sale and vent for leather be kepte in the outside of the ringe in Smythfeilde, as hath been accustomed, without erecting any shoppers or boothes for the same, or for any victualler or other occupier of any wayes whatsoever.
Notwithstanding all the salutary measures taken for stopping the plague in its destructive progress, it nevertheless in this year swept away of the citizens.
Some time after, the number of strangers residing in the city and liberties of London was again taken; which, by the certificates
|brought in from the several wards, appeared to be : among whom, were Denizens born.|
About the year , and before, the city, as well as other parts of the kingdom, were grievously pestered with beggars; and they, many of them poor disbanded soldiers, become poor and maimed by the wars in the low countries, and with Spain; and many more that pretended to be so, who committed many robberies and outrages. This caused the queen to set forth a proclamation in the month of February, for the
and commanded the lord mayor to see the same properly executed within miles of London.
The following year, on the , in obedience to the queen's desire, the lord mayor and common council fitted out ships of war, with frigates, and stored the same with ammunition and proper provisions for months; days after which, they added soldiers; and the expence of maintaining the whole was defrayed by a raised from the citizens.
About the same time, for the better supplying the city with Thames water, a large horse engine of pumps was erected at Broken-wharf, in , by Bevis Bulmar, for the convenience of the inhabitants in the western parts; which engine has been laid aside on account of the great charge of working it, whereby the proprietors were rendered unable to furnish their tenants at so easy a rate as other companies did. On the , the aforesaid engineer presented the Lord Mayor, for the use of the city, a very large silver cup and cover, weighing ounces, which he had extracted from English ore.
By the great rains that fell in the spring and autumn of this year, a great scarcity and dearth of corn ensued; however, by the industry of the merchants, a famine was prevented, who imported great quantities from divers countries; which occasioned the Lord Mayor strictly to enjoin those companies, who had neglected to lay in their proportions of corn according to the constitutions of the city, now to supply themselves, for preventing a scarcity before the coming of the new corn.
In the interim, Sir John Hawkins, of her majesty's admirals, demanded of the mayor the use of the Bridge-house, then the common granary of the city; which he intended not only to make use of as a store-house for the royal navy, but likewise the bake-houses and ovens therein (which were erected by the city for supplying the poorer sort of citizens, in case of a dearth, with bread at a low price) for baking of biscuits for the use of the fleet. Upon this unseasonable and unreasonable demand, Sir John Spencer, the mayor,
|complained thereof to the great patron of the city the worthy lord treasurer Burleigh, in the following remonstrance:|
That, according to the care that his place required at his entrance therein, by his means, it was ordered, that the several companies of the city should presently make provision, and furnish themselves of wheat and rye brought from foreign parts, according to the several portions allotted to them; wherein they had not been so forward as they ought to have been, and were yet unprovided of the greatest part thereof. That he had therefore days past enjoined them to furnish their wants of these, that were then brought in from foreign parts, and to have the same laid up in the bridge-house, in their several garners [granaries] and before the next coming.
But that hereupon Sir John Hawkins, by his men desired, or rather commanded, room in the bridge-house to lay in wheat, and also the ovens for baking; but that he answered, that they could with no convenience spare the same, alleging truly to him, that if the same should be yielded unto, that the companies would thereby take occasion to neglect their provision, and allege that they could not do the same, for that he had lent away their garners: and that so thereby the city, which in that time of dearth was furnished only from foreign parts, should be unprovided, and the fault wholly laid upon him. And that then, either that which should be brought for the provision of the city, of force must have been tolerated to be brought up by the badgers, and carried from the city, as it had been; or else the merchants discouraged from bringing any more. The which he hoped his lordship would well consider.
And that for the ovens, it was told them, the same were used for baking bread for the poor, that they might have the more for their money; and that therefore they could not be spared. And also, that he was informed her majesty had garners about Towerhill, and , and ; and also that, if they would not serve, her majesty had in her hands Winchester-house, wherein great quantities might be laid.
This proceeding of the mayor's being by some greatly disliked, he was told,
Corn arose to such an excessive price, that wheat was sold at the quarter, and rye at .
On Sunday, the , a difference happened between certain warders of the , and some city apprentices; who, imagining themselves highly injured in being reprimanded by the said warders, to revenge themselves for so great an affront, with vollies of stones they obliged their enemies to seek for safety in a precipitate flight; which the lord mayor was no sooner apprised of, than he repaired thither attended by his officers and many of the citizens on horseback, to suppress the tumult. But being arrived on , he was, by divers of the warders and others belonging to the Tower, who were returned in a formidable condition, in a very rude and insolent manner, told, that his sword ought not in that place to be carried erect, and, seizing upon the same, endeavoured to wrench it out of the hands of the bearer; whereupon a smart scuffle ensued, wherein the sword-bearer and divers others were wounded: yet, nevertheless, the lord mayor, by his good conduct, not only appeased the fray, but likewise dispersed the populace.
In the year , the common council granted a levy of fifteenths upon the citizens for the reparation of the town-ditch; but only a small part of it, viz. between Bishopsgate and , was cleansed, and made somewhat broader than it was before; yet, filling again very fast by overraising the adjoining ground, it was nothing the better for this repair.
About this time insurrections being very frequent, they were chiefly occasioned by a number of incorrigible rogues, who, artfully drawing in the city apprentices to join them, were come to such a pitch of insolence, that the mayor was of opinion, that there was no other way of quelling them but by martial law, and the masters of the said apprentices to be exemplarily punished for suffering them to go abroad, contrary to his several injunctions; which, in a letter to the Lord Treasurer, he set down at large, and which soon after occasioned the publishing a proclamation to the following purport:
That the queen was informed of sundry great disorders committed in and about her city of London, by unlawful great assemblies of multitudes of a popular sort, of base condition, whereof some were apprentices and servants to artificers, and to such like as are not able, or not disposed, to rule their servants as they ought to do. And some attempting to rescue out of the hands of public officers such as have been lawfully arrested, whereby her majesty's peace hath been of late notably broken, to the dishonor of her majesty's government; and chiefly for lack of due
|correction in time of such manifest offenders, by the officers of her city, and others in places round about it.|
For reformation whereof, she had conference with her council of the most ready means for their punishment, and for the stay of the like. And for that purpose straightly charged all her officers, both in the city and places near it, in the counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, and Essex, that had authority to preserve the peace, and to punish offenders, that they should more diligently, to the best of their powers, see to the suppression of all such offenders, and especially of all such unlawful assemblies.
And because such assemblies and routs were compounded of sundry sorts of base people; some known apprentices, such as were of base manual occupations; some others, wandering idle persons, of condition rogues and vagabonds; and some colouring their wandering by the name of soldiers returning from the wars, &c. therefore, she had notified her pleasure to her council, to prescribe certain orders to be published in and about the said city, which she would have straightly observed; and, for that purpose, that she meant to have a provost-marshal, with sufficient authority to apprehend all such as should not be readily reformed and corrected by the ordinary officers of justice, and them without delay to execute upon the gallows by order of martial law.
At our manor of Greenwich, the.
In pursuance of this proclamation, Sir Thomas Wilford was appointed provost-marshal; who, patrolling the city with a numerous attendance on horseback, armed with pistols, apprehended many of the rioters, and carried them before the justices appointed for their examination; who having committed many of them to prison, they were, on the , tried at , where being condemned, were days after, according to their sentence, executed upon : which effectually put a stop to rioting for several years after.
The dreadful dearth of corn still continuing, wheat was sold at the quarter; and other provisions so excessively dear, that butter was at the pound, eggs a penny, and the prices of fish and flesh in proportion.
For the more effectually providing for, and preventing the sufferings of the poor, during the late dreadful dearth, Sir Stephen Slany, the mayor, caused the number of poor housekeepers in each ward to be taken, in order to be relieved according to their several necessities; and whose numbers, according to their several lists, appear to have been as follows:
The queen, by the lord keeper, acquainted the citizens of London of her having preferred their recorder; therefore, desired the lord mayor, (not with a design, as was said, of encroaching upon the city liberties) to send her the names of such persons as they intended to put in nomination for that office. The citizens, alarmed at this extraordinary proceeding, and suspecting it to be an attempt of the court to get the appointment of the recorder out of their hands, prudently nominated only person for that office, Mr. James Altham, of Gray's-inn. With this nomination, Sir John Spencer, the mayor, sent a letter to the lord treasurer, in recommendation of this gentleman, as residing in the city, and explaining the inconveniences arising from recorders who were absentees from their trust; and concluded, with his earnest request, that her majesty would be pleased to approve this nomination. How the affair ended does not appear, only that another name stands on the list as elected at this time.
The Lord Mayor and Aldermen of this city being at a sermon at cross, they received a message from the queen, commanding them forthwith to raise a certain number of able-bodied men in the city, fit for immediate service; wherefore, having instantly left the church, they set so heartily about the work, that before at night, they had pressed a men; which
|being the number required, they were with an unparalleled expedition, completely fitted with all martial accoutrements before the next morning, and ready to march to Dover, and from thence to assist the French in defence of Calais; but unexpectedly, in the afternoon, they received orders to return to their respective habitations; so that this petty army, phantom-like, no sooner appeared than it disappeared, having not been full and hours on foot.|
Soon after, the court, seemingly in the greatest commotion, sent a message on Easter-day in the morning, to the lord mayor and aldermen, strictly commanding them, with the utmost expedition, to raise again the same number of men that were lately disbanded: wherefore, in obedience to the royal precept, those worthy magistrates, assisted by their deputies, constables, and other officers, repaired to the several churches within their respective jurisdictions; where, after having caused the doors to be shut, they took from out of those places of public worship, during the time of divine service, the number of men required; who, being immediately armed, began their march the night after for Dover, in order for their embarkation to France; but, in the interim, the queen having received advice of the reduction of Calais by the Spaniards, they were countermanded, and returned about a week after their departure from the city.
In August this year, the harvest failing by the vast quantity of rain that fell in England, there ensued such an excessive dearth, that wheat was sold in this city for the quarter, rye at , and oatmeal at the same price.
As the dreadful famine continued, the unparalleled dearth increased, insomuch that wheat was sold at London for the quarter, and rye at ; which occasioned a very melancholy scene in this city.
Elizabeth being apprehensive of an impending storm, which, if not timely dissipated, might terminate in her destruction; but from what quarter, the public were entirely ignorant: however, to prepare them for the burthen they were soon to be loaded with, it was artfully given out, that the Spaniards intended a expedition against England, whereas, in truth, it was the Earl of Essex's coming from Ireland without her majesty's permission, with a formidable army, to suppress his enemies at court; which, firing the people with resentment, they resolved to part with any thing to baffle the attempts of their implacable enemies. This soon after appeared to be of the greatest preparations that ever was made in England; for, on that occasion, the quota of the city of London was soldiers and ships of war; a moiety of which troops were to take the field, and the other, composed of eminent citizens, to attend the queen as
|her body guard, at their own and the city's expense. During this time of public danger, by the queen's special command, strong guards were kept in all quarters of the city, the chains at the ends of all streets and lanes nightly drawn across, and a candle and lanthorn hung out at every door, upon pain of death.|
On the , a terrible hurricane happened, which occasioned a great deal of damage in the city, by the blowing down of chimnies and trees, stripping of churches and houses, and the loss of the Gravesend tilt-boat, wherein persons were drowned.
In , the city of London, at its own expense, raised soldiers; who, being furnished with all the necessaries of war, were sent into Ireland.
Though the Earl of Essex had partially regained the queen's favour, by assuming that humbleness of deportment, which corresponded with her determination to
and had even been restored to full liberty, his disgrace had not sufficiently chastened his impetuosity of temper, and on Elizabeth's refusing to continue to him a grant
from which he had previously derived much profit, he exclaimed so passionately against the queen, that he again excited her anger; and this was shortly afterwards ripened into deep resentment, on being informed that Essex, in his rage, had said that
The enemies of the earl had now every advantage over him; they set spies upon his actions, and reported even accidental occurrences so unfavourably, that the queen was incensed to vengeance.
The daring mind of Essex could but little brook the constraint in which he had been forced to live during the past twelvemonth, and he conceived the desperate project of seizing the queen's person in her own palace of ; with intent to drive his enemies from the court, and invite the Scottish king to ascend the throne. His measures, however, were taken with so little prudence, that the queen,
had him summoned to attend the council, which he refused to do, on pretence of being indisposed. On the same night, , he held a conference with his partizans at Essex house, and it was resolved that on the next morning, he should attempt to raise the city, where he was thought to have great influence; he had also been told that of the sheriffs, named Smith, who commanded a body of of the trained-bands, was ready to join him.
Pursuant to this scheme, the Earls of Southampton and
| Rutland, with gentlemen, assembled at Essex-house on the morning of the , and the earl putting himself at their head, sallied forth, and entering the city, cried out, |
but not a man stirred to join him, though numbers collected to see him pass. Still the earl proceeded towards Fenchurch, near which the Sheriff resided whose aid he had been promised; yet Essex was doomed to be deceived; whilst
Meanwhile the queen's council exerted themselves with great activity to defeat the earl's designs. The
The lord mayor had also received orders to look
Whilst Essex was at the sheriff's, he was informed that an herald had proclaimed him a traitor. On this he
Essex finding that all his endeavours to get the citizens to declare in his favor were fruitless, and
Shortly after, the earl's house was completely invested by the queen's forces, assembled under the Lord High Admiral, the Earls of Cumberland and Lincoln, the lords Thomas Howard, Effingham, Burghley, Cobham, Gray, and Compton, Sir William Raleigh, &c. and the earl and his partizans were summoned to surrender. To
| this it was answered that |
and the Lord Sands particularly pressed the earl to fight his way through; observing that
Essex, however, being sore vexed with the cryes of ladies, and convinced probably of the impossibility of the escape, surrendered about o'clock the same night, together with the Earls of Southampton and Rutland, and the Lords Sands, Cromwell, Monteagle, and others; all of whom were put into boats and sent to the Tower. On the following day, the queen, by proclamation, thanked the Londoners for their fidelity, and warned them withal to have a watchful eye on whatever passed in the city. Within a few days afterwards, all vagabonds were ordered to leave the city upon pain of death; the court having received information, that a great number of persons lay hid, with intent to rescue the earl, should they find opportunity.
On the , Essex and his friend Southampton were condemned for high treason in Westminster-hall, and the former was beheaded in the Tower, on Ash-Wednesday, being the day after. He died with a firm, but penitent spirit; and was still held in such regard by the populace, that his executioner was beaten as he returned homewards, and would have been
had not the sheriffs of London been called to
In the following month, Sir Christopher Blunt and Sir Charles Danvers were beheaded on , for their concern in Essex's conspiracy, and Sir Giles Mericke, and Henry Cuff, gent. were
The former had been the earl's steward, the latter his confidential secretary.
The trade and navigation on the English coasts being greatly interrupted by the depredations of Spanish privateers, the queen in , ordered a number of ships to be fitted out to cruize against them; and on this occasion, no less than fifteenths were assessed upon the citizens of London, towards defraying the expence of the armament; and a proclamation was issued for discharging all such debtors in the goals of London as were willing to enter on board the said ships.
In the year , the trade of the city of London having been greatly injured by the increase of hawkers and pedlars, the common council enacted,
In the Foedera is another proclamation of Elizabeth, for restraining the increase of buildings in the metropolis, by which she commands all persons to desist from any new building of any house or tenement within miles of London; only family to live in any house; empty houses erected within years not to be let; and unfinished buildings on new foundations to be pulled down: with many other articles of less importance.
On the , a slight shock of an earthquake was felt
and in the following month, another proclamation was made for restraining the increase of buildings, and for the
in the cities of London and , and
In August, the city furnished soldiers for service in Ireland; and in the ensuing January, fitted out ships and a pinnace
at an expence for manning and victualling of per annum. This was the last demand made by Elizabeth on the citizens; and it is remarked by historians, that during the long reign of that princess, and considering the readiness with which the citizens of London always answered her demands, she did not grant them any new charter of privileges, or even so much as confirm those which had been given by her predecessors. During the last years, many seminary priests suffered in different parts of London.
On the , the queen expired at Richmond. On the same day, James the of Scotland was proclaimed her successor at the accustomed places in the city; the privy council, with the Lord Mayor and aldermen attending the ceremony. The proclamation had been drawn up with much form, and was
secretary of state to the late queen.
Elizabeth was buried at on the ,
 Stow's Annals, p. 1141.
 Stow's Annals, p. 1141
 Holins. Chron. Engl. A. D. 1573.
 Stow's Ann. Engl. 1574.
 Maitland. i. 266
 Stow's Ann. 1202.
 Stow's Ann. Engl.
 Thuan's Hist. Lib. lxxxix.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1282.
 Maitland i, 274.
 Stow's Ann.
 Stow's Ann.
 Stow's Ann.
 City Rec. Guildhall.
 In the Strand, on the spot now occupied by Devereux Court and Essex Street.
 Howe's Stow, p. 792.
 Howe's Stow, p. 792.
 Howe's Stow, p. 792.
 Howe's Stow, p. 792.
 Camb. Eliz. From this time, says Stow, until all arraynments and executions were past, the citizens were exceedingly troubled, and charged with double watches, and warding, as well about the court as the cittie, Howe's Stow, p. 192.
 Howe's Stow, p. 794.
 Brayley's London, i. 302.
 Vol. xvi. p. 448.
 Howe's Stow, p. 797.
 Howe's Stow p. 812.
 Howe's Stow, p. 812.