History of London from the reign of Edward the Sixth, to the accession of Elizabeth
Edward VI. who succeeded to the crown by the demise of his father, was only in the year of his age at his accession to the dominion of England: it was therefore necessary to choose a protector, who might exercise the regal power during his minority, to which high station the Earl of Hertford, the king's maternal uncle, was chosen, and soon after created Duke of Somerset.
On the , the Lord Protector commenced the exercise of his high office, by knighting the young king in the presence of the Lord Mayor, and many other lords and gentlemen; immediately after which, the king, standing under his canopy of state, took the sword from the Lord Protector, and conferred the honour of knighthood on Henry Hoblethorn, the Lord Mayor; which was the act of sovereignty done by him.
In this year, according to Howell, in his Londinopolis, the price of Malmsey wine, the only sweet wine then imported, and that by the Lombards alone, was but halfpence the pint: for which he quotes the churchwarden's accounts of St. Andrew , from which it appears that they had
From the accession of Edward, the Reformation, which, in his father's life-time, was a monstrous medley of Protestantism and Catholicism, proceeded with calm and steady steps. In the Easter
|week of this year, the church service began to be read in English, in the king's chapel; and in September, commissioners were assembled in to reform the superstitions of the old worship, among which the adoration of images held a prominent place. These were ordered to be taken out of the churches, which order was carried into effect in London, in November, by pulling down the rood in , with all the pictures and statues of saints in the different churches, and supplying their places with texts of scripture calculated to show the fallacy of image-worship. In addition to this, the parliament passed an act for permitting the laity to receive the sacrament in both kinds; the statutes against the Lollards and heresies were repealed; private masses were abolished; and bishops were to be elected by letters patent from the king, and to hold their courts in his name.|
The combinations and conspiracies which were daily concerted by the journeymen and labourers, being found very detrimental to trade, the parliament, among other things enacted,
In this act are included butchers, bakers, brewers, poulterers, cooks, &c. And all justices of the peace, mayors, bailiffs, &c. in their sessions, leets, and courts, have full power and authority to inquire, hear, and determine, all and singular offences against this statute, and to cause offenders to be punished.
In the year , the march of the city watch was revived by Sir John Gresham, the mayor. The procession received an additional splendor from light horsemen, which had been raised by the citizens to reinforce the king's army in Scotland.
On day, Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, a zealous Catholic, preached before the king, at . He had been warned not to speak of controversial subjects, and the answer he gave was moderate and satisfactory. But when in the pulpit, he forgot his promises. and warmly supported the real presence in the sacrament. The effect of this ill-judged conduct was grossly indecent. Each party, although in the church, and before the king, cried out aloud, and with vehemence to support or to insult the preacher; and, on his leaving the pulpit, the orator was taken to prison.
London was again visited by the plague, in the month of July of this year, which carried off a great number of its inhabitants.
From Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, we learn, that, in this year, wheat sold at per quarter; barley, malt, and rye, at ; and pease and beans, at . And, by an act of parliament for regulating the purveyors of the king's household, the rate of post-horses is fixed at penny per mile.
In the year , at the instigation of Archbishop Cranmer, encouragement was given to persecuted foreign Protestants, to come over and settle in England, where they were allowed the free exercise of their religion; and, in return, enriched the nation by the manufactures they brought with them. They settled principally in London, , Canterbury, and other great towns in that part of the country.
The Protector (the Duke of Somerset) having been guilty of some acts of imprudence, his enemies took the advantage of it, and several of the members of the council entered into a cabal against his person. They met at Ely-house, and taking the whole authority into their own hands, acted independent of him. They sent injunctions to the magistrates of London, and the lieutenant of the Tower to obey no orders from the Protector, but to keep the city and Tower in a state of defence, and at the same time demanded a supply of men. The magistrates so far agreed with their request as to order the several companies to mount guard alternately, but would not proceed any farther without consulting the common-council: for which purpose they were summoned by the lord mayor to attend next day at .
The Protector, who was at this time with the king at , receiving advice of these proceedings, was so intimidated, that he retired with his majesty to Windsor, and began strongly to fortify the castle.
The common-council, meeting at the appointed time, a letter was produced from his majesty to the city, wherein he demanded men, completely armed, to be immediately sent to Windsor. Robert Brook, the recorder, opposed this, and, on the contrary, earnestly requested them to supply the lords with that number, as it would enable them to bring the Protector to an account, and thereby redress the grievances of the people. He was heard by the court with great attention, but was interrupted by George Stadlow, a member of the common-council, who, after a very elaborate harangue, in which he recited the bad consequences of the city's joining the barons against King Henry III. concluded thus:
This plain and honest speech had so good an effect, that the common council broke up without coming to any resolution in that affair; wherefore, the Lord Mayor and aldermen held a conference with the lords in the star-chamber, at the conclusion of which Sir Philip Hobby was dispatched with a letter of credence, wherein they most humbly implored his majesty to give credit to all the said Sir Philip should declare to him in their names: which message he delivered in a very emphatical manner; and, though in the presence of the Protector, he bitterly inveighed against his grievous proceedings, insomuch that the Protector was not only commanded instantly to withdraw, but soon after committed to Beauchamp's Tower in the castle; from whence he was brought to London, and, in a kind of triumph, rode down between the Earls of Southampton and Huntingdon, followed by noblemen and gentlemen on horseback. At Holborn-bridge, certain of the aldermen attended on horseback, and the streets through which he passed were lined with armed citizens; and at the upper end of Soper-lane (now ), in , he was received by the Lord Mayor, recorder, and sheriffs, with a numerous attendance of halberdiers, who conducted him to the .
The Earl of Warwick, who had taken the lead in depriving the Protector of his power, retained the chief management of public affairs for some time; but Somerset was at length restored to liberty, and took his place again at the council. The fine which he was to have paid for his misconduct, was also remitted by the king.
House-rents musts have been very low at this time; for, archbishop Nicholson, in his Historical Library, says,
In the year , the Thames at London-bridge was observed to ebb and flow times within hours, occasioned by a strong easterly wind repelling the ebb before it could perform its natural course.
Mary, Queen of Scotland and Dowager of France, (after the demise of the king her husband), in her return from France through England. was sumptuously entertained at the Bishop of London's palace, by the mayor and citizens for days successively; and, at her departure from hence, was attended by the prime nobility with the utmost magnificence. On which occasion, the Duke of Northumberland had in men on horseback, armed with javelins, whereof were dressed in black velvet, with velvet hats and feathers, and golden chains about their necks; and next to whom stood horsemen belonging to the Earl of Pembroke, with javelins, hats, and feathers; then
|gentlemen and yeomen belonging to the Lord Treasurer, with javelins; which bodies of horse reached from end in , to , in ; and, being attended by all the nobility from Church, she was thence conducted by the Sheriffs of London to Waltham.|
In this year a Captain Bodenham made a trading voyage to the isles of Candia and Chios, in the Levant, from whence he loaded home with wines, &c. and returned in the following year.
The parliament in Edward's reign having given all the lands and possession of colleges, chantries, &c. to the king, the different companies of London redeemed those which they had held for the payment of priests' wages, obits, and lights, at the price of and applied the rents arising from them to charitable purposes.
The butchers of London having greatly enhanced the price of meat, owing to a combination between the graziers and salesmen, the king and council, to restrain the like imposition for the future, fixed the prices of cattle sold in the different seasons, in the following manner:--
A great dearth happening the same year, the following prices of provisions were also fixed by the king and council:
In , the king, in consideration of the sum of granted various lands and tenements in and to the city of London, together with
Also the right of holding ets there weekly, a days fair, &c.
On St. Barnaby's day, the high altar at was pulled down, and a table placed where the altar stood, with a veil drawn beneath, and steps; and, on the next Sunday, a communion was sung at the same table; and, shortly after, all the altars in London were taken down, and tables placed in their rooms.
In , the sweating-sickness broke out again in London, and carried off a great number of people:
says the above chronicler,
The king being greatly distressed for money, had recourse to the bank of Anthony Fugger and company of Antwerp, of whom he borrowed a large sum of money, and as a security for the payment, the corporation of London were bound jointly with him,
|and Edward gave a recognizance to Sir Andrew Jud, the mayor to indemnify the city.|
In consequence of an act of common-council passed this year, a postern gate was made in the wall, on the north side of the dissolved cloister of the Gray Friars, now , to pass through to the hospital of St. Bartholomew.
The time was at length come that the eyes of the English nation were to be opened to the immense injury sustained by permitting the German merchants of the Steel-yard to enjoy such advantages in the duty on the exportation of English cloths, which now began to be more generally seen and felt, as the foreign commerce of England became more diffused.
In , the privy council, upon the pressing remonstrances of the English merchant-adventurers, inquired into the injuries sustained by native traders, in consequence of their immunities; and after mature consideration, determined that their privileges, liberties, and franchises, should be resumed by the king; allowing them, however, the liberty of traffic in as ample a manner as any merchant-strangers have it. The difference in the duty being per cent. instead of per cent. their ancient duty, had such an effect, that, according to Wheeler's Treatise of Commerce, our own merchants in this year shipped cloths for Flanders.
The government being apprehensive of a disturbance in the city, through the approaching trial of the Duke of Somerset, a royal precept was sent to the mayor, commanding him strictly to enjoin all the citizens to have an eye over their respective families, and likewise to cause each householder to provide a man completely armed, but not to stir abroad till called for. The mayor was also enjoined to provide a strong guard of citizens in each ward. All which being carefully performed, the peace and quiet of the city was thereby effectually preserved.
On the , the Duke was conveyed by water to Hall, where he was arraigned for treason and felony,
The Duke was beheaded on the , on , which, by
but who did not arrive till the duke was already on the scaffold,
On the in the same year,
the book of Common Prayer was used
On this occasion, Bishop Ridley preached a sermon in his rochet only,
About this time a statute was made for regulating the number of taverns and wine vaults. Its preamble states that it was enacted
By it the prices of wines are fixed thus: Gascony and Guienne wines at per gallon; Rochelle wines at ; and no other sorts of wine to be sold higher than per gallon, on forfeiture of . No taverns are to be kept for retailing of wines, unless licensed, and the number of them is not to exceed in London and in : and no wine to be drank in any of these taverns.
The citizens of London having purchased of the king the manor of , with all its appurtenances, they became possessed of a hospital dedicated to St. Thomas the Apostle; which being greatly decayed, they repaired and enlarged the same at a considerable expence, for the reception of poor, sick, and helpless objects. The king incorporated the lord mayor, commonalty, and citizens of London, governors of the hospital, together with those of Christ and .
King Edward VI. also, but a short time before his death, founded , in the Grey-friars' convent, for the relief and education of young and helpless children; and incorporated the governors by the title of
He also gave the old palace of to the city, for the lodging.
|of poor way-faring people, the correction of vagabonds and disorderly persons, and for finding them work.|
The city having appointed for the education of poor children, and St. Thomas's, in , for the maimed and diseased, the king formed these charitable foundations into a corporation; as appears by a charter granted for that purpose, wherein it is declared as follows:
On the , Edward VI. died at Greenwich, and was buried in the chapel of his grandfather, at , with great funeral pomp, and the unfeigned mourning of an affectionate people.
During his illness, his crafty adviser Northumberland had persuaded him to make a will, setting aside his sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, and leaving the crown to Lady Jane Grey, on pretence that this was necessary for the quiet of his people, and the security of their newly adopted religion. But sensible that it could not be carried into effect without the co-operation of the city of London, he concealed the king's death for some days; and on the , the Lord Mayor received an order to attend the council at Greenwich, and to bring with him aldermen, merchants of the staple, and as many merchant-adventurers, to whom, under an oath of secrecy, the death of the king was communicated, and also the choice he had made of a successor.
Accordingly, on the , Lady Jane was received into the as queen, and in the afternoon, proclamation was made through the city of the death of King Edward VI. and that he had ordained by letters patent that the Lady Jane should be heir to the crown of England.
Some preparations were made for supporting this nomination by force of arms; but it being found that the sense of the nation was against disturbing the succession, the council met at Baynard's Castle, on the , from whence, having consulted the lord mayor, aldermen, and recorder, they all proceeded in cavalcade to , where they proclaimed the princess Mary,
|daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England; after which they returned in the same order to , where Te Deum was sung.|
Soon afterwards the Duke of Northumberland, with most of his family, the Marquis of Northampton, the Earls of Warwick and Huntingdon, and other supporters of Lady Jane, were sent prisoners to the Tower, and on the , the new queen rode into London in triumph. Almost immediately afterwards all the opposers of the late Reformation, who had been in confinement, were released, the Catholic bishops were restored to their sees, and various preliminary measures were taken to re-establish papal supremacy.
The adherents of the Roman church were so confident of the queen's attentions that they every where began to inveigh publicly against the Protestants. So early as the day after Mary's entry into London, Bourn, chaplain to bishop Bonner, preached a sermon at
in which he uttered such injurious insinuations against the memory of the late King Edward, that the mass of the people were greatly offended, and the preacher would have fallen a victim to his temerity, had it not been for the interference of Bradford and Rogers, popular Protestant ministers, by whom Bourn was escorted in safety, though with difficulty, into school, after having had a dagger thrown at him with great violence, and with so good an aim, that it struck
of the pulpit. Soon after Bradford and Rogers were committed to prison:
said the queen,
On the following Sunday () Dr. Watson, chaplain to Bishop Gardiner, preached at Paul's Cross, by the queen's appointment; and, for
he was attended by several lords of the council, and a guard of halberts. The city companies had also
On the d of August, the Duke of Northumberland, Sir Thomas Palmer, and Sir John Gates were beheaded on Towerhill, for the part they had taken in the elevation of Lady Jane Grey. On the , a prest or forced loan, of was demanded of the city for the queen's use,
About the middle of the month Bishop Latimer and Archbishop Cranmer were sent to the Tower; and, on the , the queen came to the Tower by water, accompanied by the Lady Elizabeth, her sister, and other ladies, whilst the necessary preparations were made for her coronation. days afterwards she rode through the city in great pomp to , and on the
| she was crowned in , by the Bishop of Winchester, |
says Rapin, that was
Stow's description of the pageant is curious:
The proposed marriage between Mary and Philip of Spain, was announced to the council in the beginning of ; and the day after, the lord mayor and aldermen were sent for to attend the court, and to bring with them of the principal commoners, to whom the lord chancellor declared the queen's intention, requiring them to behave like good subjects on the occasion.
As soon as this intention was made public, the nation took the alarm, and its discontent was expressed so openly, that the government thought it necessary to provide against the probable consequences of the ferment. Nor were these precautions useless, for in a very short time intelligence arrived from several counties that the people had taken up arms. In this conjuncture the privy council ordered the lord mayor to exert himself for the preservation of the peace in the city, and, upon advice that Sir Thomas Wyat was in arms, in Kent, they directed that the city should be put in a posture of defence.
In obedience to this command, the mayor and aldermen forthwith ordered a strong guard to be kept in every ward, and at every gate of the city, not only for preventing any sudden attack, but likewise for hindering a rising of the citizens in favour of the said Wyat.
Soon after., the lord treasurer came to , to solicit in the queen's name for a supply of men, to march against Wyat; which were got ready with such an incredible expedition, that the very next day, under the conduct of Alexander Brett, an experienced officer, they were sent by water to Gravesend, where they joined the duke of Norfolk, who thereupon began his march to Rochester, to dispossess Wyat thereof. Upon his approach to the city, he dispatched Norroy, king at arms, with an offer of a general pardon to Wyat and his men upon their submission: which being rejected, he advanced to attack the bridge; but Brett, the commander of the Londoners, drawing his sword, turned to his men, and addressed himself to them after this manner:
This speech met with such a reception among his followers, that they not only instantly cried out
but also turned their ordnance against the other part of their army; whereby Norfolk and many of his principal officers were so greatly intimidated, that they fled in the utmost precipitation, leaving their ordnance and ammunition, together with all their equipage, a prey to Wyat; who, upon this unexpected turn of affairs, marched the day after towards London, where advice arriving of his being at Deptford, the city was immediately thrown into the
|greatest commotion, insomuch that not only the mayor, aldermen, sheriffs and citizens had recourse to arms, but likewise (being Term time) the judges sat, and counsel pleaded, in Hall, in armour.|
The queen, in this general confusion, came to the city, and repairing to , was attended by the mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and several of the city companies in their formalities; to whom she addressed herself to the following purport:
As the queen, on an information that Wyat had many friends in London, had joined the Lord Howard as an assistant to the lord mayor, they unanimously and assiduously set about the defence of the city. In the mean time, Wyat on the arriving with his army in , he was joyfully received, and plentifully supplied with all sorts of necessaries for his men but instead of being admitted into London, according to his expectation, the gates were shut against him, and the drawbridge cut down; and the mayor and sheriffs in armour riding up and down the streets, commanded all shops to be immediately shut, and the citizens forthwith to appear in arms, to be ready upon all emergencies. Wyat, highly enraged at this unexpected opposition, raised a battery of guns, in order to batter the city; but, considering that the destruction of London would rather irritate than oblige the citizens to a compliance, he changed his resolution, and marched towards Kingston, in order to pass the river Thames over the bridge at that place. Wyat, on his way thither. met Dorrell, a merchant of London, whom he desired to remember him to his fellow-citizens, and to acquaint them, that as they had denied them entrance, and rejected liberty when offered, they deserved no pity when under the cruellest treatment and oppression that strangers could inflict.
The same day, about in the afternoon, Wyat arrived at Kingston; when finding the bridge broke down to prevent his passage, and the adverse bank guarded by men, he instantly played upon them with pieces of ordnance; which had so good an effect, that they were soon compelled to exchange their post for a place of greater security; whereupon, he caused divers sailors to swim across the Thames, to bring over the barges that lay on the other side; which, being performed without opposition, he repaired the bridge with an admirable celerity, and passed both his army and ordnance over it the night followings He then proceeded towards London, where, had he arrived before day-light, it is probable that he would have obtained possession of the city, as many of his friends were expecting him, and as it was not till about in the morning that the queen was informed
| by a scout that he had crossed the Thames, and was already at Brentford: |
The drums, however, immediately beat to arms, and the queen's troops were ordered to rendezvous in St. James's Fields; and this they were enabled to do in sufficient time, for the carriage of of Wyat's guns breaking down on Turnham green, he most imprudently ordered a general halt till it was repaired. The delay was fatal: Wyat had acted against the opinion of his officers, and several of them deserted him. Sir George Harper, who had been principally instrumental in bringing over the Londoners under Brett, was of this number; and, posting to London, he informed the Earl of Pembroke that it was Wyat's intention to march through , and enter the city at Ludgate. The Earl immediately took the necessary precautions; and he now determined to let the insurgents entangle themselves in the streets before he gave them battle.
At , Wyat was attacked by Sir John Gage, with nearly men, yet he quickly repulsed him, and obliged him to seek shelter within the gates of palace. At this repulse
In the panic spread through the queen's forces by this repulse, Wyat reached Ludgate without further opposition, though he had to pass
At Ludgate, Wyat attempted to gain admission, but the opportunity was lost; and the lord William Howard, who defended the gate, said,
Wyat, whose easy credulity had led him to imagine that it was requisite only for him to show himself to obtain admittance, now mused awhile
His aim most probably was to rejoin his ordnance; but retreat now was impracticable, for the queen's troops had closed in upon him, and Pembroke's horse intercepted his return. His men would have forced their way, and the fight had already begun, when Clarencieux, King at Arms pressed forward, and entreated him to save the blood of his soldiers by submission:
said the herald,
Wyat felt the herald's eloquence, and presently surrendered to Sir Maurice Berkeley, who, being on horseback, immediately
and, in that manner carried him to the court at .
continues the annalist,
In the afternoon, Wyat and his principal officers were conveyed prisoners to the Tower; where also many of his partizans were imprisoned within a few days.
The suppression of this revolt was followed by a dreadful scene of sanguinary triumph. Even bigotry itself had hitherto respected the youth of Lady Jane Grey, who was scarcely , and whose only real crime was an imprudent submission to a parent's will; but she was now devoted to death with her husband, Lord
|Guildford Dudley, and both of them were beheaded on the same day, , the former on Tower-green, the latter on . days afterwards, the Duke of Suffolk, Lady Jane's father, was also decapitated.|
On the and , about
On the , several more were executed in different parts of Kent; and on the , about more were led with halters round their necks to the Tilt-yard at , and were there pardoned by the queen,
The trial of Wyat was deferred for some weeks, through the expectations of Mary's council, that the hope of pardon might induce him to accuse his more secret supporters; and it was said that he charged the princess Elizabeth, and Courteney, Earl of Devonshire, with being privy to his intended rising. It seems probable, however, that this was only a scheme of the queen's to compass the ruin of the princess, and of the earl, whose attentions to her sister, and neglect of herself, had long excited her jealousy and hatred. They were both committed to the Tower in March, and underwent a strict examination, yet not a shadow of crime could be proved against them; and Wyat himself, who was beheaded on on the , solemnly absolved them from any knowledge of his design, whilst upon the scaffold, and at the point of death.
days after Wyat's execution, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was brought to trial as an accomplice, in , but the jury acquitted him; which so enraged the queen's council, that in defiance of all justice, they commanded the jurors to appear before them at an hour's warning, and fined each of them . On the , the Lord Thomas Grey, uncle to Lady Jane, was beheaded on . On the , William Thomas, Esq. who had been clerk of the council, was
at Tyburn. He was of the last that suffered through Wyat's rebellion. On the day following, the princess Elizabeth was released from the Tower, and conducted to Woodstock; and about a week afterwards, the Earl of Devonshire was also liberated from the Tower; but this was only to change the place of his confinement, and he was sent a close prisoner to Fotheringay castle, in Northamptonshire.
The parliament having confirmed the articles of marriage between the queen and Philip II. of Spain, that prince arrived at Southampton on the . The queen had set out on a progress to the west, that she might meet her bridegroom at Winchester, where she intended to be married, and where the ceremony was accordingly performed with great magnificence on the of the same month. On the following, the
|king and queen made their public entry into London; on which occasion the city was sumptuously adorned and embellished with a great number of stately pageants; nor was any expence spared by the citizens to testify their attachment to the royal pair.|
The sumptuous and extravagant manner of living of the city magistrates had gradually risen to such a height, that many of the principal citizens retired from the city, rather than incur the enormous expense of serving the city offices. To remedy this growing evil, an act of common council was passed in this year, whereby it was enacted, That thenceforth the mayor should have but course either at dinner or supper; and that, on a festival, being a flesh-day, to consist of no more than dishes, whether hot or cold; and on every festival, being a fish day, dishes; and on every common flesh day, dishes; and on every common day, dishes, exclusive of brawn, collops with eggs, sallads, pottage, butter, cheese, eggs, herrings, sprats, shrimps, and all sorts of shell fish and fruits. That the aldermen and sheriffs should have dish less than the above-mentioned; and all the city companies, at their several entertainments, to have the same number of dishes as the aldermen and sheriffs; but with this restriction, to have neither swan, crane, or bustard, upon the penalty of That all the serjeants and officers belonging to the mayor or sheriffs, on flesh days, to have , on fish days dishes. But, when any foreign ministers or privy councillors are invited to any of the city entertainments, then the regulations or additions to be left to the discretion of the mayor: provided always, that no other entertainment be given after dinner, except ipocras and wafers. And the annual feasts, on the days after Whitsunday and Bartholomew-tide, were entirely laid aside.
It was also about the same time and by the same authority enacted, that each of the sheriffs for the future should only have serjeants and their yeomen, who, instead of having liveries given them, were each to have in money annually, to supply themselves and the clerks of the computers; and such as had been accustomed to have liveries, were each to have a gown annually at Christmas.
It was likewise enacted, that thenceforth no wyth should be carried away from the mayor's or sheriffs houses, nor shall any of them keep a lord of misrule; and that in consideration of the great and annual expense the mayor and sheriffs are at in providing a sumptuous entertainment every Lord Mayor's day at , for the honour of the city, and regaling of persons of the greatest distinction; it was therefore ordained, that every subsequent mayor, as an alleviation of that charge, shall be paid out of the chamber of the city the sum of . This act was revived in the year , with reasons shewing that a part of the charge of a shrievalty is in wine.
The keeper of Compter, having not only ill
|treated his prisoners, but also converted his prison into a receptacle for thieves and dissolute women, a large and convenient building was erected in , at the expense of the corporation, for the reception of debtors and others, in the year , and the prisoners were removed from Compter into it on Michaelmas eve.|
The citizens of London, being still greatly injured by the encroachments of foreigners on their respective professions, applied to the lord mayor and commonalty for further relief; when an act of common council was passed, in which it was ordained,
In this year we find that an Englishman, named Thomson, making a voyage from Cadiz to New Spain, touched at the Canaries, and found the factors of some London merchants already settled there. This is the mention of a commercial intercourse between London and these islands.
The statutes against heretics were now revived by the commons, whose obsequiousness indeed was so great, that the council thought it prudent to check their zeal, lest despair should induce the Protestants to fly to arms. The bloody tragedy was, however, resolved on, and the decided victim of religious persecution was John Rogers, the vicar of St. Sepulchre's, who, with Bradford, had assisted Bourn to escape from the rage of the populace at Paul's Cross. He was burnt in Smithfield on the . Before his death, he requested to have a parting interview with his wife, whom he tenderly loved; but Gardiner, blending insult with cruelty, ironically answered, that being
Many other persons were burnt in Smithfield in the course of the year; and the fires of persecution were now lit in every part of the kingdom. Among the sufferers in London were John Cardmaker, Canon of Wells; John Bradford, Prebend of ; and John Philpot, Archdeacon of Winchester.
On the last of September, by occasion of great wind and raine that had fallen, was such fluds, that that morning the king's palace at , and Hall, was overflowen with water unto the staire foote going to the Chauncerie and King's Bench, so that when the Lord Maior of London should come to present the sherifes to the barons of the exchequer, all Hall was full of water; and by report there that morning, a wherrie-man rowed with his boate over Westminster-bridge
|into the palace court, and so through the Staple-gate and all the Wooll Staple into the king's street; and all the marshes on side were so overflowen, that the people from church could not passe on foote, but were carried by boate from the said church to the Pinfold, neere to in Southwarke.|
A raging fever prevailed in London from the end of , to the autumn of , which carried off great numbers of people. aldermen fell victims to its ravages within months.
In the year , Alderman Draper, of Cordwainer's Ward, instituted the office of bellman, whose business was to go about the ward by night, and ringing his bell at certain places, exhort the inhabitants, with an audible voice, to take care of their fires and lights, to help the poor, and to pray for the dead. This institution was soon after adopted in all the other wards of the city.
According to the author of the Present State of England, printed in , it was in the year , that glasses were begun to be made in England. The finer sort was made in the place called , in London; and the fine flint glass little inferior to that of Venice, was made in the Savoy-house, in .
This was a year both of dearth and plenty. Before harvest, wheat was sold at the quarter, malt at , beans and rye , and pease the quarter; but after harvest, wheat was sold at , malt at , and rye at the quarter;
According to the same author, the Michaelmas term of this year did not produce a single cause either in the courts of King's Bench or Common Pleas.
In , the queen borrowed of the city companies, on the security of certain lands; and allowed them per cent interest for it.
On the of the same month, King Philip entered London on a visit to the queen, whom he had not seen for years and a half. The chief aim of his visit appears to have been to engage her in a war with France; which having done, he passed over to Calais on the . In the following winter, the French took Calais in a few days, it having been left almost totally unprovided for defence. This loss, conjoined to the neglect of her
| husband, so affected the queen, that she gradually declined in health, and at length died on the . When near death, she said to her attendants, that were the cause of her disorder to be sought by opening her body, |
 Howe's Chronicle.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1025.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1226.
 Ibid, p. 1028.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1040.
 Ibid. p. 1043.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1048-49.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1051.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1052.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1052.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1052.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1054.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1055.
 Brayley's London, i. 276.
 Hakluyt's Voyages, vol. iii.
 Fox's Mar. iii. 119.
 Stow's Ann. p. 1064.
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|Chapter I: History of London and its environs, from the earliest period of authentic record to the defeat of the Britons by Suetonius|
|Chapter II: Historical account of Roman London, with notices of remains discovered.|
|Chapter III: History of London from the departure of the Romans till the time of the Conquest|
|Chapter IV: History of London from the Conquest to the reign of Henry the Third|
|Chapter V: History of London from the reign of Henry the Third to the reign of Edward the Second|
|Chapter VI: History of London from the reign of Edward the Second to the reign of Richard the Second|
|Chapter VII: History of London from the reign of Henry the Fourth to the reign of Edward the Fourth|
|Chapter VIII: History of London from the reign of Edward the Fourth to the reign of Henry the Eighth|
|Chapter IX: History of London during the reign of Henry the Eighth|
|Chapter X: History of London from the reign of Edward the Sixth to the accession of Elizabeth|
|Chapter XI: History of London, during the reign of Elizabeth.|
|Chapter XII: History of London during the reign of James the First|
|Chapter XIII: History of London during the Reign of Charles the First|
|Chapter XIV: History of London during the Commonwealth and the reign of Charles the Second|
|Chapter XV: History of London during the reign of James the Second|