The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 1

Allen, Thomas


Upon the demise of Queen Mary, her sister, the Princess Elizabeth, was, on the , proclaimed queen in London, with the usual solemnities, and such unfeigned demonstrations of joy by the citizens, as probably never appeared before on the like occasion. And the next day, on her approach from Hatfield to London, she was met at Highgate by the lord mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, who conducted her to the city, where she took up her residence in the Charter-house, wherein she continued till the of the said month, when she removed; and passing through , entered the city at Cripplegate, and riding by Londonwall, Blanch-Appleton, , and , amidst the joyful and incessant acclamations of an incredible multitude of people, she entered the , and from thence, on the following, removed to .

On the , the church service was again read in English throughout London by proclamation, and it was commanded that all churches in the kingdom should conform to the practice of the queen's chapel: the elevation of the Host was also expressly forbidden. These innovations were considered by the Catholic bishops as sufficiently significant of Elizabeth's designs in respect to religion, and they all refused to assist in the ceremony of her coronation. At length, Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle, was prevailed on to officiate, and she was crowned , in , on the she rode through the city to in great state, amidst the accustomed display of pageantry and expensive magnificence. The following tract is so curious, we have printed it verbatim.

The passage of our most drad Soveraigne Lady Quene Elyzabeth through the Citie of London to , the daye before


her Coronation, anno -. Imprinted at London, in Flete-strete, within Temple-barre, at the signe of the Hand and Starre, by Richard Tottill. the xxiii day of January.-

Upon Saturday, which was the , in the yere of our Lord God , about of the clocke at afternoon, the most noble and Christian Princesse, our most dradde Soveraigne Ladye Elyzabeth, by the grace of God, Quene of Englande, Fraunce, and Irelande, Defendour of the Faith, &c. marched from the Towre, to passe through the citie of London toward , richely furnished, and most honourably accompanied, as well with Gentlemen, Barons, and other the Nobilite of this Realme, as also with a notable trayne of goodly and beawtifull Ladies, richly appointed. And entryng the Citie was of the people received marvelous entirely, as appeared by the assemblie, prayers, wishes, welcomminges, cryes, tender woordes, and all other signes, which argue a wonderful earnest love of most obedient subjectes toward theyr soveraigne. And on thother side, her Grace, by holding up her hands, and merie countenaunce to such as stode farre of, and most tender and gentle language to those that stode nigh to her Grace, did declare herselfe no less thankefullye to receive her Peoples good wyll, than they lovingly offered it unto her. To all that wyshed her Grace well, she gave heartie thanks, and to such as bade God save her Grace, she sayde agayne God save them all, and thanked them with all her heart: so that on either syde there was nothing but gladnes, nothing but prayer, nothing but comfort. The Quenes Majestie rejoysed marveilously to see that so exceedingly shewed toward her Grace, which all good Princes have ever desyred. I meane so earnest love of subjects, so evidently declared even to her Grace's own person, being carried in the middest of them. The people again were wonderfully rauisheed with the louing answers and gestures of theyr Pryncesse, like to the which they had before tryed at her coming to the Towre from Hatfield. This her Grace's loving behaviour preconceived in the People's heades upon these considerations was then throughly confirmed, and indede emplanted a wonderful hope in them touchyng her worthy Governement in the reste of her Reygne. For in all her passage, she did not only shew her most gracious love toward the people in general, but also privately, if the baser personages had offered her Grace any flowers or such like as a signification of their good wyll, or moved to her any sute, she most gently, to the common rejoysing


of all lookers on, and private comfort of the partie, staid her chariot, and heard theyr requests. So that if a man should say well, he could not better tearme the Citie of London that time, than a stage wherein was shewed the wonderful spectacle, of a noble-hearted Princesse toward her most loving People, and the People's exceding comfort in beholding so worthy a Soveraigne, and hearing so Prince-like a voice, which could not but have set the enemie on fyre, since the vertue is in the enemie always commended, much more could not but enflame her natural, obedient, and most loving people, whose weale leaneth only uppon her Grace and Governement. Thus therefore the Quenes majestie passed from the Towre till she came to Fanchurche, the People on eche side joyously beholdyng the view of so gracious a Ladye theyr Quene, and her Grace no lesse gladly notyng and observing the same. Nere unto Fanchurch was erected a scaffolde richely furnished, whereon stode a noyes of instruments, and a chylde in costly apparel, which was appointed to welcome the Quenes Majestic in the hole Cities behalf. Against which place when her Grace came, of her owne wyll she commanded the chariot to be stayde, and that the noyes might be appeased tyll the chylde had uttered his welcomming oration, which he spake in English meter, as here followeth:--

O pereles Soveraygne Quene, behold what this thy Town Hath thee presented with at thy fyrst entrance here; Beholde with how riche hope she ledeth thee to thy Crown, Beholde with what two gyftes she comforteth thy chere. The first is blessing tonges, which many a welcome say, Which pray thou maist do wel, which praise thee to the sky, Which wish to thee long lyfe, which blesse this happy day, Which to thy kingdom heapes, all that in tonges can lye. The second is true hertes, which love thee from their roote, Whose sute is triumph now, and ruleth all the game. Which faithfulnes have wone, and all untruthe driven out; Which skip for joy, when as they heare thy happy name. Welcome therefore, O Quene, as much as herte can think: Welcome agayn, O Quene, as much as long can tell; Welcome to joyous tonges, and hartes that will not shrink: God thee preserve we praye, and wishe thee ever well.

At which words of the last line the hole People gave a great shout, wishing with assent as the chylde had said. And the Quenes Majestie thanked most heartely both the Citie for this her gentle receiving at the , and also the People for confirming the same. Here was noted in the Quenes Majesties countenance, during the time that the child spake, besides a perpetuall attentiveness in her face, a marvelous change in loke, as the childes words touched either her person, or the peoples tongues or hertes. So that she with rejoysyng visage did evidently declare that the wordes tooke no less place in her minde, than they were most heartely pronounced by the chylde, as from all the hearts of her


moste heartie Citizeins. The same verses were fastned up in a table upon the scaffolde, and the Latine thereof likewise in Latine verses, in another table, as hereafter ensueth:

Urbs tua quae ingressu dederit tibi munera primo, O Regina parem non habitura, vide. Ad diadema tuum, te spe quam divite mittat, Qua duo letitiae det tibi dona, vide. Munus habes primum, linguas bona multa precantes, Quae te quum laudant, tum pia vota sonant, Foelicemque diem hunc dicunt, tibi secula longa Optant, et quicquid denique lingua potest. Altera dona feres, vera, et tui amantia corda, Quorum gens ludum jam regit una tuum. In quibus est infracta fides, falsumque perosa, Quaeque tuo audito nomine laeta salit. Grata venis igitur, quantum cor concipit ullum, Quantum lingua potest dicere, grata venis. Cordibus infractis, linguisque per omnia laetis Grata venis: salvam te velit ease Deus.

Now when the child had pronounced his oration, and the Quenes Highnes so thankefully had received it, she marched forwarde towarde Gracious Streate, where, at the upper ende, before the signe of the Egle, the Citie had erected a gorgeous and sumptuous arke, as here followeth:

A stage was made which extended from thone syde of the streate to thother, richely vawted with battlementes conteining portes, and over the middlemost was avaunced several stages in degrees. Upon the lowest stage was made seate Royall, wherein were placed personages representing Kyng Henrie the , and Elyzabeth his wyfe, daughter of Kyng Edward the , eyther of these Princes sitting under cloth of estate in their states, no otherwise divided, but that thone of them, which was King Henrie the , proceeding out of the House of Lancastre, was enclosed in a Read Rose, and thother, which was Quene Elizabeth, being heire to the House of Yorke, enclosed with a Whyte Rose, eche of them Royally crowned, and decently apparailed as apperteineth to Princes, with Sceptours in their hands, and vawt surmounting their heades, wherein aptly were placed tables, eche containing the title of those Princes. And these personages were so set, that the of them joined hands with thother, with the ring of matrimonie perceived on the finger. Out of the which Roses sprang branches gathered into , which were directed upward to the stage or degree, wherein was placed , representing the valiant and noble Prynce King Henry the , which sprong out of the former stock, crowned with a Crown Imperial, and by him sate representing the right worthy Ladie Quene Ann, wife


to the said King Henry the , and Mother to our most Soveraign Ladie Quene Elizabeth that now is, both apparelled with Sceptours and Diademes, and other furniture due to the state of a King and Queene, and tables surmounting their heades, wherein were written their names and titles. From their seat also proceeded upwardes braunche directed to the and uppermost stage or degree, wherein lykewyse was planted a seate Royall, in the which was sette representing the Queenes most excellent Majestie Elizabeth, nowe our most dradde Soveraigne Ladie, crowned and apparalled as thother Prynces were. Out of the foreparte of this Pageaunt was made a standing for a chylde, which at the Quenes Majesties coming, declared unto her the hole meaning of the said Pageaunt. The sides of the same were filled with loude noyses of musicke. And all emptie places thereof were furnished with sentences concerning unitie. And the hole Pageant garnished with Redde Roses and White, and in the forefront of the same Pageant, in a faire Wreathe, was written the name and title of the same, which was

The uniting of the


Howses of Lancastre and Yorke.

Thys Pageant was grounded upon the Quenes Majesties name. For like as the long warre betwene the Houses of Yorke and Lancastre then ended, when Elizabeth, daughter to Edward the matched in marriage with Henry the Seventhe, heyre to the Howse of Lancastre; so since that the Quenes Majesties name was Elizabeth, and forsomuch as she is the onelye heire of Henrye the , which came of bothe the houses, as the knitting up of concorde, it was devised, that like as Elizabeth was the occasion of concorde, so she, another Elizabeth, myght maintain the same among her subjects, so that unitie was the ende whereat the whole devise shotte, as the Quenes Majesties names moved the ground. Thys Pageant nowe agaynste the Quenes Majesties comming was addressed with children representing the forenamed personages, with all furniture dewe unto the setting forth of such a matter well ment, as the argument declared, costly and sumptuouslye set forth as the beholder can beare witness. Now the Quenes Majestie drewe near unto the sayde Pageant, and forsomuche as the noyse was great by reason of the prease of people, so that she could scarce heare the child which did interpreted the said Pageant, and her chariot was passed so farre forward that she could not well view the personages representing the Kynges and Quenes abovenamed; she required to have the matter opened unto her, and what they signified, with the ende of unitie, and ground of her name, according as is before expressed. For the sight whereof, her Grace caused her chariot to be removed back, and yet hardly could she see, because the children were set somewhat with the farthest in.

But after that her Grace had understode the meaning thereof, she thanked the Citie, praysed the fairenes of the work, and


promised that she would doe her whole endevour for the continually preservation of concorde, as the Pageant did emport.

The child appointed in the standing abovenamed to open the meaning of the said Pageant, spake these words unto her Grace:

The two Princes that sit under one cloth of state, The Man in the Redde Rose, the Woman in the White, Henry the VII. and Quene Elizabeth his Mate, By ring of marriage as Man and Wife unite. Both heires to both their bloodes, to Lancastre the Kyng, The Queene to Yorke, in one the two Howses did knit; Of whom as heire to both, Henry the Eighth did spring, In whose seat, his true heire, thou Quene Elisabeth doth sit. Therefore as civil warre, and fuede of blood did cease When these two Houses were united into one, So now that jarrs shall stint, and quietnes encrease, We trust, O noble Quene, thou wilt be cause alone.

The which also were written in Latin verses, and both drawn in tables upon the forefront of the side Pageant, as hereafter followeth:

Hi quos jungit idem solium, quos annulus idem; Haec albente nitens, ille rubente rosa. Septimus Henricus Rex, Regina Elizabetha, Scilicet haeredes gentis uterque suae. Haec Eboracensis, Lancastrius ille dederunt Connubio e geminis quo foret una domus. Excipit hoc haeres Henricus copula regum Octavus, magni Regis imago potens. Regibus hinc succedis avis Regique Parenti Patris justa haeres Elizabetha tui.

Sentences placed therein concerning unitie.

Nullae concordes animos vires domant. Qui juncti terrent, dejuncti timent. Discordes animi solvunt, concordes ligant. Augentur parva pace, magna bello cadunt. Conjunctae manus fortius tollunt onus. Regno pro moenibus aeneis civium concordia. Qui diu pugnant diutius lugent. Dissidentes principes subditorum lues. Princeps ad pacem natus non ad arma datur. Filia concordiae copia, neptis quies. Dissentiens respublica hostibus patet. Qui idem tenent, diutius tenent. Regnum divisum facile dissolvitur. Civitas concors armis frustra tentatur. Omnium gentium consensus firmat fidem, &c.

These verses, and other pretie sentences, were drawen in voide places of thys Pageant, all tending to ende, that quietnes


might be mainteyned, and all dissention displaced, and that by the Quenes Majestie, heire to agreement, and agreeing in name with her, which tofore had joyned those Houses, which had ben thoccasion of much debate and civille warren within thys Realme, as may appeared to such as will search Cronicles, but be not to be touched in thys treatise, only declaring her Graces passage through the Citie, and what provision the Citie made therefore. And ere the Quenes Majestie came wythin hearing of thys Pageaunt, she sent certain, as also at all the other Pageauntes, to require the People to be silent. For her Majestie was disposed to heare all that should be sayde unto her.

When the Quenes Majestie had heard the chyldes oration, and understood the meanyng of the Pageant at large, she marched forward toward Cornehill, always received with lyke rejoysing of the People; and there, as her Grace passed by the Conduit, which wes curiously trymmed against that tyme with riche banners adourned, and a noyse of loude instruments upon the top thereof, she espyed the Pageant; and because she feared for the Peoples noyse, that she should not heare the child which dyd expounde the same, she enquired what that Pageant was ere that she came to it: and there understood, that there was a chylde representing her Majesties person, placed in a seate of Governement, supported by certayne vertues, which suppressed their contrarie vyces under their feete, and so forthe, as in the description of the sayd Pageant shall hereafter appear.

This Pageant standynge in the nether ende of Cornehill, was extended from thone syde of the streate to the other, and in the same Pageant was devysed gates, all open; and over the middle parte thereof was erected chayre, or seate Royal, with clothe of estate to the same apperteynyng, wherein was placed a chylde representing the Quenes Highnesse, with consideration had for place convenient for a table, which conteyned her name and tytle. And in a comely wreathe, artificiallie and well devised, with perfite light and understanding to the People, in the front of the same Pageant was written the name and title thereof; which is,

The Seate of worthie Governance,

whych seat was made in such artificial maner, as to the appearance of the lookers on, the forparte semed to have no staye, and therefore of force was stayed by lively personages, which personages, were in numbre , standing and staeing the forefront of the same seate Royall, eche having his face to the Quene and People, whereof every had a table to express their effects, which are Vertues; namely, Pure Religion, Love of Subjects, Wisdom, and Justice: which did trade their contrarie vices under their feete; that is to witte, Pure Religion did trade upon Superstition and Ignoraunce; Love of Subjectes did trade upon Rebellion and Insolencie; Wisdome did treade upon Follie and Vaine Glorie; Justice did trade upon Adulacion and Bribery. Eche of these personages, according to


their proper names and properties, had not only their names in plaine and perfit writing set upon their breasts easely to be read of all, but also every of them was aptly and properly apparelled, so that hys apparel and name did agre to express the same person that in title he represented. This part of the Pageant was thus appointed and furnished. The sydes over the side portes had in them placed a noyse of instruments, whyche immediatelye after the chyldes speache gave an heavenlye melodies. Upon the top or uppermost part of the said Pageant stode the Armes of England, totally portratured with the proper beastes to upholde the same. representing the Quenes Highnes sate in this seate, crowned with an Imperial Crowne; and before her seat was a convenient place appointed for child, which did interpret and applye the said Pageant as herafter shall be declared. Everye voyde place was furnished with proper sentences, commendyng the seate supported by Vertues, and defacing the Vices, to the utter extirpation of Rebellion, and to everlasting continuaunce of quyetnes and peace. The Quenes Majestie approaching nyghe unto thys Pageaunt, thus beawtifyed and furnyshed in all poyntes, caused her chariot to bee drawen nyghe thereunto, that her Grace might heare the chyldes oration, which was this:

Whyle that Religion true shall Ignorance suppresse, And, with her weightye foote, break Superstition's head; Whyle Love of Subjectes shall Rebellion distress, And, with zeale to the Prince, Insolency down treade: While Justice can Flattering Tonges and Bribery deface, While Follie and Vaynglorie to Wisdome yeld their hands: So long shal Government not swerve from her right race, But Wrong decayeth still, and Rightwisenes up stands. Now all thy Subjectes hertes, O Prince of pereles fame, Do trust these Vertues shall maintain up thy throne,. And Vyce be kept down still, the wicked put to shame, That good with good may joy, and naught with naught may move.

Which verses were painted upon the right syde of the same Pageant, and the Latin thereof on the left side, in another table, which were these:

Quae subnixa alte solio regina superbo est, Effigiem sanctae principis alma refert, Quam civilis amor fulcit, sapientia firmat, Justicia illustrat, relligioque beat. Vana superstitio et crassae ignorantia frontis Pressae sub pura relligione jacent. Regis amor domat effraenos, animosque rebelles; Justus adulantes donivorosque terit. Cum regit imperium sapiens, sine luce sedebunt Stultitia, atque hujus numen inanis honor.



Beside these verses, there were placed in every voide rome of the Pageant, both in Englishe and Latin, such sentences as advaunced the senate of governance upholden by Vertue. The ground of thys Pageaunt was, that like as by Vertues (whych doe abundantly appere in her Grace) the Quenes Majestie was established in the seate of Governement; so she should sette fast in the same so long as she embraced Vertue and helde Vice under foote. For if Vice once gotte up the head, it would put the seate of Government in peryll of falling.

The Quenes Majestie, when she had heard the child, and understode the Pageant at full, gave the Citie also thanks there, and most graciouslie promised her good endeavour for the maintenance of the sayde Vertues, and suppression of Vyces; and so marched on till she came against the Great Conduite in Cheape, which was bewtified with pictures and sentences accordinglye against her Graces coming whether.

Against Soper-lanes ende was extended from thone side of the streate to thother a Pageant, which had gates, all open. Over the middlemost whereof wer erected several stages, whereon sate children, as hereafter followeth: On the uppermost child, on the middle , on the lowest , eche having the proper name of the blessing that they did represent written in a table, and placed above their heades. In the forefront of this Pageant, before the children which did represent the blessings, was a convenient standing, cast out for a chylde to stand, which did expownd the sayd Pageant unto the Quenes Majestie, as was done in thother tofore. Everie of these children wer appointed and apparelled according unto the blessing which he did represent. And on the foreparte of the sayde Pageant was written, in fayre letters, the name of the said Pageant, in this maner folowing:



Beatitudes expressed in the v chapter of the gospel of St Matthew applyed to our Soveraigne Lady Quene Elizabeth.

Over the syde portes was placed a noyse of instruments. And all voyde places in the Pageant were furnished with pretty sayinges, commending and touching the meaning of the said Pageant, which was the promises and blessinges of Almightie God made to his People. Before that the Quenes Highnes came unto this Pageant, she required the matter somewhat to be opened unto her, that her Grace might the better understand what should afterward by the child be sayd unto her. Which so was, that the Citie had there erected the Pageant with children, representing theyght blessings touched in the chapter of St. Mathew. Whereof every , upon just considerations, was applyed unto her Highnes; and that the People thereby put her Grace in mind, that as her good doinges before had even just occasion why that these blessinges might fall upon her; that so, if her Grace did continue in her goodnes as she had entered, she should hope for the


fruit of these promises due unto them that doe exercise themselves in the blessings; which her Grace heard merveilous graciously, and required that the chariot myght be removed towardes the Pageaunt, that she might perceyve the chyldes woordes, which were these; the Quenes Majestie geving most attentive care, and requiring that the Peoples noyse might be stayde:

Thou hast been viii times blest, O Quene of worthy fame, By mekenes of thy spirit, when care did thee besette, By mourning in thy griefe, by mildnes in thy blame, By hunger and by thyrst, and justice couldst none gette. By mercy shewed, not felt, by cleanes of thyne harte, By seeking peace always, by persecution wrong. Therefore trust thou in God, since he hath helpt thy smart, That as his promise is, so he will make thee strong.

When these woordes were spoken, all the People wished, that as the child had spoken, so God would strengthen her Grace against all her adversaries: whom the Quenes Majestie did most gently thanke for their so loving wishe. These verses wer painted on the left syde of the said Pageant; and other in Latin on thother syde, which wer these:

Qui lugent hilares fient, qui mitia gestant Pectora, multa soli ingera culta metent. Justitiam esuriens sitiensve replebitur, ipsum Fas homini puro corde videre Deum, Quem alterius miseret, Dominus miserebitur hujus; Pacificus quisquis, filius ille Dei est. Propter justitiam quisquis patietur habetque Demissam mentem, coelica regna capit. Huic hominum generi terram, mare, sidera vovit Omnipotens, horum quisque beatus erit.

Besides these, every voide place in the Pageant was furnished with sentences touching the matter and ground of the said Pageant. When all that was to be said in this Pageant was ended, the Quenes Majestie passed on forward in Chepesyde.

At the Standarde in Cheape, which was dressed fayre agaynste the tyme, was placed a noyse of trumpettes, with banners and other furniture. The Crosse lykewyse was also made fayre and well trimmed. And neare unto the same, uppon the porche of Saint Peter's church dore, stode the waites of the Citie, which did geve a pleasant noyse with their instruments as the Quenes Majestie did passe by, which on every syde cast her countenaunce, and wished well to all her most loving People. Soon after that her Grace passed the Crosse, she had espyed the Pageant erected at the Little Conduit in Cheape, and incontinent required to know what it might signifye. And it was tolde her Grace that there was placed Tyme.


quoth she,

and Tyme hath brought me hether.

And so the hole matter was opened to her Grace; as hereafter shalbe declared in the description of the Pageaunt. But in the opening, when her Grace understode that the


Byble in Englyse should be delivered unto her by Trueth, which was therin represented by a chylde; she thanked the Citie for that gyft, and sayde that she would oftentymes reade over that booke, commanding Sir John Parrat, of the Knightes which helde up her canapy, to goe before, and to receive the booke. But learning that it should be delivered unto her Grace down by a silken lace, she caused him to stayed, and so passed forward till she came agaynste the Aldermen in the hyghe ende of Cheape tofore the Little Conduite, where the companies of the Citie ended, which beganne at Fanchurche, and stoode along the streates, by another, enclosed with rayles, hanged with clothes, and themselves well apparelled with many riche furres, and their livery whodes uppon their shoulders, in comely and semely maner, having before them sondry persons well apparelled in silkes and chaines of gold, as wyflers and garders of the sayde companies, beside a number of riche hanginges, as well of tapistrie, arras, clothes of golde, silver, velvet, damaske, sattin, and other silkes, plentifullye hanged all the way as the Quenes Highnes passed from the Towre through the Citie. Out at the windows and pent-houses of every house did hang a number of ryche and costly banners and streamers, tyll her Grace came to the upper ende of Cheape. And there, by appointment, the Right Worshipfull Maister Ranulph Cholmeley, Recorder of the Citie, presented to the Quenes Majestie a purse of crimeson sattin richely wrought with gold, wherin the Citie gave unto the Quenes Majestie a in gold, as master Recorder did declare brieifle unto the Quenes Majestie; whose woordes tended to this ende, that the Lorde Maior, his brethren, and Comminaltie of the Citie, to declare their gladnes and good will towardes the Quenes Majestic, dyd present her Grace with that golde, desyering her Grace to continue they good and gracious Quene, and not to esteme the value of the gift, but the mynd of the gevers. The Quenes Majestie, with both her hands, tooke the purse, and answered to hym again merveylous pithilie; and so pithilie, that the standers by, as they embraced entirely her gracious answer, so they merveiled at the coaching thereof; which was in words truly reported these :

I thank my Lord Maior, his Brethren, and you all. And wheras your request is that I should continue your good Ladie and Quene, be ye ensured, that I will be as good unto you as ever Quene was to her People. No will in me can lacke, neither doe I trust shall their lacke any power. And persuade your selves, that for the safetie and quietnes of you all, I will not spare, if need be, to spend my blood. God thanke you all.

Whiche aunswere of so noble an hearted Pryncesse, if it moved a mervaylous showte and rejoysing, it is nothing to be mervayled at, since both the heartines thereof was so wonderfull, and the woordes so joyntly knytte. When her Grace hadde thus answered the Recorder, she marched toward the Little Conduit, where was erected a Pageaunt with square proportion, standing directly before the


same Conduite, with battlementes accordyngelye. And in the same Pageaunt was advanced hylles or mountaynes of convenient heyghte. The of them beyng on the North syde of the same Pageaunt, was made cragged, barreyn, and stonye: in the which was erected tree, artificially made, all withered and deadde, with branches accordingly. And under the same tree, at the foote thereof, sate in home and rude apparel, crokedlye, and in mournyng maner, havynge over hys headde, in a table, written in Laten and Englyshe, hys name, which was,

Ruinosa Respublica


A decayed Commonweale.

And uppon the same withered tree were fixed certayne tables, wherein were written proper sentences, expressing the causes of the decaye of a Common weale. The other hylle, on the South syde, was made fayre, fresh, grene, and beawtifull, the ground thereof full of flowers and beawtie; and on the same was erected also tree very fresh and fayre, under the which stoode uprighte fresh personage, well apparaylled and appointed, whose name also was written bothe in Englyshe and Laten, which was,

Respublica bene institute


A florishyng Commonweale.

And uppon the same tree also were fixed certayne tables, conteyning sentences which expressed the causes of a flourishing Common weale. In the middle, between the sayde hylles, was made artificiallye hollowe place or cave, with doore and locke enclosed; oute of the which, a little before the Quenes Hyghnes commynge thither, issued personage, whose name was Tyme, apparaylled as an olde man, with a sythe in his handed, havynge wynges artificially made, leading a personage of lesser stature then himself, which was fynely and well apparaylled, all cladde in whyte silke, and directly over her head was set her name and tytle, in Latin and Englyshe,

Temporis filia


The Daughter of Tyme.

Which so appointed, went forward toward the South syde of the Pageant. And on her brest was written her propre name, which was



Trueth, who helde a booke in her hande, upon the which was written,

Verbum Veritatis


the Woorde of Trueth. And out of the South syde of the Pageaunt was cast a standynge for a child, which should enterprete the same Pageant. Against whom when the Quenes Majestie came, he spake unto her Grace these woordes:

This olde man with the sythe, olde Father Tyme they call, And her his daughter Truth, which holdeth yonder boke; Whom he out of his rocke hath brought forth to us all, From whence for many yeres she durst not once out loke. The ruthful wight that sitteth under the barren tree, Resembleth to us the fourme, when Common weales decay; But when they be in state tryumphant, you may see By him in fresh attyre that sitteth under the baye. Now since that Time again his daughter Truth hath brought, We trust, O worthy Quene, thou wilt this Truth embrace; And since thou understands the good estate and nought, We trust wealth thou wilt plant, and barrennes displace. But for to heale the sore, and cure that is not seene, Which thing the boke of Truth doth teacher in writing plan: She doth present to thee the same, O worthy Quene, For that, that words do flye, but wryting doth remayn.

When the child had thus ended his speache, he reached his booke towardes the Quenes Majestie, which a little before, Trueth had let down unto him from the hill; which by Sir John Parratt was received, and delivered unto the Quene. But she, as soone as she had received the booke, kissed it, and with both her hands held up the same, and so laid it upon her brest, with great thanks to the Citie therefore. And so went forward towardes Paules Churchyarde. The former which was rehersed unto the Quenes Majestie was written in tables, on either side the Pageant verses, and in the middest these Latin:

Ille, vides, falcem laeva qui sustinet uncam, Tempus is est, cui stat filia vera comes; Hanc pater exesa deductam rupe reponit In lucem, quam non viderat ante diu. Qui sedet a laeva cultu male tristis inepto, Quem duris crescens cautibus orbis obit Nos monet effigie, qua sit respublica quando Corruit, at contra quando beata veget. Ille docet juvenis forma spectandus amictu Scitus, et aeterna laurea fronde virens.

The sentences written in Latin and Englishe upon both the trees, declaring the causes of both estates, were these:

Causes of a ruinous Commonweale are these:
Want of the feare of God.Civill disagreement.
Disobedience to RulersFlattering of Princes.
Blindnes of Guides.Unmercifulnes in Rulers.
Briberie in Majestrats.Unthankfulnes in Subjects
Rebellion in Subjectes. 
Causes of a flourishing Commonweale.
Feare of GodObedient Subjectes.
A wise Prince.Lovers of the Commonweale.
Learned Rulers.Vertue rewarded.
Obedience to Officers.Vice chastened.

The matter of this Pageant dependeth of them that went before. For as the declared her Grace to come out of the house of unitie, the that she is placed in the seat of Government, staied with Vertue, to the suppression of Vice; and therefore in the the blessings of Almighty God might well be applyed unto her: so this now is to put her Grace in remembrance of the state of the Commonweale, which Time, with Truth his daughter, doth revele, which Truth also her Grace hath received, and therefore cannot but be mercifull and careful for the good government thereof. From thence the Quenes Majestie passed toward Paules


Churchyard; and when she came over against Paules Scole, a child appointed by the scolemaster thereof pronounced a certain oration in Latin, and certein verses, which also wer there written, as foloweth:

Philosophus ille divinus Plato, inter multa praeclare ac sapienter dicta, hoc posteris proditum reliquit, rempublicam illam felicissimam fore, cui princeps sophiae studiosa, virtutibusque ornata contigerit. Quem si vere dixisse censeamus (ut quidem verissime) cur non terra Britannica plauderet? cur non populus gaudium atque laetitiam agitaret? immo, cur non hunc diem, albo (quod aiunt) lapillo notaret? quo princeps talis nobis adest, qualem priores non viderunt, qualemque posteritas haud facile cernere poterit, dotibus quum animi, tum corporis undique felicissima. Casti quidem corporis dotes ita apertae sunt, ut oratione non egeant. Animi vero tot tantaeque, ut ne verbis quidem exprimi possint. Haec nempe, regibus summis orta, morum atque animi nobilitate genus exuperat. Hujus pectus Christi religionis amore flagrat. Haec gentem Britannicam virtutibus illustrabit, clipeoque justitiae teget. Haec literis Graecis et Latinis eximia, ingenioque praepollens est. Hac imperante, pietas vigebit, Anglia florebit, aurea secula redibunt. Vos igitur Angli, tot commoda accepturi, Elizabetham Reginam nostram celeberrimam, ab ipso Christo hujus regni imperio destinatam, honore debito prosequimini. Hujus imperiis animo libentissimo subditi estote, vosque tali principe dignos praebete. Et quoniam pueri non viribus sed precibus officium prestare possunt, nos alumni hujus scholae, ab ipso Coleto olim Templi Paulini Decano extructae, teneras palmas ad caelum tendentes Christum Opt. Max. precaturi sumus ut tuam celsitudinem annos Nestoreos summo cum honore Anglis imperitare faciat, matremque pignoribus charis beatam reddat. Amen.

Anglia nunc tandem plaudas, laetare, resulta, Presto jam vita est, praesidiumque tibi. En tua spes venit, tua gloria, lux, decus omne; Venit jam solidam quae tibi prestat opem. Succurretque tuis rebus quae pessum abiere: Perdita quae fuerant haec reparare volet: Omnia florebunt, redeunt nunc aurea secla; In melius surgent quae cecidere bona. Debes ergo illi totam te reddere fidam, Cujus in accessu commoda tot capies. Salve igitur dicas, imo de pectore summo, Elizabeth regni non dubitanda salus. Virgo venit, veniatque optes comitata deinceps, Pignoribus charis, laeta parents veniat, Hoc Deus omnipotens ex alto donet Olympo, Qui coelum et terram condidit atque regit.

Which the Quenes Majestie most attentively harkened unto: and when the child had pronounced, he did kisse the oration, which he had there faire written in paper, and delivered it unto the Quenes Majestie, which most gently received the same. And when the


Quenes Majestie had heard all that was there offered to be spoken, then her Grace marched toward Ludgate, where she was received with a noyse of instruments, the forefront of the gate being finelie trimmed up against her Majesties coming. From thence by the way as she went down toward Fletebridge, about her Grace noted the Cities charge, that there was no cost spared : Her Grace answered, that she did well consider the same, and that it should be remembered. An honorable aunswere, worthie a noble Prince, which may comfort all her subjects, considering there can be no point of gentlenes or obedient love shewed toward her Grace, whych she doth not most tenderlie accepted, and graciously waye. In this maner, the people on either side rejoysing, her Grace wente forward, toward the Conduite in Fleete-street, where was the fifte and last Pageaunt erected, in forme following: From the Conduite, which was bewtified with painting, unto the North side of the strete, was erected a stage, embattelled with towres, and in the same a square platte rising with degrees, and uppon the uppermost degree was placed a chair, or seate royall, and behynde the same seate, in curious and artificial manner, was erected a tree of reasonable height, and so farre advanced above the seate as it did well and semelye shadow the same, without endomaging the syght of any part of the pageant: and the same tree was bewtified with leaves as greene as arte could devise, being of a convenient greatness, and containing therupon the fruite of the date, and on the toppe of the same tree, in a table, was set the name thereof, which was

A palme tree;

and in the aforesaide seat, or chaire, was placed a semelie and mete personage, richlie apparelled in Parliament robes, with a sceptre in her hand, as a Quene, crowned with an open crowne, whose name and title was in a table fixed over her head, in this sort;

Debora the judge and restorer of the house of Israel, Judic. iv.

And the other degrees, on either side, were furnished with vi personages; representing the Nobilitie, the Clergie, and the Comminaltye. And before these personages was written, in a table,

Debora, with her estates, consulting for the good Governement of Israel.

At the feete of these, and the lowest part of the Pageant, was ordeined a convenient rome for a child to open the meaning of the Pageant. When the Quenes Majestie drew unto this Pageant, and perceived, as in the other, the child readie to speaker, her Grace required silence, and commanded her chariot to be removed nigher, that she myght plainlie heare the child speaker, whych said as hereafter foloweth:

Jaben of Canaan King had long, by force of armes, Opprest the Israelites, which for God's People went: But God minding at last for to redress their harmes, The worthy Debora as judge among them sent. In war she, through God's aide, did put her foes to fright, And with the dint of sworde the hande of bondage brast. In peace she, through God's aide, did always mainteine right; And judged Israell till fourty yeres were past. A worthie President, O worthie Quene, thou hast, A worthie woman judge, a woman sent for staie. And that the like to us endure always thou maist, Thy loving subjects will with true hearts and tonges praie.

Which verses were written upon the Pageant; and the same in Latin also:

Quando Dei populum Canaan rex pressit Iaben, Mittitur a magno Debora magna Deo; Quae populum eriperit, sanctum servaret Iudan, Milite quae patrio frangeret hostis opes. Haec, Domino mandante, Deo lectissima fecit Foemina, et adversos contudit ense viros. Haec quater denos populum correxerat annos Judicio, bello strenua, pace gravis. Sic. O sic populum belloque et pace guberna, Debora sis Anglis Elizabetha tuis!

The voide places of the Pageant were filled with pretie sentences concerning the same matter. Thys ground of this last Pageant was, that forsomuch as the next Pageant before had set before her Graces eyes the florishing and desolate states of a Commonweale, she might by this be put in remembrance to consult for the worthy Government of her People; considering God oftimes sent women nobly to rule among men; as Debora, whych governed Israell in peas the space of xl years: and that it behoved both men and women so ruling to use advise of good counsel. When the Quenes Majestie had passed this Pageant, she marched toward Templebarre; but at St. Dunstones church, where the children of thospitall wer appointed to stand with their governors, her Grace perceiving a child offered to make an oration unto her, stayed her chariot, and did caste up her eyes to heaven, as who should saye,

I here see thys mercifully work toward the poore whom I muste in the middest of my royaltie nedes remembre!

and so turned her face toward the child, which, in Latin, pronounced an oracion to this effect:

That after the Quenes Hyghnes had passed through the Citie, and had sene so sumptuous, rich, and notable spectacles of the Citizens, which declared their most heartie receiving and joyous welcomming of her Grace into the same: thys


spectacle yet rested and remained, which was the everlasting spectacle of mercy unto the poore membres of Almighty God, furthered by that famous and most noble Prince King Henry the


, her gracious Father, erected by the Citie of London, and advanced by the most godly, verteous, and gracious Prince Kyng Edwarde the VI. her Grace's dere and loving Brother, doubting nothing of the mercy of the Quenes most gracious clemencie, by the which they may not only be relieved and helped, but also stayed and defended; and therefore incessauntly they would pray and crie unto Almighty God for the long life and raigne of her Highnes, with most prosperous victory against her enemies.



The child, after he had ended his oracion, kissed the paper wherein the same was written, and reached it to the Quenes Majestie, whych received it graciously both with woordes and countenance, declaring her gracious mynde toward theyr relief. From thence her Grace came to Temple Barre, which was dressed fynelye with the ymages of Gotmagot the Albione, and Corineus the Briton gyantes bigger in stature, furnished accordingly; which held in their hands, even above the gate, a table, wherein was written, in Latin verses, theffect of all the Pageantes which the Citie before had erected, which verses wer these:

Ecce sub aspectu jam contemplaberis uno, O princeps, populi sola columna tui. Quicquid in immense passim perspexeris urbe, Quae cepere omnes unus hic arcus habet. Primus te solio regni donavit aviti. Haeres quippe tui vera parentis eras. Suppressis vitiis, domina virtute secundus Firmavit sedem, regia virgo, tuam. Tertius ex omni posuit te parte beatam, Si, qua coepisti pergere velle, velis. Quarto quid verum, respublica lapsa quid esset, Quae florens staret, te docuere tui. Quinto magna loco monuit te Debora, missam Coelitus in regni gaudia longa tui. Perge ergo, regina, tuae spes unica gentis, Haec postrema urbis suscipe vota tuae. Vive diu, regnaque diu, virtutibus orna Rem patriam, et populi spem tueare tui. Sic, o sic petitur coelum, sic itur in astra, Hoc virtutis opus, caetera mortis erunt.

Which versis wer also written in Englishe meter, in a table, as hereafter foloweth:

Behold here in one view thou may'st see all that plane, O Princess, to this thy people the only stay: What echewhere thou hast seen in this wide town, again This one arche whatsoever the rest contend doth say. The first arche, as true heyre unto thy father dere, Did set thee in the throne where thy grandfather satte: The second did confirm thy senate at Princesse here, Vertues now bearing swaye, and Vyces bet down flatte. The third, if that thou wouldst goe on as thou began, Declared thee to be blessed on every syde, The fourth did open Trueth, and also taught thee whan The Commonweale stoode well, and when it did thence slide. The fifth, as Debora, declared thee to be sent From Heaven, a long comfort to us thy subjects all: Therefore goe on, O Quene, on whom our hope is bent, And take with thee this wishe of thy town as finally: Live long, and as long raygne, adourning thy countries With Vertues, and mayntayne thy peoples hope of thee; For thus, thus Heaven is won; thus must you pearce the skye, This is by Vertue wrought, all other must nedes dye.

On the was appointed by the Citie a noyse of singing children; and child richely attyred as a poet, which gave the Quenes Majestie her farewell, in the name of the hole Citie, by these words:

As at thyne entrance first, O Prince of high renown, Thou wast presented with tonges and hearts for thy fayee; So now, sith thou must nedes depart out of this towne, This citie sendeth thee firm hope and earnest prayer. For all men hope in thee, that all vertues shall reygne, For all men hope that thou none errour wilt support, For all men hope that thou wilt trueth restore agayne, And mend that is amisse, to all good mennes comfort. And for this hope they pray, thou mayst continue long, Our Quene amongst us here, all vyce for to supplant: And for this hope they pray, that God may make thee strong, As by his grace puissant, so in his trueth constant. Farewell, O worthy Quene, and as our hope is sure, That into Errour's place thou wilt now Truth restore; So trust we that thou wilt our Soveraigne Quene endure, And loving lady stand from henceforth evermore.

Whyle these woordes were in saying, and certeine wishes therein repeated for maintenance of Trueth, and rooting out of Errour, she now and then helde up her hands to heavenwarde, and willed the people to say, Amen.

When the child had ended, she said,

Be ye well assured I will stand your good Quene.

At which saying, her Grace departed forth through Temple Barre toward , with no lesse shoutyng and crying of the People, then she entered the Citie, with a noyse of ordinance which the Towre shot of at her Graces entrance into Towrestreate.

The childes saying was also in Latin verses, written in a table, which was hanged up there:

O Regina potens, cum primam urbem ingredereris, Dona tibi, linguas, fidaque corda dedit. Discedenti etiam tibi nunc duo munera mittit; Omina plena spei, votaque plena precum. Quippe tuis spes est, in te quod provida virtus Rexerit, errori nec locus ullus erit. Quippe tuis spes est, quod tu verum omne reduces Solatura bonas, dum mala tollis, opes. Hac spe freti orant, longum ut, Regina, gubernes, Et regni excindas crimina cuncta tui. Hac spe freti orant, divina ut gratia fortem, Et verae fidei te velit esse basin. Jam, Regina, vale, et sicut nos spes tenet una, Quod, vero inducto, perditus error erit. Sic quoque speramus quod eris Regina benigna Nobis per Regni tempora long tui.



Thus the Quenes Hyghnesse passed through the Citie, which, without any forreyne person, of itself beawtifyed itself, and receyved her Grace at all places, as hath been before mentioned, with most tender obedience and love, due to so gracious a Quene and Soveraigne Ladie. And her Grace lykewise of her side, in all her Graces passage, showed herself generally an ymage of a woorthye Ladie and Governour; but privately these especially poyntes wer noted in her Grace as sygnes of a most princelyke courage, whereby her loving subjects maye ground a sure hope for the rest of her gracious doinges hereafter.


[] Holins. Chron. Engl.

[] Another edition of this Tract, in the Bodleian Library, has this title:--The Royal Passage of her Majesty from the Tower of London to her Palace of Whitehall, with all the Speaches and Devices, both of the Pageants and otherwise, together with her Majesties several Answers, and most pleasing Speaches to them all. Imprinted at London by S. S. for Jone Millington, and are to be sold at her Shop under S. Peter's Church, in Corne-hill, 1604. --Nichols' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth.

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 Title Page
 Chapter I: History of London and its environs, from the earliest period of authentic record to the defeat of the Britons by Suetonius
Chapter II: Historical account of Roman London, with notices of remains discovered.
 Chapter III: History of London from the departure of the Romans till the time of the Conquest
 Chapter IV: History of London from the Conquest to the reign of Henry the Third
 Chapter V: History of London from the reign of Henry the Third to the reign of Edward the Second
 Chapter VI: History of London from the reign of Edward the Second to the reign of Richard the Second
 Chapter VII: History of London from the reign of Henry the Fourth to the reign of Edward the Fourth
 Chapter VIII: History of London from the reign of Edward the Fourth to the reign of Henry the Eighth
 Chapter IX: History of London during the reign of Henry the Eighth
 Chapter X: History of London from the reign of Edward the Sixth to the accession of Elizabeth
Chapter XI: History of London, during the reign of Elizabeth.
 Chapter XII: History of London during the reign of James the First
Chapter XIII: History of London during the Reign of Charles the First
 Chapter XIV: History of London during the Commonwealth and the reign of Charles the Second
 Chapter XV: History of London during the reign of James the Second