Walks in London, vol. 2
Hare, Augustus J. C.
Chapter IV: By Oxford Street to the City.
Chapter IV: By Oxford Street to the City.
Returning to Oxford Circus, let us now turn to the east down . The street on the left leads into , built for Edward, Earl of Oxford, in . A little behind it, in , is the , a brick building with a tall spire, built -, in the Gothic style of , from designs of . The interior is the richest in London, with every adornment of stained windows, encaustic pavements, and sculptured capitals, the latter being real works of art. Very pleasing contrasts of colour are obtained in this church by the use of simple materials,brick, chalk, alabaster, granite, and marble-and the effect is most delicate and harmonious. In the chancel, the place usually occupied by the east window is filled with fresco paintings by
On the upper floor of a carpenter's shop in , , , was the poverty-stricken home and studio of James Barry the artist.
In Wells Street, which opens out of a little lower down, is the , a perpendicular building, erected - by . , called Rawbone Place in Sutton Nicholl's view of , is the great centre for artists' materials.
On the right of we pass (which, with , commemorates Henry, Lord Arundel of Wardour, who died in ), celebrated for its curiosity-shops, amid which John Bacon, the sculptor, had his studio. Flaxman lived at No. from to
|, and, being chosen a parish officer, |
[n.150.1] The name of and that of , which crosses it, commemorate Bishop Compton, then Dean of the Chapel Royal. The father of Nollekens the sculptor lived in . No. belonged to Francis Hayman, the artist, known by his Illustrations of No. was the house of Sir James Thornhill: it has a noble frescoed staircase, on the walls of which Jane Thornhill, who eloped with Hogarth in , is said to be represented. At No. died George Harlow the portrait-painter in . leads into , where a rich ironmonger lived in the last century, whose handsome son,
The district of , to the south of , is chiefly due to the enterprise of a builder whose name is commemorated in . It came into fashion in the time of the Stuarts, and failed under the earlier Georges. leads from into , sometimes called King's Square in old times, not from Charles II., in whose reign it was built, but from Gregory King, its surveyor and architect. The Duke of Monmouth, [n.150.2] the King's son by Lucy Walters, lived in Monmouth House, which was built by Wren, on the south side of the square, and hence he came to appoint So Hoe, a name which had belonged to the district around his home as early as , for his watchword on the battle-field of Sedgemoor. After the Duke of Monmouth's execution the
| house was bought by Lord Bateman (commemorated in Bateman's Buildings), of whom Horace Walpole narrates that George I. made him an Irish peer to prevent having to make him a knight of the Bath, |
Monmouth House was pulled down in .
On the east of the square, at the corner of , was Carlisle House, the town house of the Earls of Carlisle, built in the time of James II. It became celebrated at the end of the last century for the masked balls and concerts of the extraordinary Mrs. Teresa Cornelys, at which, though they were far from immaculate, the fashionable world of the time loved to congregate.[n.151.1] They were supplanted by Almack's, and the greater part of the house was pulled down in . The Music Room is now the Roman Catholic Church of St. Patrick, Soho, which Nollekens the sculptor attended
It is entered from , and contains a fine Crucifixion by Vandyke.
takes its name from , Chiswick, the country house of the Falconbergs, who resided in Falconberg House close by (commemorated in ). Here lived Mary Cromwell, Lady Falconberg, the Protector's daughter, who died , leaving the house and all else that she could away from her husband's family. In the same house the shipwrecked remains of Sir Cloudesley Shovel lay in state before they were buried in . As the
its parties were afterwards of equal reputation, but
| more disreputable than those of Mrs. Cornelys. The house still exists (Nos. and ) as the offices of Messrs. Crosse and Blackwell, and is the best specimen of domestic architecture remaining in Soho. of the rooms has a grand chimney-piece and beautiful ceiling. The house next door, inhabited in turn by a Duke of Argyle, an Earl of Bedford, and Speaker Onslow, has ceilings by and . In the House of Charity at the corner of are remains of the fine old mansion once occupied by Alderman Beckford. No. , now the Dental Hospital, was the house of Sir Joseph Banks, the great naturalist, who lived there with his eccentric sister, celebrated for her riding-habits- |
In the middle of the square stood till lately a much-injured statue, concerning which opinions differed as to whether it represented Charles II. or the Duke of Monmouth. Surrounded by figures emblematical of the Thames, Trent, Humber, and Severn, it formed the centre of a handsome fountain: now it is removed to a garden at Harrow Weald. Nollekens narrates that he
Evelyn tells us that he went in , with his family,
and it will be remembered that Sir Roger de Coverley is represented as residing in
It continued to be of the most fashionable parts of London till far into the last century. Nollekens the sculptor (born ) records that when he was a little
| boy, and living in , |
The whole district of Soho, especially the southern portion of it, has now a French aspect, from the number of French refugees who have settled there at different times, especially the Huguenots after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in , the émigrés of the Reign of Terror in , and the Communists of . Maitland, writing in the beginning of the last century, says,
Many are the continental conspiracies which have been hatched in Soho. An old pillared building, which stood on the site of the chapel in , was called the
There are French schools, French names over many of the shops, French restaurants with , and the organ-grinders of Soho find that the Marseillaise is the most lucrative tune to play. Lately the London City Mission has established a in , where counsel is given to the friendless and distressed.
Returning to , , on the right (so called from the sign of the
at the corner of and ), was formerly
the scene of Hogarth's . The has usurped the site of a historic building which was the Greek Church in London, having been consecrated in ,
as was told in an inscription over the door. It was under the jurisdiction of the Greek
|Archbishop of Samos, and was dedicated to the Virgin because of her famous grotto in that island. In the church was sold by the Greeks, and it was used by French Protestant refugees till . Some almshouses near this were founded by Nell Gwynne.|
now leads into the poverty-stricken district of St. Giles. It is noteworthy that places dedicated to this saint,
were almost always outside some great town. This was because St. Giles (St. Egidius) was the patron saint of lepers, and where a place was called by his name a lazar-house always existed. From the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VIII.
consisted of only a few cottages grouped around an old stone cross, with some shops whose owners' names are preserved in the hospital grants as Gervase le Lyngedrap (linendraper), and Reginald le Tailleur, &c. A hospital for lepers was built here by Matilda, wife of Henry I., about , being attached to a larger house of the kind at Burton Lazars in Leicestershire. It was in front of this hospital that the Lollard conspirators met under Sir John Oldcastle in , and on the same spot he was roasted in chains over a slow fire.
The Hospital was dissolved at the Reformation, and the property granted to John Dudley, Viscount Lisle (whence ), but it was not till the beginning of the century that the
of St. Giles began to be built over or connected with London.
|The vine garden of the Hospital is now known as Vinegar Yard!|
The Hospital and its country surroundings are commemorated in the name of the built by , -, with a very handsome spire, on the site of a brick church constructed by Laud in . Close to the north door, removed from the chancel and preserved from the old church on account of her mother's benefactions to the parish, is the tomb, with a recumbent figure, of Lady Alice Kniveton. She was daughter of Alice Leigh, who married and was repudiated by Sir Robert Dudley (son of Elizabeth's Earl of Leicester), and was created Duchess of Dudley by Charles I., a title which was confirmed by Charles II. The words of her daughter's epitaph do not flatter her when they say that
she resided close by in that house of Lord Lisle which supplanted the old hospital, and is buried at Stoneleigh.
says Aubrey, was buried, in . Andrew Marvel the poet, whose works have been compared by his admirers to those of Milton.
A lich-gate of , bearing a curious carving in oak representing the Resurrection, forms the western approach to the churchyard, which contains many interesting monuments. Against the south wall of the church is a tomb like a Roman altar, erected at the expense of Inigo Jones to
the translator of the and of Hesiod's Pope speaks of
| Warton says that his eighteen plays, |
Ben Jonson writes-
Near the east end of the church is the conspicuous tomb of Richard Penderell- (),
after his escape from Worcester fight. It bears the lines-
On the edge of the churchyard towards , under a stone marked by a coronet, the remains of James Ratcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, rested before they were
| removed to Dilston, whence, in , they were taken to Thorndon. Other eminent persons buried in this churchyard are Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Shirley the dramatist, ; Michael Mohun the actor, ; the Countess of Shrewsbury, who is described by Walpole as holding the horse of her lover, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, while he killed her husband in a duel, Roger le Strange the politician, ; and Oliver Plunkett, the Archbishop of Armagh, who was executed at Tyburn for high treason in , and whose body was afterwards removed to Landsprung in Germany, It was in front of the hospital, afterwards at an inn close by- |
in later times
(destroyed in )-that, by old custom, prisoners on their way to execution at Tyburn were presented with
--a bowl of ale (whence
on the south of ), their last mortal sustenance; and that Jack Sheppard, having supped the wine, smiled, and said,
From an early date seems to have had a bad reputation. Even the little village had its cage, watchhouse, round-house, pest-house, stocks, gallows, and whipping-post Its pound, only cleared away in , was a landmark-
Under the Tudors the character of was changed from a country village to that of of the poorest parishes in London.
has long been an epithet to denote the lowest grade of poverty. In , during the Great Plague, persons died in alone. But the dense mass of houses called the
which was once the worst part of the parish, has been cleared away in the formation of , and the condition of the whole neighbourhood is improving, though it still continues of the poorest in London. Much harm has been done by the ill-judged benevolence of writers of little religious books, and the exaggerated pictures they have drawn of the poverty of this district, resulting in unnecessarily large subscriptions, which destroy the habit of self-dependence amongst the inhabitants. There is seldom absolute destitution except amongst those who, having
| fallen from better days, have never been able to acquire the habit of work. Old-clothes-men, bird-fanciers, bird-cage makers, and ballad-mongers drive the most flourishing trades. Apropos of the latter, Walford's gives an amusing account of the origin of the expression |
in the displeasure of the people at being taken in by the ingenuity of James Catnach, a popular ballad printer in Monmouth Court, who, after the murder of Weare by Thurtell, obtained a great sale for a broadside, which he headed,
which the public read as WEARE. Of the ballads which told the story of Rush and the Mannings, no less than copies were sold.
A number of wretched streets run southwards from and . Dickens[n.159.1] calls , formerly ,
from its old-clothes shops. St. Andrew's Street leads (at the junction of and ) to the famous , so called because, at the conjunction of streets, there formerly stood here a pillar bearing a dial with faces. Evelyn says-
The pillar was removed in , and, long afterwards,
|being surmounted with a ducal coronet, was set up on Weybridge Green in memory of the Duchess of York, who died at Oatlands in .|
Returning to , of the next openings on the right is . Some way down it (on the right, under No. ) was a curious bath, surrounded by Dutch tiles and supplied by an abundant mineral spring. It was called Queen Anne's Bath, and small rooms were shown as her toilette and dressing-room, though there was no proof of its having been used by her. About the springs overflowed so much, that it was found necessary to cut them off, and the bath has now been filled up. Only its marble paving slabs remain.
Then opens on the right. The turning on the left of it is , where Nell Gwynne was born. At the end of this street stood the Round House, where Jack Sheppard was imprisoned at night, and found to have escaped in the morning. The next turn out of , , was formerly Lewknor's Lane (from Sir Lewis Lewknor, the proprietor). Its morality is alluded to by Butler-
It was close to this that the Great Plague of began.
Opposite to the entrance of , forms a main artery, running north-west towards Hampstead. It derives its name from the manor of , which belonged to the Chapter of , whose pleasant fields were a favourite summer-evening resort of ancient Londoners.
was afterwards the
public-house, surrounded by gardens, in front of which Hogarth has laid the scene of his The gardens existed till the end of the last century.
is famous for its furniture shops. On the right is Meux's Brewery. On the left is ,[n.161.1] built by George Whitefield in , when it became known as
an octangular front, which was a later addition due to the liberality of Queen Caroline, being called the
Whitefield's pulpit is preserved, and is that in which he preached his last sermon () before leaving for America, where he died at Boston in . Wesley used it, in accordance with Whitefield's dying desire, when he preached his funeral sermon. Here, also, Dr. Henry Peckwell preached his own funeral sermon on Heb. xiii. , , after he knew that mortification had set in from the prick of a needle, of which he died a few days after. Whitefield is commemorated here on the monument of his wife. His portrait is in the vestry, with those of all his successors in the ministry of this chapel.
A tablet under the north gallery, to John Bacon, R.A., the sculptor of numerous monuments in and elsewhere in London, has, from his own hand, the epitaph-
leads into the , on which the name of records the site of the quaint old mansion called Bellsize House, which was popular as a tea-garden and place of fashionable resort in the early part of the last century, though, as late as , its advertisements set forth,
Beyond this, the district to the north of is called , the name being a corruption of Blemundsbury, the manor of the De Blemontes, Blemunds, or Blemmots, in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I.[n.163.1]
|When the changeable tide of fashion in the last century flowed north from the neighbourhood of St. Clement Danes and , it settled with a deceptive grasp, which seemed likely to be permanent, on the estate of the Duke of Bedford. Everything here commemorates the glories of that great ducal family. and Square, , , , , , and many places less important, have their names and titles. and record the marriage of the duke with the daughter of John Howland of Streatham in . and , built -, commemorate his son, who was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in ; and other marriages of the family have left their mark in and .|
On the left of , now leads into , decorated with a statue of Francis, Duke of Bedford, by . No. was the residence of Lord Eldon from to , and it was here that the Prince Regent, by his insistance at the Chancellor's sick-bed, wrung from him the appointment to the vacant post of Master in Chancery for his friend Jekyll the wit.
In , which leads north from , is , built by Wilkins, -. Under the central cupola is the , containing models of the principal works of John Flaxman, presented by his sister-in-law, Miss Denman.
On the east of rose the magnificent . Writing of the year , Macaulay says-
leads from to , which was built on the site of , --, from designs of Sir Robert Smirke, continued under his brother Sydney. Otherwise handsome, it is dwarfed and spoilt by having no suitable base. Its collections originated in the purchase of those of Sir Hans Sloane in . The most important gifts have been those of the Royal Library by George II., and of George III.'s library by George IV.; the most important purchases those of Sir William Hamilton's collections, the Townley, Phigalian, and Elgin Marbles, Dr. Burney's MSS, and the Lansdowne and Arundel MSS.
The is to the Public (Free admission)
Turning to the left, we enter the , lined on the left by Anglo-Roman antiquities, and on the right by Roman statues and busts. In the centre is-
*. -a noble haughty bust, the deeply overshadowing hair descending close to the eyebrows. Found in the Forum of Trajan, and probably representing the German chieftain Arminius, conquered by Germanicus.
Deserving notice on the right are-
In the we may notice-
The contains, beginning on the right wall-
Behind the statue of Mercury a staircase leads to the , where we may notice-
From the Graeco-Roman Room we enter the , filled with sculptures and casts of sculptures, brought - by Sir Charles Fellows from the ruins of Xanthus, the most important city of Lycia, which was twice destroyed- in the reign of Cyrus, when it was besieged by Harpagus with a Persian army, and the Xanthians buried themselves and all their possessions beneath the ruins of their city; and, secondly, by the army of Brutus, who took the city by stratagem, when the inhabitants again destroyed themselves, with their wives and children. On the right of the entrance of the room is a model of the principal temple at Xanthus, to which most of the sculptures in this room (No. -) belong, and where they are marked at the appropriate points in the model. tombs from Xanthus, or portions of them, are likewise preserved here.
--supposed to have been raised for a Prince of Lycia, who claimed descent from the mythical hero Pandarus. In its relief the Harpies are represented carrying off the daughters of Pandarus.
. On the roof is a chariot with horses, and beneath it a relief of Bellerophon attacking the Chimaera.
. Tomb of the Satrap Piafa, with a roof and reliefs.
covered with inscriptions in the ancient Lycian language.
The contains the remains of the famous Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, on the coast of Asia Minor, of the erected by Artemisia, Princess of Caria, who during her short reign destroyed the fleet of Rhodes, and became mistress of the island. She is chiefly celebrated, however, for her violent grief for the loss of her husband (who was also her brother), whose ashes she mixed daily with her drink, of whom she
|induced the most eminent Greek rhetoricians to proclaim the praises, and for whose loss she died in years of a broken heart, having erected to his memory a mausoleum which surpassed in splendour all the monuments of the ancient world. It was an edifice like an Ionic temple, raised on a lofty basement, and surmounted by a pyramid, with a chariot group on the summit. The whole was of Parian marble. Its architects were Satyros and Pythios. great sculptors-Scopas, Leochares, Bryaxis, and Timotheos--were employed on its decorations; a , probably Pythios, made the crowning chariot group. From its beauty the name of mausoleum came to be applied to all similar monuments. The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus is mentioned by Vitruvius, Pliny, and Lucian, and is alluded to as a still-existing wonder by Eustathius, who wrote in the century. After this it ceased to excite attention till, in , sculptured slabs were sent to England by Lord de Redcliffe from the Castle of Budrum, which had been built by the Knights of St. John in the ruins of Halicarnassus. In Mr. C. J. Newton, Keeper of the Greek and Roman antiquities of the , visited Budrum, and his discovery of the colossal lions inserted in the walls of the castle and other evident remains of the Mausoleum led the Government, in , to send out the steam corvette , with workmen, and a firman permitting them to excavate.|
The most remarkable of the remains brought over are the Lions, guardians of the tomb, with the expression varied in each; and the colossal statue believed to represent the despotic and unscrupulous satrap Mausolus himself (-), which was found broken into
|fragments, but is now nearly complete, wanting only the arms and foot.|
A female figure either represents the goddess who acted as charioteer to Mausolus, or Artemisia herself when deified.
In this room is placed, provisionally, a noble Head of Aesculapius from the Isle of Melos.
The is almost entirely devoted to the precious marbles removed by Lord Elgin from the Parthenon in , lost by shipwreck, recovered by divers, and purchased by Government, after long controversy, in . It is almost forgotten now with what vituperation the marbles were assailed on their arrival in England--they were
they were the
The sum paid to Lord Elgin was less than he had expended upon the marbles, and far less than Napoleon was willing to pay for them. Yet now they are
| recognised as the greatest masterpieces of Greek art in this or any other country. A model of the Parthenon (the Temple of Athene) here shows their original position. Around the room are the glorious frieze and metopes of the temple (their subjects are described beneath): we must remember that here they are, as it were, turned inside out. The frieze represents the procession which took place every years in honour of the goddess. The south side is the least perfect, having been injured by the winds from the sea: it is chiefly occupied by the victims, who made this procession a kind of cattle-show, as each of the Athenian colonies contributed, and, by their anxiety to shine in this, Athens knew the disposition of her colonies. Here also we see the maidens carrying the sacrificial vessels, the flat vessels being used for libations. To meet this procession comes from the north side a long cavalcade of chariots and horsemen, many of the latter most glorious. From the east end of the temple, where the processions united, are representations of the gods, without whose presence no Greek festival was considered complete, and of the delivery of the , the embroidered veil of Athene, given every years.
On the left of the room are the sculptures from the eastern pediment of the temple, at which they occupied platforms at the ends, a much larger space in the middle than is seen here having been filled by figures which are lost. The subject of the whole is the Birth of Athene from the brain of Zeus. The father of the gods complaining
|of a violent pain in his head, Hephaestus split it open with his axe, when Athene sprang forth in full armour. The central figures are wanting: those of which we see the remnants represent the gods and goddesses who were present at the event, which is supposed to have taken place on Olympus. At the south end of the pediment the horses of Helios, or the Sun, are rising from the waves. at the north end Selene, or Night, is going down. Of the intermediate figures only in rapid movement can, with some probability, be identified as Iris, the messenger of the gods, going to announce the event. The noble male figure reclining on a rock covered with a lion's skin (No. ) has generally, but without reason, been called Theseus.|
On the right are the remains of the western pediment, of which the missing portions are better known than those of the eastern pediment, owing to the existence of drawings taken in . The subject is the Contest of Athene, tutelary goddess of Athens, with Poseidon, or Neptune, who had inundated Attica.
At the northern end of the room are some noble fragments from the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, and a colossal lion brought from a Doric tomb on a promontory at Cnidus in .
On the east side of the room is of the Canephora of the Erectheum, a temple at Athens dedicated jointly to Athene Polias and Pandrosos, daughter of Kekrops. The portico of this temple, called the Pandroseion, and its Canephorae, have been imitated at Church in the .
The (entered from the east of the Elgin Room) is surrounded by reliefs from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius (or the Deliverer), discovered in on the site of Phigalia in Arcadia; they represent contests between the Lapithas and Centaurs, and between the Greeks and Amazons. Though. beautiful in composition, they are full of gross disproportions and mannerisms, and are immeasurably inferior to the Elgin Marbles, though, at the time of their arrival in England (), they were attributed to the hand of Phidias, an honour which was denied to the great marbles of the Parthenon.
Here are statues of an Athlete binding his head with a fillet --from the Farnese Collection.
From the east side of the Hellenic Room we enter
| the , filled with the sculptures brought by Mr. Layard from the Assyrian ruins of Nimroud, Kouyunjik, and Khorsabad in -. Taking the later monuments , we enter, by a door on the left, the
, lined with sculptures brought from an Assyrian edifice at Kouyunjik (opposite Mosul, on the Tigris), supposed to have been the palace of Sennacherib. Kouyunjik is believed to have been Nineveh itself, while the mound now called Nimroud, which is miles below the modern Mosul, is believed to have been the Calah of Scripture (Gen. x. -).
Returning to the , we find-
. Reliefs from the Palace of Nimroud (Calah), supposed to have been constructed by Esarhaddon. An inscription on of these records the payment of tribute by Menahem, King of Israel ( Kings xv. ), and so indicates that the sculpture was made for Tiglath Pileser II., and transferred by Esarhaddon to his own palace.
. A colossal head of a human-headed bull, the largest yet found, believed to be of the time of Esarhaddon.
The is filled with slabs which continue the history of Assur-izir-pal (), the earliest Assyrian
| monarch of whom any large monuments have been found. We may especially notice-
At the north-west angle of the Nimroud Gallery is the door leading to the , containing-
Hence a staircase leads to the , surrounded with reliefs which portray the history of Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus), grandson of Sennacherib, and his wars with the Arabians.
We must now return through the Nimroud Gallery and the Assyrian Transept, whence we enter the . The larger monuments here are, as far as possible, arranged chronologically, and, ascending to at least years before the Christian era, close with the
|Mahommedan invasion of Egypt, A.D. . We may especially notice-|
At the end of the Northern Gallery a (lined with Egyptian papyri, showing the forms of writing--Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Enchorial), leads to the , lined with reliefs. In this and the succeeding rooms it is unnecessary to notice the contents in detail. Each object is admirably described on a label placed beneath it, and its position will probably be changed
| in a short time. The Zoological Collections will be removed to South Kensington as soon as the galleries intended for their reception are completed. The present order of the Rooms () is-
Descending the staircase at the end of the Eastern Zoological Gallery, we come to the , dedicated to the books collected by George III., and acquired by the nation under George IV. The glass cases in this room are devoted to , from the earliest times in England and other countries, and
The has a number of cases which exhibit, among other curiosities--
The contains the valuable collection of books bequeathed to the nation by the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville in .
The are only shown by especial permission. In the Print Room is an exquisite collection of . From the centre of the Entrance Hall we enter (with a ticket obtained on the right of the main entrance) the magnificent circular of the Library.
The Reading Room, built from designs of Sydney Smirke, occupies the central court of the Museum, and is
|and feet in diameter, and feet high. The reading-tables converge to a common centre occupied by the circular tables containing the catalogue.|
Returning to , on the left, at the corner of , is the , built by , . It has a very handsome portico, but a most ridiculous steeple, planned from the description in Pliny of the tomb of King Mausolus in Caria, and surmounted by a statue of George I., whence the epigram-
There is a tablet here to the great Earl of Mansfield, who lived hard by in , where his house and library were destroyed in the Gordon riots of . In the porch is a monument, with lines by Sir John Hawkins, to the popular and benevolent Justice Welch, the friend of Dr. Johnson, who at time thought of proposing to his sister Mary, afterwards married to Nollekens, the sculptor.
[ leads from (left) into , called Southampton Square when it was built, in , by Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, father of Lady Rachel Russell. His house- Southampton House-occupied the whole north side of the square till . In its early days this square was so
| fashionable that |
Among the residents in the square were the Earl of Chesterfield, Sir Hans Sloane, Lord Mansfield, and Dr. Radcliffe. Disraeli's were written in No. .. Richard Baxter lived in the square, and here his wife died, . On the north side is a seated statue (bronze) of Charles James Fox, by
Opposite this, (occupying the site of the old house of the Dukes of Bedford, pulled down in ) leads into , a name which will recall to many minds the homes of the Selbys and Osbornes in Thackeray's On its north side is a seated statue of Francis Russell, Duke of Bedford, by . It was in No. that Sir Samuel Romilly died by his own hand in . In No. , Sir Thomas Lawrence, who had lived and painted in that house for years, died . Cossacks,
[n.184.1] stood sentinels at its door while he was painting their general, Platoff. From the north-west angle of we may proceed, through , to , containing the modern (Irvingite) , a very handsome building in the Early English style, by
Parallel with was ,
| behind which was |
Legend tells that brothers were in love with lady, who would not declare which she preferred, but sate in the field to watch the duel which was fatal to both; and that the bank where she sate, and the footprints of the brothers, never bore grass again.
On the east side of opens , which leads to the , founded in by the benevolent Thomas Coram, captain of a trading vessel, for
In , the Institution ceased to be a
Hospital except in name, but is still applied to the reception of illegitimate children. The girls wear brown dresses with white caps, tuckers, and aprons: the boys have red sashes and cap-bands.
A characteristic statue of Coram by stands on the gates leading into the wide open space in front of the Hospital. On Mondays, between and , visitors are admitted to see .the collection of pictures, for the most part presented to the Hospital by their artists. The works of Hogarth, who was a great benefactor to the charity, were publicly exhibited here, and the interest they excited may be considered to have suggested the exhibition of the Royal Academy. The collection is important as containing great works of Hogarth, and interesting as being generally illustrative of the works of the earlier British artists, and for its views of the charitable institutions of London in the middle of the eighteenth century.
In the Handel performed his oratorio of the in aid of the funds of the Hospital with a result of . The existing organ was given by Handel. The altar-piece of Christ blessing little children is by At the suggestion of Handel, the singing has been kept up, with a view to the contributions at the doors after the services. Tenterden, the Canterbury barber's boy who rose to become Chief Justice of England (. ), is .buried in the chapel. The Founder was the person buried in the vaults.
Behind the Hospital is the , where Robert Nelson, the friend of the Non-jurors, is buried, with an epitaph of lines on his gravestone. Here also are the graves of Jonathan Richardson, the painter, ; John Campbell, author of the ; and Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian, .] Beyond the opening of , the name of the street along which we have been walking so long is changed. It is no longer . In other parts of London we have already seen how great a feature of the London of the Henrys and Edwards were the numerous streams which rose on the different hill-sides, and flowed towards the Thames or the Fleet, and which are now either swallowed up or arched over, though they sometimes leave the association of their name to a street which marks their rise or their
|course. of the most important of these streamlets, which flowed down the steep hill-side to join the Turnmill Brook where now stands, was the Old Bourne or Hill Bourne, which broke out at the point now called Bars, and which, though it has totally disappeared now, still gives a name to the Old Bourne or . Till the end of the century this hill was almost in the open country, and, in the old maps of , only a single row of houses will be seen on the north side of the thoroughfare. The street called was a path between open fields, and was an open park attached to the gardens of Ely House, and famous for its saffron. To the south were the broad acres of pasturage called , and barriers were erected to prevent the cattle which fed there from straying into the neighbouring highway, which are still commemorated in the openings called Great, Little, and New Turnstile. Gerard the herbalist, writing in , mentions the large garden behind his house in , and the number of rare plants which grew there.|
, which escaped the Great Fire, still contains many old houses anterior to the reign of Charles II.. those beyond Bars to the west being outside the liberties of the City. Milton lived here from to , and here wrote his and the The hill of was called the
for by it the condemned were driven to Tyburn from Newgate and the Tower, wearing on their breasts the nosegays which, by old custom, were always presented to them as they reached St. Sepulchre's Church. Often their progress
| was almost triumphal as they passed between the crowded windows on either side the way. Gay in the makes of his characters, Polly, say of Captain Macheath, |
And Swift, describing the last hours of Tom Clinch, says-
Opening from on the left is , leading into , which marks the private road of James I. to his palace at Theobald's. Pepys describes Charles II. as being upset in his coach in Kingsgate Street, with the Duke of York, Duke of Monmouth, and Prince Rupert. The next street, , leads into , so called from the Inn, whither the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were brought when exhumed from , to be dragged the next day on sledges to Tyburn. In No. lived and died Jonas Hanway, the traveller, who was the person in
|England who carried an umbrella, and he only died in The handsome brick , on the west of the square, was built -. On the right of ,between it and , is , of immoral reputation, constantly alluded to by the dramatists and satirists of the last century. Houses were built here, in the time of Charles I., by W. Whetstone, vestryman of . On the left is , where Squire's Coffee House stood, whence several numbers of the are dated. It is now a most miserable court, but there is a curious old house on its east side. On the south side of (opposite the opening of ), where the now stands, No. a was the Blue Boar Inn (now removed to a), where the famous letter of Charles I. to Henrietta Maria was intercepted by Cromwell and Ireton.|
On the right, beyond the opening of , mark the site of Southampton House. It was only in that (in No. , ) the last remains of the old building were destroyed, where the Earl of Southampton, father of Lady Rachel Russell, died. Some of Lady Rachel's letters are dated from this house, and it was in passing its windows that Lord William. Russell's fortitude forsook him for a single instant as he gazed upon the house where the love of his life began; then he went on his way to execution saying,
On the left is , by which Tom Jones is described as entering London to put up at the
in . Here are the great Offices of Messrs. Cubitt the builders, who give work to men upon the premises, the numbers employed by the firm altogether amounting to .
It was in , the turning on the right, that
| the Countess of Macclesfield gave birth to Richard Savage the poet, . On the left, opposite the wonderfully picturesque Staples Inn (see Ch. III.), is the entrance of , named from Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, who felt it an honour to record in his epitaph that he had been |
He was murdered () in Brooke House, which stood on the site of (which, with Warwick Market and Street and , is also named from him), by Ralph Haywood, a dependant with whom he had quarrelled. In the garret of of the houses (No. ) pulled down in -, the unhappy poet Thomas Chatterton died, --
At he had published the forged on parchment, which he pretended to have found in the muniment-room of St. Mary Redcliffe, at Bristol, and that they had lain there for years, in the iron-bound chest of William Canynge, a merchant, afterwards Dean of Westbury. In the April preceding his death he came up from Bristol to London, filled with hope and ambition, but, before months were over, often found himself on the verge of starvation, simply because his pride was such that it was almost impossible to show him kindness, and, in his eighteenth year, probably in a fit of the insanity which also showed itself in his sister, he ended his days by poison. His death passed almost unnoticed, and he received a pauper's funeral. In the words of his epitaph at Bristol-
Let him rather be remembered by the noble lines in his -
ends, in ,[n.193.1] in the arched gate of the , opened in . It is a handsome brick church, designed by , with stone, terra-cotta, and alabaster decorations, and has become celebrated from its ritualistic services, with incense and vestments. The peculiarly bad character once attached to and may be owing to the fact that these were amongst the places-Cities of Refuge insulated in the midst of London-which, by royal charter, once gave sanctuary to criminals and debtors.
Now, on the left of , is , and on the right (see Ch. II.). No. , the , is an old hostelrie with balconies round a couryard. Just at the opening of the which annihilated the
and was constructed in -, to the great convenience of traffic, and destruction of the picturesque--is
| which escaped the Fire, but was nevertheless rebuilt by
in . Internally it is a bad likeness of St. James's, , with encircling galleries, a waggon-headed ceiling, and some good stained glass of , by . The organ is that, made by Harris, which was discarded at the Temple on the judgment of Judge Jeffreys. The monuments formerly in the church are removed to the ante-chapel under the tower: they include a tablet to John Emery the comedian, . His epitaph narrates that-
The register commemorates the marriage, in the old church, of Col. Hutchinson, with the charming Lucy, daughter of Sir Allan Apsley, late Lieutenant of the , . Other interesting entries record the burial (in the cemetery of workhouse) of the unfortunate Chatterton, , and the baptism here of the almost more unfortunate Richard Savage, son of Lord Rivers and the Countess of Macclesfield, who was treated with the utmost cruelty by his mother, who disowned him, abandoned him, and used all efforts to have him hung for the death of a Mr. Sinclair, killed in a fray at . The principal poems of Savage were the and the in which he exposed his mother's unnatural conduct. He died in Newgate, where he was imprisoned for debt, and he was buried in Churchyard. Another poet, Henry Neele, author of the was buried in St. Andrew's Churchyard, in his father's grave, on which he had inscribed the lines-
In this churchyard also was buried Thomas Wriothesley, the violent Chancellor of Henry VIII., who impeached Queen Catherine Parr for heresy, and also, not content with sitting in judgment, himself lent a hand to turn the rack by which Anne Askew was being tortured. Joseph Strutt, author of was buried here in . Against the north outside wall of the church, opposite the handsome steps leading to the Viaduct, is a curious relief of the Day of Judgment-the Saviour appearing in the clouds above; and below, the dead bursting open their coffins.
Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield, had been previously rector of St. Andrew's. day while he was reading prayers here in church, a soldier of the Earl of Essex came in, and pointing a pistol at his breast, commanded him to read no further. Hacket calmly replied,
--and proceeded with the service. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, was also rector of St. Andrew's (presented ). In the chancel is the grave of another eminent rector, Dr. Henry Sacheverel
| (. ), presented to the living by Bolingbroke in gratitude for a good story told him by Swift, and impeached before the for his political sermons, -. He was, says Bishop Burnet |
The Duchess of Marlborough describes him as
Almost opposite St. Andrew's Church, on the left, is the entrance of , marking the site of the grand old palace of the Bishops of Ely, once entered by a great gateway, built by Bishop Arundel in . The palace was bequeathed to the see by Bishop John de Kirkeby, who died in . Here, in , died
his own palace of the Savoy having been burnt by the rebels under Wat Tyler.
It is here that, according to Shakspeare, Richard's dying uncle thus addressed him:--
The garden of Ely House was great and famous. still bears witness to the saffron which grew there, and to its adjacent vineyard, while its roses and its strawberries are both matters of history. Holinshed describes how (on the ), while the lords were sitting in council at the Tower,
the Protector came in, and requested the Bishop of Ely to send for some of his strawberries from his garden in . The scene is given by Shakspeare.
Gloucester comes in and says-
and the Bishop replies-
The Bishop then goes out to send for the strawberries, and, on his return, finds Gloucester gone, and exclaims-
| and Lord Hastings replies-
But a few minutes after Gloucester, returning, accuses Hastings of witchcraft, and he is hurried off to be beheaded in the Tower courtyard below.
Another record of the fertility of the Ely Place garden will be found in the fact that when, to please Elizabeth, Bishop Cox leased the gatehouse and garden to her favourite, Sir Christopher Hatton, for a quit-rent of a red rose, loads of hay, and yearly, he retained the right not only of walking in the gardens, but of gathering bushels of roses yearly! Sir Christopher Hatton expended a large sum upon Ely Place, and petitioned Elizabeth to alienate to him the whole of the house and gardens. She immediately desired Bishop Cox to do so, but he refused, saying that
that he was intrusted with the property of the see
The Bishop was, however, eventually obliged to consent to the alienation of the property to Sir Christopher till all the money he had expended upon Ely Place should be repaid by the see. It was when the Queen found his successor, Dr. Martin Heton, unwilling to fulfil these terms, that she addressed to him her characteristic note-
The money which Sir Christopher had expended upon Ely
| Place was borrowed from the Queen, and it was her demanding a settlement of their accounts which caused his death. |
Sir Christopher died in Ely House, . His residence here gave a name to , which now occupies a great part of the site of the gardens of Ely Place. Here the beautiful Lady Hatton, widow of Sir Christopher's nephew, was courted at the same time by Lord Bacon and Sir Edward Coke, the famous lawyer. She married the latter, but soon quarrelled with him and refused him admittance to her house, with the same success with which she and her successors repelled the attempts of the Bishops of Ely to recover the whole of their property, though they retained the old buildings beyond the gateway, where Laney, Bishop of Ely, died in -. It was not till the death of the last Lord Hatton in that the years' dispute was settled, when the bishops resigned Ely Place to the Crown for No. , , , which they still possess. In the reign of James I., Ely Place was inhabited by Gondomar, the famous Spanish ambassador.
The only remaining fragment of old Ely House is the chapel, dedicated to (), daughter of Anna, King of the West Angles, and wife of Egfrid, King of Northumberland, whose society she forsook to become Abbess of Ely and foundress of its cathedral. She was best known after death by the popular name of St. Awdry. A fair was held in her honour, at which a particular kind of beads was sold called St. Awdry or Tawdry beads. Gradually these grew to be of the shabbiest and cheapest description, and became a by-word for anything shabby or flimsy-whence our familiar word
commemorates St. Etheldreda. The chapel, long given up to the Welsh residents in London, is now in the hands of Roman Catholics, who have treated it with the utmost regard for its ancient characteristics. The walls of the ancient crypt are left with their rugged stonework unaltered. The ceiling is not vaulted, and the roof is formed by the chapel floor, but some stone pillars have been supplied in the place of the solid chestnut posts by which it was once sustained. A solemn half-light steals into this shadowy church from its deeply recessed stained windows, and barely allows to distinguish the robed figures of the nuns who are constantly at prayers here. The church has not been
into something utterly unlike its original state, as is usually the case in England.
In the upper church, which retains its grand old decorated window, the last was publicly performed in England--the Passion--in the time of James I. It was here also that John Evelyn's daughter Susanna was married () to William Draper, by Dr. Tenison, then Bishop of Lincoln. Cowper, in the commemorates
| the over-loyalty of the chapel clerk, who astonished the congregation by singing God save King George on the arrival of the news () of the defeat of Prince Charles Edward by the Duke of Cumberland.
A relic of the bishops' residence in Ely Place may be observed in a blue mitre, with the date , on the wall of a court leading from hence to .
At the entrance of the Viaduct from is an Equestrian Statue of the Prince Consort, Albert of Saxe Gotha, saluting the City of London, by , erected in . Since the opening of the Viaduct people have ceased to remember the steepness of , down which the pestilent street-marauders called Mohocks in Queen Anne's time used to amuse themselves by rolling defenceless women in barrels.
[n.150.1] J. T. Smith, Life of Nollekens.
[n.150.2] Commemorated in Monmouth Street
[n.151.1] Mrs. Cornelys, afterwards reduced to sell asses' milk in Knightsbridge, died in the Fleet Prison in 1797.
[n.159.1] Sketches by Boz.
[n.161.1] The name of Tabernacle was first applied to the churches of boards hastily raised after the Great Fire.
[n.163.1] The manors of St. Giles and Bloomsbury were divided by Blemund's Dyke, afterwards Bloomsbury Great Ditch. The manor-house of the Blemunds stood on the site of Bedford Place, and is described in the St. Giles's Hospital grant as the capital messuage of William Blemund.
[n.184.1] Rev. J. Mitford in the Gent. Mag., Jan., 1818.
[n.193.1] Named after Baldwin, one of the royal gardener of Elizabeth.