Walks in London, vol. 2

Hare, Augustus J. C.


Chapter IV: By Oxford Street to the City.

Chapter IV: By Oxford Street to the City.


Returning to Oxford Circus, let us now turn to the east down . The street on the left leads into , built for Edward, Earl of Oxford, in . A little behind it, in , is the , a brick building with a tall spire, built -, in the Gothic style of , from designs of . The interior is the richest in London, with every adornment of stained windows, encaustic pavements, and sculptured capitals, the latter being real works of art. Very pleasing contrasts of colour are obtained in this church by the use of simple materials,brick, chalk, alabaster, granite, and marble-and the effect is most delicate and harmonious. In the chancel, the place usually occupied by the east window is filled with fresco paintings by

On the upper floor of a carpenter's shop in , , , was the poverty-stricken home and studio of James Barry the artist.

Between the great room of the Society of Arts and that carpenter's shop, night after night, and morning after morning, for years, plodded James Barry. In the golden glow of the summer sunsets, and in the thick darkness of winter nights, when the glow-worm oil-lamps, faintly glimmering here and there, scarcely served to show his way. Through hail and rain, heat and cold, mud and snow, the little shabby, pockmarked man went wearily homewards from his daily work. Now brooding over colossal figures of heathen divinities, over grace, light, and shade; now surlily growling curses upon the contemptible meanness which deprived him of both models and materials. At one time angry and peevishly fierce, having been insulted by the acting secretary of the society; at another hungry and perplexed, calculating the sum he dared venture to expend upon a supper. Picture him to yourself in an old dirty baize coat, which was once green, and is now incrusted with paint and dirt, with a scarecrow wig, from beneath which creeps a fringe of his own grey hair. ... . Protected by his appearance of extreme poverty from the footpads abounding in every thoroughfare, his dreary walk at last ends at the desolate house in Castle Street. The door being opened with some difficulty, for the lock is not in order, he gropes his way along the dark passage into his painting-room. The lamp outside, penetrating the thick dirt on the windows, enables him to find the tinder-box, flint, steel, and matches. Patiently he proceeds to strike a shower of sparks over the tinder until it ignites, when, carefully puffing to keep it burning, he applies the pointed or brimstone end of the flat match to it, and presently contrives to light his old tin lamp. Then we see the painting-room, dimly but with sufficient clearness to note the two old chairs, the deal table, the tapestry-like cobwebs, a huge painting on the clumsy easel, old straining frames, dirt-concealed sketches in chalk and oil, a copper-plate printing-press, and, on the walls, the six sketches for his great paintings in the Adelphi.---The Builder, Sept. 25, 1875.

In Wells Street, which opens out of a little lower down, is the , a perpendicular building, erected - by . , called Rawbone Place in Sutton Nicholl's view of , is the great centre for artists' materials.

On the right of we pass (which, with , commemorates Henry, Lord Arundel of Wardour, who died in ), celebrated for its curiosity-shops, amid which John Bacon, the sculptor, had his studio. Flaxman lived at No. from to


, and, being chosen a parish officer,

used to collect the watch-rate, with an ink-bottle at his button-hole.

[n.150.1]  The name of and that of , which crosses it, commemorate Bishop Compton, then Dean of the Chapel Royal. The father of Nollekens the sculptor lived in . No. belonged to Francis Hayman, the artist, known by his Illustrations of No. was the house of Sir James Thornhill: it has a noble frescoed staircase, on the walls of which Jane Thornhill, who eloped with Hogarth in , is said to be represented. At No. died George Harlow the portrait-painter in . leads into , where a rich ironmonger lived in the last century, whose handsome son,

Young Buttall,

was the

Blue Boy

of Gainsborough.

The district of , to the south of , is chiefly due to the enterprise of a builder whose name is commemorated in . It came into fashion in the time of the Stuarts, and failed under the earlier Georges. leads from into , sometimes called King's Square in old times, not from Charles II., in whose reign it was built, but from Gregory King, its surveyor and architect. The Duke of Monmouth, [n.150.2]  the King's son by Lucy Walters, lived in Monmouth House, which was built by Wren, on the south side of the square, and hence he came to appoint So Hoe, a name which had belonged to the district around his home as early as , for his watchword on the battle-field of Sedgemoor. After the Duke of Monmouth's execution the


house was bought by Lord Bateman (commemorated in Bateman's Buildings), of whom Horace Walpole narrates that George I. made him an Irish peer to prevent having to make him a knight of the Bath,


he said,

I can make him a lord, but I cannot make him a gentleman.

Monmouth House was pulled down in .

On the east of the square, at the corner of , was Carlisle House, the town house of the Earls of Carlisle, built in the time of James II. It became celebrated at the end of the last century for the masked balls and concerts of the extraordinary Mrs. Teresa Cornelys, at which, though they were far from immaculate, the fashionable world of the time loved to congregate.[n.151.1]  They were supplanted by Almack's, and the greater part of the house was pulled down in . The Music Room is now the Roman Catholic Church of St. Patrick, Soho, which Nollekens the sculptor attended

on fine Sunday mornings.

It is entered from , and contains a fine Crucifixion by Vandyke.

takes its name from , Chiswick, the country house of the Falconbergs, who resided in Falconberg House close by (commemorated in ). Here lived Mary Cromwell, Lady Falconberg, the Protector's daughter, who died , leaving the house and all else that she could away from her husband's family. In the same house the shipwrecked remains of Sir Cloudesley Shovel lay in state before they were buried in . As the

White House,

its parties were afterwards of equal reputation, but


more disreputable than those of Mrs. Cornelys. The house still exists (Nos. and ) as the offices of Messrs. Crosse and Blackwell, and is the best specimen of domestic architecture remaining in Soho. of the rooms has a grand chimney-piece and beautiful ceiling. The house next door, inhabited in turn by a Duke of Argyle, an Earl of Bedford, and Speaker Onslow, has ceilings by and . In the House of Charity at the corner of are remains of the fine old mansion once occupied by Alderman Beckford. No. , now the Dental Hospital, was the house of Sir Joseph Banks, the great naturalist, who lived there with his eccentric sister, celebrated for her riding-habits-

Hightum, Tightum, and Scrub.

In the middle of the square stood till lately a much-injured statue, concerning which opinions differed as to whether it represented Charles II. or the Duke of Monmouth. Surrounded by figures emblematical of the Thames, Trent, Humber, and Severn, it formed the centre of a handsome fountain: now it is removed to a garden at Harrow Weald. Nollekens narrates that he

often stood for hours together to see the water run out of the jugs of the old river gods, but the water never would run out of their jugs, but when the windmill was going round at the top of

Rathbone Place


Evelyn tells us that he went in , with his family,

to winter in Soho, in the great square,

and it will be remembered that Sir Roger de Coverley is represented as residing in

when he is in town.

It continued to be of the most fashionable parts of London till far into the last century. Nollekens the sculptor (born ) records that when he was a little


boy, and living in ,

there were no fewer than


ambassadors in

Soho Square

, and at that time it was the most fashionable place for the nobility.

The whole district of Soho, especially the southern portion of it, has now a French aspect, from the number of French refugees who have settled there at different times, especially the Huguenots after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in , the émigrés of the Reign of Terror in , and the Communists of . Maitland, writing in the beginning of the last century, says,

Many parts of this parish so abound with French, that it is an easy matter for a stranger to imagine himself in France.

Many are the continental conspiracies which have been hatched in Soho. An old pillared building, which stood on the site of the chapel in , was called the

French Change.

There are French schools, French names over many of the shops, French restaurants with , and the organ-grinders of Soho find that the Marseillaise is the most lucrative tune to play. Lately the London City Mission has established a in , where counsel is given to the friendless and distressed.

Returning to , , on the right (so called from the sign of the

Rose and Crown

at the corner of and ), was formerly

Hog Lane,

the scene of Hogarth's . The has usurped the site of a historic building which was the Greek Church in London, having been consecrated in ,

the most serene Charles It. being king,

as was told in an inscription over the door. It was under the jurisdiction of the Greek


Archbishop of Samos, and was dedicated to the Virgin because of her famous grotto in that island. In the church was sold by the Greeks, and it was used by French Protestant refugees till . Some almshouses near this were founded by Nell Gwynne.

now leads into the poverty-stricken district of St. Giles. It is noteworthy that places dedicated to this saint,

abbot and martyr,

were almost always outside some great town. This was because St. Giles (St. Egidius) was the patron saint of lepers, and where a place was called by his name a lazar-house always existed. From the reign of Edward III. to that of Henry VIII.

the pleasant village of St. Giles

consisted of only a few cottages grouped around an old stone cross, with some shops whose owners' names are preserved in the hospital grants as Gervase le Lyngedrap (linendraper), and Reginald le Tailleur, &c. A hospital for lepers was built here by Matilda, wife of Henry I., about , being attached to a larger house of the kind at Burton Lazars in Leicestershire. It was in front of this hospital that the Lollard conspirators met under Sir John Oldcastle in , and on the same spot he was roasted in chains over a slow fire.

1416. Thys yere the xiij day of December Sir John Oldecastell Knyghte was drawne from the tower of London unto sent Gylles in the felde and there was hongyd and brent.-Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London.

The Hospital was dissolved at the Reformation, and the property granted to John Dudley, Viscount Lisle (whence ), but it was not till the beginning of the century that the

verie pleasant village

of St. Giles began to be built over or connected with London.


The vine garden of the Hospital is now known as Vinegar Yard!

The Hospital and its country surroundings are commemorated in the name of the built by , -, with a very handsome spire, on the site of a brick church constructed by Laud in . Close to the north door, removed from the chancel and preserved from the old church on account of her mother's benefactions to the parish, is the tomb, with a recumbent figure, of Lady Alice Kniveton. She was daughter of Alice Leigh, who married and was repudiated by Sir Robert Dudley (son of Elizabeth's Earl of Leicester), and was created Duchess of Dudley by Charles I., a title which was confirmed by Charles II. The words of her daughter's epitaph do not flatter her when they say that

she lived and died worthy of that honour;

she resided close by in that house of Lord Lisle which supplanted the old hospital, and is buried at Stoneleigh.

Under ye pewes in ye south aisle of Saint Giles' church,

says Aubrey, was buried, in . Andrew Marvel the poet, whose works have been compared by his admirers to those of Milton.

A lich-gate of , bearing a curious carving in oak representing the Resurrection, forms the western approach to the churchyard, which contains many interesting monuments. Against the south wall of the church is a tomb like a Roman altar, erected at the expense of Inigo Jones to

George Chapman, Poeta,

the translator of the and of Hesiod's Pope speaks of

the daring, fiery spirit that animates his translation, which is something like what


might imagine Homer himself to have written before he arrived at years of discretion.


Warton says that his eighteen plays,

though now forgotten, must have contributed in no considerable degree to enrich and advance the English stage.

Ben Jonson writes-

Whose work could this be, Chapman, to refine Old Hesiod's lore, and give it thus, but thine Who hadst before wrought in rich Homer's mine?

What treasure hast thou brought us, and what store Still, still thou dost arrive with at our shore, To make thy honour and our wealth the more?

If all the vulgar tongues that speak this day Were asked of thy discoveries, they must say, To the Greek coast thine only knew the way.

Such passage hast thou found, such returns made, As now of all men it is called the trade; And who make thither else, rob or invade.

Near the east end of the church is the conspicuous tomb of Richard Penderell- (),

the preserver of the life of King Charles II.

after his escape from Worcester fight. It bears the lines-

Hold, passenger, here's shrouded in his hearse,

Unparallel'd Pendrill through the universe;

Like whom the Eastern star from heaven gave light

To three lost kings, so he in such dark night

To Britain's Monarch, toss'd by adverse war,

On earth appear'd, a second Eastern star;

A pole, a stem in her rebellious main,

A pilot to her royal sovereign.

Now to triumph in heaven's eternal sphere

He's hence advanced for his just steerage here;

Whilst Albion's chronicles with matchless fame

Embalm the story of great Pendrill's name.

On the edge of the churchyard towards , under a stone marked by a coronet, the remains of James Ratcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, rested before they were


removed to Dilston, whence, in , they were taken to Thorndon. Other eminent persons buried in this churchyard are Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Shirley the dramatist, ; Michael Mohun the actor, ; the Countess of Shrewsbury, who is described by Walpole as holding the horse of her lover, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, while he killed her husband in a duel, Roger le Strange the politician, ; and Oliver Plunkett, the Archbishop of Armagh, who was executed at Tyburn for high treason in , and whose body was afterwards removed to Landsprung in Germany, It was in front of the hospital, afterwards at an inn close by-

The Bow,

in later times

The Angel

(destroyed in )-that, by old custom, prisoners on their way to execution at Tyburn were presented with

the parting-cup

--a bowl of ale (whence

Bowl Alley,

on the south of ), their last mortal sustenance; and that Jack Sheppard, having supped the wine, smiled, and said,

Give the remainder to Jonathan Wild.

This custom gave a moral taint to St. Giles's, and made It a retreat for noisome and squalid outcasts. The Puritans made stout efforts to reform its morals; and, as the parish books attest, oppressed tipplers were fined for drinking on the Lord's-day, and vintners for permitting them; fines were levied for swearing oaths, travelling and brewing on a fast day, &c. Again, St. Giles's was a refuge for the persecuted tipplers and ragamuffins of London in those days; and its blackguardism was increased by harsh treatment. It next became the abode of hosts of disaffected foreigners, chiefly Frenchmen, of whom a club was held in Seven Dials. Smollett speaks, in 1740, of two tatterdemalions from the purlieus of St. Giles's, and between them both there was but one shirt and a pair of breeches. Hogarth painted his moralities from St. Giles's : his Gin Lane has for its background St. George's Church, Bloomsbury, date 1751: when, says Hogarth, these two prints (Gin Lane and Beer Street) were designed and engraved, the dreadful consequences of gin-drinking appeared in every house in Gin-lane; every circumstance of its horrid effects is brought into view in terrorem-not a house in tolerable condition but the pawn- broker's and the gin-shop--the coffin-makers in the distance. Again the scene of Hogarth's Harlot's Progress' is in Drury Lane; Tom Nero, in his Four Stages of Cruelty, is a St. Giles's charity-boy; and in a night cellar here the Idle Apprentice is taken up for murder.-Timbs. Curiosities of London.

From an early date seems to have had a bad reputation. Even the little village had its cage, watchhouse, round-house, pest-house, stocks, gallows, and whipping-post Its pound, only cleared away in , was a landmark-

At Newgate steps Jack Chance was found, And bred up near St. Giles's pound.See The Builder, Oct. 4, 1873.

Under the Tudors the character of was changed from a country village to that of of the poorest parishes in London.

A cellar in

St. Giles's

has long been an epithet to denote the lowest grade of poverty. In , during the Great Plague, persons died in alone. But the dense mass of houses called the


which was once the worst part of the parish, has been cleared away in the formation of , and the condition of the whole neighbourhood is improving, though it still continues of the poorest in London. Much harm has been done by the ill-judged benevolence of writers of little religious books, and the exaggerated pictures they have drawn of the poverty of this district, resulting in unnecessarily large subscriptions, which destroy the habit of self-dependence amongst the inhabitants. There is seldom absolute destitution except amongst those who, having


fallen from better days, have never been able to acquire the habit of work. Old-clothes-men, bird-fanciers, bird-cage makers, and ballad-mongers drive the most flourishing trades. Apropos of the latter, Walford's gives an amusing account of the origin of the expression


in the displeasure of the people at being taken in by the ingenuity of James Catnach, a popular ballad printer in Monmouth Court, who, after the murder of Weare by Thurtell, obtained a great sale for a broadside, which he headed,


which the public read as WEARE. Of the ballads which told the story of Rush and the Mannings, no less than copies were sold.

A number of wretched streets run southwards from and . Dickens[n.159.1]  calls , formerly ,

the burial-place of the fashions,

from its old-clothes shops. St. Andrew's Street leads (at the junction of and ) to the famous , so called because, at the conjunction of streets, there formerly stood here a pillar bearing a dial with faces. Evelyn says-

I went to see the building near St. Giles's, where seven streets made a star, from a Doric pillar placed in the centre of a circular area, said to be built by Mr. Neale, introducer of the late lotteries, in imitation of those at Venice.--Diary.

Where famed St. Giles's ancient limits spread, An in-rail'd column nears its lofty head; Here to seven streets seven dials count their day, And from each other catch the circling ray. Gay. Trivia, bk. ii.

The pillar was removed in , and, long afterwards,


being surmounted with a ducal coronet, was set up on Weybridge Green in memory of the Duchess of York, who died at Oatlands in .

Returning to , of the next openings on the right is . Some way down it (on the right, under No. ) was a curious bath, surrounded by Dutch tiles and supplied by an abundant mineral spring. It was called Queen Anne's Bath, and small rooms were shown as her toilette and dressing-room, though there was no proof of its having been used by her. About the springs overflowed so much, that it was found necessary to cut them off, and the bath has now been filled up. Only its marble paving slabs remain.

Then opens on the right. The turning on the left of it is , where Nell Gwynne was born. At the end of this street stood the Round House, where Jack Sheppard was imprisoned at night, and found to have escaped in the morning. The next turn out of , , was formerly Lewknor's Lane (from Sir Lewis Lewknor, the proprietor). Its morality is alluded to by Butler-

The nymphs of chaste Diana's train,

The same with those of Lewknor's lane.

It was close to this that the Great Plague of began.

Opposite to the entrance of , forms a main artery, running north-west towards Hampstead. It derives its name from the manor of , which belonged to the Chapter of , whose pleasant fields were a favourite summer-evening resort of ancient Londoners.


And Hogsdone, Islington, and Tothnam Court, For cakes and creame, had then no small resort. George Wither, 1628.

was afterwards the

Adam and Eve

public-house, surrounded by gardens, in front of which Hogarth has laid the scene of his The gardens existed till the end of the last century.

When the sweet-breathing spring unfolds the buds, Love flies the dusty town for shady woods. Then Tottenham-fields with roving beauty swarm, And Hampstead balls the city virgins warm. Gay to Pulteney.

is famous for its furniture shops. On the right is Meux's Brewery. On the left is ,[n.161.1]  built by George Whitefield in , when it became known as

Whitefield's Soul Trap;

an octangular front, which was a later addition due to the liberality of Queen Caroline, being called the


Whitefield's pulpit is preserved, and is that in which he preached his last sermon () before leaving for America, where he died at Boston in . Wesley used it, in accordance with Whitefield's dying desire, when he preached his funeral sermon. Here, also, Dr. Henry Peckwell preached his own funeral sermon on Heb. xiii. , , after he knew that mortification had set in from the prick of a needle, of which he died a few days after. Whitefield is commemorated here on the monument of his wife. His portrait is in the vestry, with those of all his successors in the ministry of this chapel.

Neither energy, nor eloquence, nor histrionic talents, nor any artifices of style, nor the most genuine sincerity and self-devotedness, nor all there united, would have enabled Whitefield to mould the religious character of millions in his own and future generations. The secret lies deeper, though not very deep. It consisted in the nature of the theology he taught--in its perfect simplicity and universal application. His thirty or forty thousand sermons were but so many variations on two key-notes. Man is guilty and must obtain forgiveness; he is immortal, and must ripen here for endless weal or woe hereafter. Expanded into innumerable forms, these two cardinal principles were ever in his heart and on his tongue.-Sir James Stephen. The Evangelical Succession.

A tablet under the north gallery, to John Bacon, R.A., the sculptor of numerous monuments in and elsewhere in London, has, from his own hand, the epitaph-

What I was as an artist seemed to me of some importance while I lived; but what I really was as a Believer in Christ Jesus is the only thing of importance to me now.

The site of Whitefield's new chapel was surrounded by fields and gardens. On the north side of it there were but two houses. The next after them, half a mile further, was the Adam and Eve public-house; and thence, to Hampstead, there were only the inns of Mother Red Cap and Black Cap. The chapel, when first erected, was seventy feet square within the walls. Two years after it was opened, twelve almshouses and a minister's house were added. About a year after that, the chapel was found to be too small, and it was enlarged to its present dimensions of a hundred and twenty-seven feet long and seventy feet broad, with a dome of a hundred and fourteen feet in height. Beneath it were vaults for the burial of the dead; and in which Whitefield intended that himself and his friends, John and Charles Wesley, should be interred. I have prepared a vault in this chapel, Whitefield used to say to his somewhat bigoted congregation, where I intend to be buried, and Messrs. John and Charles Wesley shall also be buried there. We will all lie together. You will not let them enter your chapel while they are alive. They can do you no harm when they are dead. The lease of the ground was granted to Whitefield by General George Fitzroy, and, on its expiration in 1828, the freehold was purchased for £ 19,000. The foundation-stone of the chapel was laid in the beginning of June, 1756, It was opened for divine worship on November 7, 1756, when Whitefield selected, as his text, the words, Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ (I Cor. iii. XI).

Tottenham Court Chapel has a history well worthy of being written. From this venerable sanctuary sprang separate congregations in Shepherd's Market, Kentish Town, Paddington, Tonbridge Chapel, Robert Street, Crown Street, and Craven Chapel. Much might also be said of the distinguished preachers who, in olden days, occupied its pulpit: Dr. Peckwell; De Courcy; Berridge; Walter Shirley; Piercy, Chaplain to General Washington; Rowland Hill; Torial Joss; West; Kinsman; Beck; Medley; Edward Parsons; Matthew Wilks; Joel Knight; John Hyatt, and many others. Whitefield's Tabernacle in Moorfields has been demolished, and a Gothic church erected on its site. Whitefieid's Tottenham Court Chapel is now his only erection in the great metropolis; and long may it stand as a grand old monument, in memory of the man who founded it I Thousands have been converted within its walls, and never was it more greatly needed than at the present day.-Tyerman's Life of the Rev. G. Whitefield. 1877.

leads into the , on which the name of records the site of the quaint old mansion called Bellsize House, which was popular as a tea-garden and place of fashionable resort in the early part of the last century, though, as late as , its advertisements set forth,

For the security of the guests there are


stout fellows, completely armed, to patrol between London and Bellsize, to prevent the insults of highwaymen and footpads that may infest the roads.

Beyond this, the district to the north of is called , the name being a corruption of Blemundsbury, the manor of the De Blemontes, Blemunds, or Blemmots, in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I.[n.163.1] 


When the changeable tide of fashion in the last century flowed north from the neighbourhood of St. Clement Danes and , it settled with a deceptive grasp, which seemed likely to be permanent, on the estate of the Duke of Bedford. Everything here commemorates the glories of that great ducal family. and Square, , , , , , and many places less important, have their names and titles. and record the marriage of the duke with the daughter of John Howland of Streatham in . and , built -, commemorate his son, who was made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in ; and other marriages of the family have left their mark in and .

On the left of , now leads into , decorated with a statue of Francis, Duke of Bedford, by . No. was the residence of Lord Eldon from to , and it was here that the Prince Regent, by his insistance at the Chancellor's sick-bed, wrung from him the appointment to the vacant post of Master in Chancery for his friend Jekyll the wit.

In , which leads north from , is , built by Wilkins, -. Under the central cupola is the , containing models of the principal works of John Flaxman, presented by his sister-in-law, Miss Denman.

On the east of rose the magnificent . Writing of the year , Macaulay says-

A little way from Holborn, and on the verge of pastures and cornfields, rose two celebrated palaces, each with an ample garden. One of them, then called Southampton House, and subsequently Bedford House, was removed early in the present century to make room for a new city which now covers, with its squares, streets, and churches, a vast area renowned in the seventeenth century for peaches and snipes. The other, known as Montague House, celebrated for its furniture and frescoes, was, a few months after the death of King Charles II., burned to the ground, and was speedily succeeded by a more magnificent Montague House, which, having long been the repository of such various and precious treasures of art, science, and learning as were scarce ever before assembled under a single roof, has since given place to an edifice more magnificent still.Hist. of England.

leads from to , which was built on the site of , --, from designs of Sir Robert Smirke, continued under his brother Sydney. Otherwise handsome, it is dwarfed and spoilt by having no suitable base. Its collections originated in the purchase of those of Sir Hans Sloane in . The most important gifts have been those of the Royal Library by George II., and of George III.'s library by George IV.; the most important purchases those of Sir William Hamilton's collections, the Townley, Phigalian, and Elgin Marbles, Dr. Burney's MSS, and the Lansdowne and Arundel MSS.

The is to the Public (Free admission)

 From 10 to 4.From 10 to 5.From 10 to 6.
Mondays. Wednesdays. Fridays. January, February, November, August. March, April, September, October. May, June, July, August.

Saturdays, from 12 till the hour of closing throughout the year, except as stated below.

Evenings of Monday and Saturday till 8 o'clock, from May 8 to the middle of August.

Closed-January 1 to 7, May 1 to 7, September 1 to 7 inclusive; and on Sundays, Christmas Day, Ash Wednesday, and Good Friday.

In the Hall are three statues-

Hon. Mrs. Seymour Damer, the sculptress, by herself.

Shakspeare by Roubiliac.

Sir Joseph Banks by Chantrey.

Turning to the left, we enter the , lined on the left by Anglo-Roman antiquities, and on the right by Roman statues and busts. In the centre is-

*. -a noble haughty bust, the deeply overshadowing hair descending close to the eyebrows. Found in the Forum of Trajan, and probably representing the German chieftain Arminius, conquered by Germanicus.

Deserving notice on the right are-

103. Head of Minerva-found in the Temple of Apollo at Cyrene.

37. Bust of Caracalla--found in Rome at the Quattro Fontane.

30. Bust of Lucius Verus--from the Mattei Collection.

29. Bust of Lucius Aelius, the colleague of M. Aurelius.

27. Bust of Marcus Aurelius--from Cyrene.

26. Curious Bust of Marcus Aurelius as one of the Fratres Arvales--from the Mattei Collection.

24. Bust of Antoninus Pius--from Cyrene.

19. Statue of Hadrian.

*20. Bust of Antinous-found near the Villa Pamfili at Rome.

15. Bust of Trajan-found in the Roman Campagna.

4. Bust of Augustus.

3. Beautiful Head of the young Augustus--from the Castellani Collection.

2. Head of Julius Caesar.

1. Head supposed to represent Cnaeus L.L. Marcellinus, Propraetor of Cyrene-found in the Temple of Apollo at Cyrene.

In the we may notice-

109. Satyr with the Infant Bacchus--from the Farnese Collection.

110. Bacchus--from the Temple of Bacchus at Cyrene.

111. Bust of Juno-found at Rome.

112. Statue of Diana-found at La Storta, much restored.

114. Apollo Citharcedus--from his temple at Cyrene.

l15. Bust of Apollo--from the Albani Collection.

116. Statue of Venus preparing for the bath-given by William IV.

*117. Bust of Homer--in old age and blind. From Baiae.

118. The Satyr called the Rondinini Faun-greatly restored. From the Palazzo Rondinini at Rome.

126. Canephora-found on the Via Appia.

128. Bust of Minerva--from the Villa Casali at Rome. Much restored, and the bronze helmet and breast modem.

The contains-

(Left) 139. A Male Head from the Villa of Hadrian called Pantanella.

*136. The Townley Venus--a beautiful statue, found in the Baths of Claudius at Ostia.

* (Right) 135. The Discobolus, or Quoit-thrower--an early copy of the famous bronze statue by Myron, found in the Villa Adriana at Tivoli.

*138. A noble Head of Apollo--from the Giustiniani Collection.

The contains, beginning on the right wall-

144. Relief of Hercules seizing the Keryneian Stag.

145. Cupid bending his Bow.

146. A beautiful statuette of Cupid bending a Bow-found 1776 at Castello di Guido (Lorium). It has no restorations.

147. Relief of a Youth holding a Horse--from Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli.

*149. Beautiful Female Bust resting on the calyx of a flower. This was formerly calledClytie, and was the most cherished possession of Mr. Townley, who escaped with it in his arms when he was expecting his house to be sacked and burnt during the Gordon riots.

151. A noble Bust-restored by Flaxman. From the collection of Mr. Rogers.

154 A beautiful Head of a Youth-found near Rome.

155. Statue of Thalia (the Muse of Comedy) crowned with ivy from Ostia.

157. Relief of a Female carried off by a Centaur--from the Villa Verospi.

158. Noble Head of a Muse--from Frascati.

*159. A very curious Relief representing the Apotheosis of Homer, found at Boville in the seventeenth century, and probably executed in the time of the Emperor Tiberius.

160. Female Head in a Phrygian Hood--from the Villa Montalto at Rome.

161. Iconic Bust.

163. Mithras sacrificing a Bull--much restored. The worship of Mithras, the Persian Sun-god, was introduced under the Empire. He is represented here, in a Persian cap and tunic, pressing a bull to the ground, and stabbing him with a dagger. A dog and serpent lick the blood which trickles from the wound, and a scorpion fastens on the bull beneath.

165. Actaeon devoured by his Hounds on Mount Cithaeron-from Civita Lavinia.

166. Female Head--from the Pourtales Collection.

*171. The Farnese Mercury-purchased 1865.

176. Relief of the Visit of Bacchus to Icarius, whom he instructed in the art of making wine--from the collection of Sixtus V. in the Villa Montalto.

178. Recumbent Satyr.

179. A beautiful Bacchic Relief--from Gabii.

188. Youthful Satyr--from the Palazzo Maccarani at Rome.

184. Youthful Satyr--from Antium.

185. Venus--from Ostia.

186. Remains of a group of two Boys fighting over a game of Astragali (knuckle-bones)-from the Baths of Titus at Rome.

189. Bacchus, and his beloved Ampelus, who is being transformed into a vine, to which his affection was thenceforth transferred--a very beautiful group found at La Storta, on the Via Cassia.

119. Paniskos, or Youthful Pan. The name of the artist, Marcus Cossutius Cerdo, is inscribed.

196. A Nymph of Diana seated on the ground.

199. Head of the Young Hercules--from Genzano.

204. Head of the Young Hercules--from the Barberini Collection.

In this room is placed provisionally a fine Etruscan sarcophagus, with two reclining figures--from Cervetri.

Behind the statue of Mercury a staircase leads to the , where we may notice-

54. Two Greyhounds--from Monte Cagnolo. A beautiful group.

56. Mithraic Group, with an inscription which says, Alcimus, the slave bailiff of Titus Claudius Livianus, dedicates this to the Sun-god, Mithras, in fulfilment of a vow.

From the Graeco-Roman Room we enter the , filled with sculptures and casts of sculptures, brought - by Sir Charles Fellows from the ruins of Xanthus, the most important city of Lycia, which was twice destroyed- in the reign of Cyrus, when it was besieged by Harpagus with a Persian army, and the Xanthians buried themselves and all their possessions beneath the ruins of their city; and, secondly, by the army of Brutus, who took the city by stratagem, when the inhabitants again destroyed themselves, with their wives and children. On the right of the entrance of the room is a model of the principal temple at Xanthus, to which most of the sculptures in this room (No. -) belong, and where they are marked at the appropriate points in the model. tombs from Xanthus, or portions of them, are likewise preserved here.

--supposed to have been raised for a Prince of Lycia, who claimed descent from the mythical hero Pandarus. In its relief the Harpies are represented carrying off the daughters of Pandarus.

. On the roof is a chariot with horses, and beneath it a relief of Bellerophon attacking the Chimaera.

. Tomb of the Satrap Piafa, with a roof and reliefs.

covered with inscriptions in the ancient Lycian language.

The contains the remains of the famous Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, on the coast of Asia Minor, of the erected by Artemisia, Princess of Caria, who during her short reign destroyed the fleet of Rhodes, and became mistress of the island. She is chiefly celebrated, however, for her violent grief for the loss of her husband (who was also her brother), whose ashes she mixed daily with her drink, of whom she


induced the most eminent Greek rhetoricians to proclaim the praises, and for whose loss she died in years of a broken heart, having erected to his memory a mausoleum which surpassed in splendour all the monuments of the ancient world. It was an edifice like an Ionic temple, raised on a lofty basement, and surmounted by a pyramid, with a chariot group on the summit. The whole was of Parian marble. Its architects were Satyros and Pythios. great sculptors-Scopas, Leochares, Bryaxis, and Timotheos--were employed on its decorations; a , probably Pythios, made the crowning chariot group. From its beauty the name of mausoleum came to be applied to all similar monuments. The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus is mentioned by Vitruvius, Pliny, and Lucian, and is alluded to as a still-existing wonder by Eustathius, who wrote in the century. After this it ceased to excite attention till, in , sculptured slabs were sent to England by Lord de Redcliffe from the Castle of Budrum, which had been built by the Knights of St. John in the ruins of Halicarnassus. In Mr. C. J. Newton, Keeper of the Greek and Roman antiquities of the , visited Budrum, and his discovery of the colossal lions inserted in the walls of the castle and other evident remains of the Mausoleum led the Government, in , to send out the steam corvette , with workmen, and a firman permitting them to excavate.

The most remarkable of the remains brought over are the Lions, guardians of the tomb, with the expression varied in each; and the colossal statue believed to represent the despotic and unscrupulous satrap Mausolus himself (-), which was found broken into


fragments, but is now nearly complete, wanting only the arms and foot.

The aspect of the figure accords well with the description which Mausolus is made to give of himself in Lucan's Dialogue. I was, he says, addressing Diogenes, a tall, handsome man, and formidable in war. -C. A. Newton.

A female figure either represents the goddess who acted as charioteer to Mausolus, or Artemisia herself when deified.

In this statue and that of Mausolus great skill has been shown in the treatment of the drapery. Each fold is traced home to its origin, and wrought to its full depth; a master hand has passed over the whole surface, leaving no sign of that slurred and careless treatment which characterizes the meretricious art of a later period. One foot of this statue has been preserved, and is an exquisite specimen of sculpture, the more precious because we possess so few examples of extremities finished by the hands of the great masters of the earlier Greek schools.-C. J. Newton.

In this room is placed, provisionally, a noble Head of Aesculapius from the Isle of Melos.

The is almost entirely devoted to the precious marbles removed by Lord Elgin from the Parthenon in , lost by shipwreck, recovered by divers, and purchased by Government, after long controversy, in . It is almost forgotten now with what vituperation the marbles were assailed on their arrival in England--they were

not originals,

they were

of the time of Hadrian,

they were the

works of journeymen, not deserving the name of artists,

they were

too much broken to be of any value.

The sum paid to Lord Elgin was less than he had expended upon the marbles, and far less than Napoleon was willing to pay for them. Yet now they are


recognised as the greatest masterpieces of Greek art in this or any other country. A model of the Parthenon (the Temple of Athene) here shows their original position. Around the room are the glorious frieze and metopes of the temple (their subjects are described beneath): we must remember that here they are, as it were, turned inside out. The frieze represents the procession which took place every years in honour of the goddess. The south side is the least perfect, having been injured by the winds from the sea: it is chiefly occupied by the victims, who made this procession a kind of cattle-show, as each of the Athenian colonies contributed, and, by their anxiety to shine in this, Athens knew the disposition of her colonies. Here also we see the maidens carrying the sacrificial vessels, the flat vessels being used for libations. To meet this procession comes from the north side a long cavalcade of chariots and horsemen, many of the latter most glorious. From the east end of the temple, where the processions united, are representations of the gods, without whose presence no Greek festival was considered complete, and of the delivery of the , the embroidered veil of Athene, given every years.

The Temple of Minerva in the Acropolis of Athens, erected by Ictinus and Callicrates, was under the direction of Phidias, and to him we probably owe the composition, style, and character of the sculpture, in addition to much assistance in drawing, modelling, choice of the naked, and draperies, as well as occasional execution of parts in the marble.

The emulators of Phidias were Alcamenes, Critias, Nestocles, and Hegias; twenty years after, Agelades, Gallon, Polycletus, Phragmon, Gorgias, Lacon, Myron, Scopas, Pythagoras, and Perelius.

It is the peculiar character and praise of Phidias's style that ho represented gods better than men. As this sculptor determined the visible idea of Jupiter, his successors employed a hundred years on the forms of the inferior divinities. This must, therefore, be denominated the sublime era of sculpture.

We possess in England the most precious examples of Grecian power in the sculpture of animals. The horses of the frieze in the Elgin Collection appear to live and move, to roll their eyes, to gallop, prance, and curvet; the veins of their faces and legs seem distended with circulation; in them are distinguished the hardness and decision of bony forms, from the elasticity of tendon and the softness of flesh. The beholder is charmed with the deer-like lightness and elegance of their make, and although the relief is not above an inch from the background, and they are so much smaller than nature, we can scarcely suffer reason to persuade us they are not alive.-Flaxman. Lectures on Sculpture.

It is the union of nature with ideal beauty, the probabilities and accidents of bone, flesh, and tendon, from extension, flexion, compression, gravitation, action, or repose, that rank at once the Elgin Marbles above all other works of art in the world. The finest form that man ever imagined, or God ever created, must have been formed on these eternal principles ... Every truth of shape, the result of the inherent organization of man as an intellectual being; every variation of that shape, produced by the slightest variation of motion, in consequence of the slightest variation of intention, acting on it; every result of repose on flesh as a soft substance, and on bone as a hard-both being influenced by the common principles of life and gravitation; every harmony of line in composition, from geometrical principle,--all proving the science of the artist; every beauty of conception proving his genius; and every grace of execution proving that practice has given his hand power, can be shown to exist in the Elgin Marbles.... Were the Elgin Marbles lost, there would be as great a gap in art as there would be in philosophy if Newton had never existed.--B. R. Haydon.

On the left of the room are the sculptures from the eastern pediment of the temple, at which they occupied platforms at the ends, a much larger space in the middle than is seen here having been filled by figures which are lost. The subject of the whole is the Birth of Athene from the brain of Zeus. The father of the gods complaining


of a violent pain in his head, Hephaestus split it open with his axe, when Athene sprang forth in full armour. The central figures are wanting: those of which we see the remnants represent the gods and goddesses who were present at the event, which is supposed to have taken place on Olympus. At the south end of the pediment the horses of Helios, or the Sun, are rising from the waves. at the north end Selene, or Night, is going down. Of the intermediate figures only in rapid movement can, with some probability, be identified as Iris, the messenger of the gods, going to announce the event. The noble male figure reclining on a rock covered with a lion's skin (No. ) has generally, but without reason, been called Theseus.

I prefer the Theseus to the Apollo Belvidere, which I believe to be only a copy. It has more ideal beauty than any male statue I know.-Flaxman.

On the right are the remains of the western pediment, of which the missing portions are better known than those of the eastern pediment, owing to the existence of drawings taken in . The subject is the Contest of Athene, tutelary goddess of Athens, with Poseidon, or Neptune, who had inundated Attica.

1810. I used to go down in the evening with a little portfolio and bribe the porter at Burlington House, to which the Elgin Marbles were now removed, to lend me a lantern, and then, locking myself in, take the candle out and make different sketches, till the cold damp would almost put the candle out. As the light streamed across the room and died away into obscurity, there was something awful and solemn in the grand forms and heads and trunks and fragments of mighty temples and columns that lay scattered about in sublime insensibility,--the remains, the only actual remains, of a mighty people. The grand back of the Theseus would come towering close to my eye, and his broad shadow spread over the place a depth of mystery and awe. Why were such beautiful productions ever suffered to be destroyed? Why in A succession of ages has the world again to begin? Why is knowledge ever suffered to ebb? And why not allowed to proceed from. where it left off to an endless perfection? .... These questions would occur to me in the intervals of drawing, and perplex my mind to an endless musing.-Haydon's Autobiography.

At the northern end of the room are some noble fragments from the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, and a colossal lion brought from a Doric tomb on a promontory at Cnidus in .

On the east side of the room is of the Canephora of the Erectheum, a temple at Athens dedicated jointly to Athene Polias and Pandrosos, daughter of Kekrops. The portico of this temple, called the Pandroseion, and its Canephorae, have been imitated at Church in the .

The (entered from the east of the Elgin Room) is surrounded by reliefs from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius (or the Deliverer), discovered in on the site of Phigalia in Arcadia; they represent contests between the Lapithas and Centaurs, and between the Greeks and Amazons. Though. beautiful in composition, they are full of gross disproportions and mannerisms, and are immeasurably inferior to the Elgin Marbles, though, at the time of their arrival in England (), they were attributed to the hand of Phidias, an honour which was denied to the great marbles of the Parthenon.

Here are statues of an Athlete binding his head with a fillet --from the Farnese Collection.

From the east side of the Hellenic Room we enter


the , filled with the sculptures brought by Mr. Layard from the Assyrian ruins of Nimroud, Kouyunjik, and Khorsabad in -. Taking the later monuments , we enter, by a door on the left, the , lined with sculptures brought from an Assyrian edifice at Kouyunjik (opposite Mosul, on the Tigris), supposed to have been the palace of Sennacherib. Kouyunjik is believed to have been Nineveh itself, while the mound now called Nimroud, which is miles below the modern Mosul, is believed to have been the Calah of Scripture (Gen. x. -).

The first series of slabs (Nos. 2 to 44) in the Kouyunjik Gallery represent events in the history of Sennacherib, especially his expedition against Merodach Baladan (Jeremiah 1. 2), the king who sent letters to Hezeldah (Isaiah xxxix. I), and to whose messenger the Jewish monarch exhibited all the treasures of his house.

The second series, of later date (Nos. 45 to 50), exhibit the victories of Assurbanipal, grandson of Sennacherib, over the Elamites.

The remaining slabs are of the period of Sennacherib (Isaiah xxxvii. 37), and illustrate his conquests and the employment of his prisoners in his architectural works. In Nos. 51, 52, and 53 they are represented dragging to their sites the human-headed bulls which may be seen in the next room.

No. I is a cast from a Relief of Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib (2 Kings xix. 37; Ezra iv. 2), on a rock at the mouth of the Nahr el Kelb River, near Beyrout in Syria.

Returning to the , we find-

. Reliefs from the Palace of Nimroud (Calah), supposed to have been constructed by Esarhaddon. An inscription on of these records the payment of tribute by Menahem, King of Israel ( Kings xv. ), and so indicates that the sculpture was made for Tiglath Pileser II., and transferred by Esarhaddon to his own palace.

. A colossal head of a human-headed bull, the largest yet found, believed to be of the time of Esarhaddon.


(Beyond the door to the Hellenic Room) Reliefs representing a siege. On one of these are two heads, shown by an inscription to represent Tiglath Pileser II. and an attendant (2 Kings xiv. 29, xvi. 7; I Chron. v. 6, 26; 2 Chron. xxviii. 20).

In the centre of the room, a black marble Obelisk, found near the centre of the great mound of Nimroud. Its reliefs record the annals of Shalmaneser (2 Kings xvii. 3) for thirty-one years, beginning c. B.C. 1860. They exhibit various tributary kings bringing offerings, amongst whom the inscriptions mention Jehu of the House of Omri, King of Israel, and Hazael, King of Syria.

Opposite are two round-headed tablets, with reliefs and inscriptions of Shalmaneser and Assur-izir-pal; on one of them Ahab is mentioned.

The colossal lion at the door of the Kouyunjik Gallery decorated a doorway in a small temple in the north-west quarter of Nimroud. By its side was the small statue which stands near it (on its original pedestal), representing Assur-izir-pal.

Opposite are a colossal winged and human-headed lion and a bull, from the north-western edifice of Nimroud. Those who look upon these gigantic remains will read with interest Mr. Layard's thrilling account of their discovery beneath the green mounds which now alone mark the great cities of Assyria (Isaiah xxv. 2) :--

What more noble forms could have ushered the people into the temples of their gods? What more sublime images could have been borrowed from nature, by men who sought, unaided by the light of revealed religion, to embody their conception of the wisdom, power, and ubiquity of a Supreme Being? They could find no better type of intellect and modesty than the head of the man; of strength, than the body of the lion; of rapidity of motion, than the wings of the bird. These winged human-headed lions were not idle creations, the offspring of mere fancy: their meaning was written upon them. They had awed and instructed races which flourished 3,000 years ago. Through the portals which they guarded, kings, priests, and warriors had borne sacrifices to their altars, long before the wisdom of the East had penetrated to Greece, and had furnished its mythology with symbols long recognised by the Assyrian votaries. They may have been buried and their existence may have been unknown before the foundation of the eternal city. For twenty-five centuries they have been hidden from the eye of man.-Layard's Nineveh.

The is filled with slabs which continue the history of Assur-izir-pal (), the earliest Assyrian


monarch of whom any large monuments have been found. We may especially notice-

No. 20, as representing the King, in a rich dress with a royal cap, and a sword.

No. 29, as representing Dagon, or the Fish-god. (See Judges xvi. 23; I Samuel v. 2, 3, 4, 7; I Chron. x. 10.)

No. 33, an eagle-headed god, supposed to represent Nisroch, in whose temple Sennacherib was murdered by Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings xix. 37).

At the north-west angle of the Nimroud Gallery is the door leading to the , containing-

A four-sided stela of limestone with a relief of King Simsivul, son of Shalmaneser--from the south-eastern edifice of Nimroud.

(In the cases) Curious cylinders of terra-cotta. One of them is inscribed with the history of the first eight expeditions of Sennacherib, including that against Judea (2 Kings xviii. 13).

Hence a staircase leads to the , surrounded with reliefs which portray the history of Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus), grandson of Sennacherib, and his wars with the Arabians.

She doted upon the Assyrians her neighbours, captains and rulers clothed most gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses.... She saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all of them princes to look to, after the manner of the Babylonians of Chaldaea, the land of their nativity.-Ezekiel xxiii. 12, 14, 15.

We must now return through the Nimroud Gallery and the Assyrian Transept, whence we enter the . The larger monuments here are, as far as possible, arranged chronologically, and, ascending to at least years before the Christian era, close with the


Mahommedan invasion of Egypt, A.D. . We may especially notice-

In the centre. The famous Rosetta Stone. Its three inscriptions are to the same purport-i.e. a decree of the priesthood at Memphis C..B.C. 196 in honour of Ptolemy Epiphanes. This has furnished the key to the knowledge of Egyptian characters, as one inscription is in Greek, while the others are in Hieroglyphic and Enchorial, the two forms of the Egyptian language. The stone was found amongst the remains of a temple dedicated by Pharaoh-Necho to the god Necho, near the Rosetta mouth of the Nile.

The splendid black Sarcophagus of Ankhsenpiraneferhat, daughter of Sammeticus II., and Queen of Amasis II., B.C. 1538-527.

Statue of Sekhet (Pasht), inscribed with the name of Sheshonk I. (Shishak)-from Carnac. (See I Kings xiv. 25; 2 Chron. xii. 5, 7.)

Sarcophagus of Nekhterhebi (Nectanabes), B.C. 378-360-from Alexandria.

Statue of Rameses II.--from the tombs of the kings at Thebes.

The contains-

Monuments of the age of Rameses II., the Sesostris of the Greeks, especially the upper part of a gigantic statue of that king from the Memnonium of Thebes.

In the Northern Gallery are-

Two granite lions dedicated by Amenophis III. (Memnon), and inscriptionsand Statues in honour of that king, under whose rule Egypt was especially prosperous.

Colossal head and Relief of Thothmes III.-from Karnak.

At the end of the Northern Gallery a (lined with Egyptian papyri, showing the forms of writing--Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Enchorial), leads to the , lined with reliefs. In this and the succeeding rooms it is unnecessary to notice the contents in detail. Each object is admirably described on a label placed beneath it, and its position will probably be changed


in a short time. The Zoological Collections will be removed to South Kensington as soon as the galleries intended for their reception are completed. The present order of the Rooms () is-

The First Egyptian Room.

The Second Egyptian Room, which also contains the collections of ancient Glass.

The First Vase Room. The vases are chiefly of Greek fabric, and are decorated with subjects from the divine or heroic legends of the Greeks. Notice especially in the last table-case on the right a vase with Aphrodite on a wild swan painted on a white ground.

The Second Vase Room.

(Notice especially) Right. Wall Cases. The black Vases with gilt ornaments found by Castellani at Capua.

Right. 1st Table Case. A Duck as a toilet ornament, of an exquisite enamel, adopted by the Greeks from Egypt.

Left. 1st Table Case. A number of Curses on those who had offended the writers, fixed in the temple of the infernal deities (Pluto, Demeter, Persephone). The usual form is May they never find Proserpine propitious. Sometimes the saving clause, but with me may it be well, is added.

An Urn for bones, with the fee for Charon, which was placed in the mouth of the dead.

A number of powerful little figures from Tanagora in Boeotia. One of an old nurse is very amusing.

Left. Table Case L. I. An Amphora with the surprise of Helen by Peleus from Causicus in Rhodes. Secured for the Museum after a sharp competition with the Empress Eugenic.

Left. Wall Cases. 29-31. Specimens of Pompeian art-good, though few. The dawn of the Venetian style of colouring may be seen here.


Central Table. The glorious head of Artemis found in Armeniafrom the Castellani Collection.

Left. Table Case E. Winged head of Hypnos, the god of sleep, found at Perugia.

Icoric bust, from Cyrene, with enamelled eyes.

The Payne Knight Mercury, on its original base inlaid with silver.

The Satyr Marsyas in the act of stepping back as Athena threw down the flute. The subiect is known from a relief.

Beautiful lamp representing a Greyhound's head with a Hare's head in its mouth--from Nocera.

Wall Case, left. A Philosopher--from the harbour of Rhodes.

The British and Mediaeval Room.

Right. Wall Case 70. Bust of the Emperor Hadrian, found in the Thames.

Helmet like a mask, found at Ribchester in Lancashire, the hair waving into the battlements of a city.

Right. 1st Table Case. Bronze statuette of the Emperor Severus, with an enamel breast-plate.

The Collection of Gems and Gold Ornaments. Here the famous Portland Vase is preserved, which was found early in the seventeenth century in the Monte del Grano near Rome, and placed in the Barberini Palace. Hence it was purchased by Sir W. Hamilton, and sold to the Duchess of Portland. It is still the property of the Portland family. It was smashed to pieces by a madman in 1845, but has been wonderfully well restored.

The Ethnographical Room.

The Central Saloon (Zoological-two small rooms on the east of this are devoted to the Botanical Collections).

The Southern Zoological Gallery.

The Mammalia Saloon.

The Eastern Zoological Gallery. (Here, above the cases, are a series of Portraits, including several of much interest, but, in their present position, they are almost invisible.)

The Northern Zoological Gallery.

The North Gallery (of Minerals and Fossils), entered from the lobby at the end of the Eastern Zoological Gallery.

Descending the staircase at the end of the Eastern Zoological Gallery, we come to the , dedicated to the books collected by George III., and acquired by the nation under George IV. The glass cases in this room are devoted to , from the earliest times in England and other countries, and

The has a number of cases which exhibit, among other curiosities--

The MS. Prayer-book used by Lady Jane Grey on the scaffold.

The Draft of the Will of Mary Queen of Scots, written by her at Sheffield, 1577.

The Agreement signed by Milton for the sale of Paradise Lost, April 27, 1667.

An autograph sketch by Lord Nelson, describing the Battle of the Nile.

An autograph note of the Duke of Wellington written on the Field of Waterloo.

MS. works of Ben Jonson, John Locke, Rousseau, Walter Scott, &c.

Autograph Letters of Ariosto, Galileo, Calvin, Luther, Erasmus, Melancthon, More, Sidney, Raleigh, Knox, Bacon, Hampden, Penn, Newton, Addison, Dryden, Prior, Swift. Racine, Voltaire, Johnson, Byron, Southey, Washington, Franklin, &c.

The contains the valuable collection of books bequeathed to the nation by the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville in .

The are only shown by especial permission. In the Print Room is an exquisite collection of . From the centre of the Entrance Hall we enter (with a ticket obtained on the right of the main entrance) the magnificent circular of the Library.

Open daily except Sundays, Christmas Day, Ash Wednesday, and Good Friday-and between. the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st and 7th of May, and the 1st and 7th of September, inclusive.

A printed ticket giving permission to read for six months is granted on presenting a written application, with a recommendation from a London householder, to the principal Librarian. This ticket is renewed on application. Persons under twenty-one years of age are not admitted.

The Reading Room, built from designs of Sydney Smirke, occupies the central court of the Museum, and is


and feet in diameter, and feet high. The reading-tables converge to a common centre occupied by the circular tables containing the catalogue.

Returning to , on the left, at the corner of , is the , built by , . It has a very handsome portico, but a most ridiculous steeple, planned from the description in Pliny of the tomb of King Mausolus in Caria, and surmounted by a statue of George I., whence the epigram-

When Harry the


left the Pope in the lurch, The Protestants made him the head of the Church; But George's good subjects, the Bloomsbury people, Instead of the church, made him head of the steeple.

This steeple is seen in the back of Hogarth's Gin Lane.

There is a tablet here to the great Earl of Mansfield, who lived hard by in , where his house and library were destroyed in the Gordon riots of . In the porch is a monument, with lines by Sir John Hawkins, to the popular and benevolent Justice Welch, the friend of Dr. Johnson, who at time thought of proposing to his sister Mary, afterwards married to Nollekens, the sculptor.

[ leads from (left) into , called Southampton Square when it was built, in , by Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, father of Lady Rachel Russell. His house- Southampton House-occupied the whole north side of the square till . In its early days this square was so


fashionable that

foreign princes were carried to see

Bloomsbury Square



of the wonders of England.

In Palace-yard, at nine, you'll find me there, At ten, for certain, sir, in Bloomsbury Square.-Pope.

Among the residents in the square were the Earl of Chesterfield, Sir Hans Sloane, Lord Mansfield, and Dr. Radcliffe. Disraeli's were written in No. .. Richard Baxter lived in the square, and here his wife died, . On the north side is a seated statue (bronze) of Charles James Fox, by

Opposite this, (occupying the site of the old house of the Dukes of Bedford, pulled down in ) leads into , a name which will recall to many minds the homes of the Selbys and Osbornes in Thackeray's On its north side is a seated statue of Francis Russell, Duke of Bedford, by . It was in No. that Sir Samuel Romilly died by his own hand in . In No. , Sir Thomas Lawrence, who had lived and painted in that house for years, died . Cossacks,

mounted on their small white horses, with their long spears grounded,

[n.184.1]  stood sentinels at its door while he was painting their general, Platoff. From the north-west angle of we may proceed, through , to , containing the modern (Irvingite) , a very handsome building in the Early English style, by

Parallel with was ,


behind which was

the Field of



Legend tells that brothers were in love with lady, who would not declare which she preferred, but sate in the field to watch the duel which was fatal to both; and that the bank where she sate, and the footprints of the brothers, never bore grass again.

On the east side of opens , which leads to the , founded in by the benevolent Thomas Coram, captain of a trading vessel, for

the reception, maintenance, and education of exposed and deserted young children.

In , the Institution ceased to be a


Hospital except in name, but is still applied to the reception of illegitimate children. The girls wear brown dresses with white caps, tuckers, and aprons: the boys have red sashes and cap-bands.

A characteristic statue of Coram by stands on the gates leading into the wide open space in front of the Hospital. On Mondays, between and , visitors are admitted to see .the collection of pictures, for the most part presented to the Hospital by their artists. The works of Hogarth, who was a great benefactor to the charity, were publicly exhibited here, and the interest they excited may be considered to have suggested the exhibition of the Royal Academy. The collection is important as containing great works of Hogarth, and interesting as being generally illustrative of the works of the earlier British artists, and for its views of the charitable institutions of London in the middle of the eighteenth century.

P. van Schendel. A Poulterer's Shop.

A. Tidemand. A Mother teaching her Boy to read.

* Hogarth. 1750. The March to Finchley. This famous picture was disposed of by a lottery of 2,000 tickets. Hogarth sold 1,843 chances, and gave the remaining 157 to the Hospital, which drew the prize.

Sir G. Kneler. Portrait of Handel.

Wale. Greenwich Hospital. 1746.

Highmore. Hagar and Ishmael. Gen. xxi. 17.

Haytley. Bethlem Hospital. 1746.

Gainsborough. The Charter-House. 1746.

Wale. Christ's Hospital. 1746.

Haytley. Chelsea Hospital. 1746.

Hayman. Pharaoh's daughter giving Moses to nurse. Ex. ii. 9.

Wale. St. Thomas's Hospital. 1746.

Wilson. St. George's Hospital. 1746.

Hogarth. Moses brought to Pharaoh's daughter. Ex. ii. o.

Wilson. The Foundling Hospital. 1746.

Rafaelie. Cartoon of the Massacre of the Innocents-bequeathed by Prince Hoare.

Collet. The Press Gang.

Hudson. Portrait of John Milner.

Allan Ramsay. Portrait of Dr. Mead. 1746.

Sir J. Reynolds. Portrait of Lord Dartmouth.

Highmore. Portrait of Thomas Emerson. 1746.

Shackleton. Portrait of George II. 1758.

Wilson. Portrait of the Earl of Macclesfield. 1760.

* Hogarth. Portrait of Captain Thomas Coram. 1740.

The portrait I painted with most pleasure, and in which I particularly wished to excel, was that of Captain Coram for the Foundling Hospital; and if I am so wretched an artist as my enemies assert, it is somewhat strange that this, which was one of the first I painted the size of life, should stand the test of twenty years' competition, and be generally thought the best portrait in the place, notwithstanding the first painters in the kingdom exerted all their talents to vie with it.-Hogarth.

Wilson. Portrait of Francis Fauquier, Lieut.-Governor of Virginia.

In this room are preserved a sketch for the Arms of the Hospital, presented by Hogarth; the pocket-book of Captain Coram, 1729; and the MS. of the Messiah-the score and all the parts-bequeathed to the Hospital by the will of the great composer. A fine bust of Handel is by Roubiliac.

In the Handel performed his oratorio of the in aid of the funds of the Hospital with a result of . The existing organ was given by Handel. The altar-piece of Christ blessing little children is by At the suggestion of Handel, the singing has been kept up, with a view to the contributions at the doors after the services. Tenterden, the Canterbury barber's boy who rose to become Chief Justice of England (. ), is .buried in the chapel. The Founder was the person buried in the vaults.

Behind the Hospital is the , where Robert Nelson, the friend of the Non-jurors, is buried, with an epitaph of lines on his gravestone. Here also are the graves of Jonathan Richardson, the painter, ; John Campbell, author of the ; and Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian, .] Beyond the opening of , the name of the street along which we have been walking so long is changed. It is no longer . In other parts of London we have already seen how great a feature of the London of the Henrys and Edwards were the numerous streams which rose on the different hill-sides, and flowed towards the Thames or the Fleet, and which are now either swallowed up or arched over, though they sometimes leave the association of their name to a street which marks their rise or their


course. of the most important of these streamlets, which flowed down the steep hill-side to join the Turnmill Brook where now stands, was the Old Bourne or Hill Bourne, which broke out at the point now called Bars, and which, though it has totally disappeared now, still gives a name to the Old Bourne or . Till the end of the century this hill was almost in the open country, and, in the old maps of , only a single row of houses will be seen on the north side of the thoroughfare. The street called was a path between open fields, and was an open park attached to the gardens of Ely House, and famous for its saffron. To the south were the broad acres of pasturage called , and barriers were erected to prevent the cattle which fed there from straying into the neighbouring highway, which are still commemorated in the openings called Great, Little, and New Turnstile. Gerard the herbalist, writing in , mentions the large garden behind his house in , and the number of rare plants which grew there.

, which escaped the Great Fire, still contains many old houses anterior to the reign of Charles II.. those beyond Bars to the west being outside the liberties of the City. Milton lived here from to , and here wrote his and the The hill of was called the

Heavy Hill,

for by it the condemned were driven to Tyburn from Newgate and the Tower, wearing on their breasts the nosegays which, by old custom, were always presented to them as they reached St. Sepulchre's Church. Often their progress


was almost triumphal as they passed between the crowded windows on either side the way. Gay in the makes of his characters, Polly, say of Captain Macheath,

Methinks I see him already in the cart, sweeter and more lovely than the nosegay in his hand l I hear the crowd extolling his resolution and intrepidity! What volleys of sighs are sent from the windows of


that so comely a youth should be brought to the sack!

And Swift, describing the last hours of Tom Clinch, says-

As clever Tom Clinch, while the rabble was bawling,

Rode stately through Holborn to die at his calling,

He stopt at the George for a bottle of sack,

And promised to pay for it when he came back.

His waistcoat, and stockings, and breeches were white;

His cap had a new cherry-ribbon to tie 't.

The maids to the doors and the balconies ran,

And said Lack-a-day, he's a proper young man!

And as from the windows the ladies he spied,

Like a beau in a box he bow'd low on each side!

Then follow the practice of clever Tom Clinch,

Who hung like a hero, and.never would flinch.

Opening from on the left is , leading into , which marks the private road of James I. to his palace at Theobald's. Pepys describes Charles II. as being upset in his coach in Kingsgate Street, with the Duke of York, Duke of Monmouth, and Prince Rupert. The next street, , leads into , so called from the Inn, whither the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were brought when exhumed from , to be dragged the next day on sledges to Tyburn. In No. lived and died Jonas Hanway, the traveller, who was the person in


England who carried an umbrella, and he only died in The handsome brick , on the west of the square, was built -. On the right of ,between it and , is , of immoral reputation, constantly alluded to by the dramatists and satirists of the last century. Houses were built here, in the time of Charles I., by W. Whetstone, vestryman of . On the left is , where Squire's Coffee House stood, whence several numbers of the are dated. It is now a most miserable court, but there is a curious old house on its east side. On the south side of (opposite the opening of ), where the now stands, No. a was the Blue Boar Inn (now removed to a), where the famous letter of Charles I. to Henrietta Maria was intercepted by Cromwell and Ireton.

There came a letter from one of our spies, who was of the king's bedchamber, which acquainted us that on that day our final doom was decreed; that he could not possibly tell what it was, but that we might find it out, if we could intercept a letter sent from the king to the queen, wherein he declared what he would do. The letter, he said, was sewed up in the skirt of a saddle, and the bearer of it would come with the saddle upon his head, about ten of the clock that night, to the Blue Boar Inn in Holborn; for there he was to take horse and go to Dover with it. This messenger knew nothing of the letter in the saddle, but some persons at Dover did.. We were at Windsor when we received this letter, and immediately upon the receipt of it Ireton and I resolved to take one trusty fellow with us, and with trooper's habits to go to the Inn in Holborn; which accordingly we did, and set our man at the gate of the Inn, where the wicket only was open to let people in and out. Our man was to give us notice when anyone came with a saddle, whilst we in the disguise of common troopers called for cans of beer, and continued drinking till about ten o'clock. The sentinel at the gate then gave notice that the man with the saddle was come in. Upon this we immediately arose, and, as the man was leading out his horse saddled, came up to him with drawn swords and told him that we were to search his saddle and so dismiss him. Upon that we ungirt the saddle and carried it into the stall where we had been drinking, and left the horseman with our sentinel: then, ripping up one of the skirts of the saddle, we there found the letter of which we had been informed, and having got it into our own hands, we delivered the saddle again to the man, telling him he was an honest man, and bid him go about his business. The man, not knowing what had been done, went away to Dover. As soon as we had the letter we opened it; in which we found the king had acquainted the queen that he was now courted by both the factions--the Scotch Presbyterians and the Army; and which bid fairest for him should have him; but he thought he should close with the Scots, sooner than the other. Upon this, added Cromwell, we took horse, and went to Windsor, and finding that we were not likely to have any tolerable terms from the king, we immediately from that time forward resolved his ruin.-Earl of Orrery's State Papers, fol. 1742, p. 15.

On the right, beyond the opening of , mark the site of Southampton House. It was only in that (in No. , ) the last remains of the old building were destroyed, where the Earl of Southampton, father of Lady Rachel Russell, died. Some of Lady Rachel's letters are dated from this house, and it was in passing its windows that Lord William. Russell's fortitude forsook him for a single instant as he gazed upon the house where the love of his life began; then he went on his way to execution saying,

The bitterness of death is now past.

On the left is , by which Tom Jones is described as entering London to put up at the

Bull and Gate

in . Here are the great Offices of Messrs. Cubitt the builders, who give work to men upon the premises, the numbers employed by the firm altogether amounting to .

It was in , the turning on the right, that


the Countess of Macclesfield gave birth to Richard Savage the poet, . On the left, opposite the wonderfully picturesque Staples Inn (see Ch. III.), is the entrance of , named from Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, who felt it an honour to record in his epitaph that he had been

servant to Queen Elizabeth, counsellor to King James, and friend to Sir Philip Sidney.

He was murdered () in Brooke House, which stood on the site of (which, with Warwick Market and Street and , is also named from him), by Ralph Haywood, a dependant with whom he had quarrelled. In the garret of of the houses (No. ) pulled down in -, the unhappy poet Thomas Chatterton died, --

the marvellous boy,

The sleepless soul that perished in his pride.

At he had published the forged on parchment, which he pretended to have found in the muniment-room of St. Mary Redcliffe, at Bristol, and that they had lain there for years, in the iron-bound chest of William Canynge, a merchant, afterwards Dean of Westbury. In the April preceding his death he came up from Bristol to London, filled with hope and ambition, but, before months were over, often found himself on the verge of starvation, simply because his pride was such that it was almost impossible to show him kindness, and, in his eighteenth year, probably in a fit of the insanity which also showed itself in his sister, he ended his days by poison. His death passed almost unnoticed, and he received a pauper's funeral. In the words of his epitaph at Bristol-

Reader, judge not; if thou art a

Christian, believe that he shall be judged by a superior Power; to that Power alone he is answerable.

Let him rather be remembered by the noble lines in his -

Oh God, whose thunder shakes the sky, Whose eye this atom globe surveys, To thee, my only rock, I fly; Thy mercy in thy justice praise.

The gloomy mantle of the night, Which on my sinking spirit steals, Will vanish at the morning light Which God, my East, my Sun, reveals.

ends, in ,[n.193.1]  in the arched gate of the , opened in . It is a handsome brick church, designed by , with stone, terra-cotta, and alabaster decorations, and has become celebrated from its ritualistic services, with incense and vestments. The peculiarly bad character once attached to and may be owing to the fact that these were amongst the places-Cities of Refuge insulated in the midst of London-which, by royal charter, once gave sanctuary to criminals and debtors.

Now, on the left of , is , and on the right (see Ch. II.). No. , the , is an old hostelrie with balconies round a couryard. Just at the opening of the which annihilated the

Heavy Hill,

and was constructed in -, to the great convenience of traffic, and destruction of the picturesque--is


which escaped the Fire, but was nevertheless rebuilt by in . Internally it is a bad likeness of St. James's, , with encircling galleries, a waggon-headed ceiling, and some good stained glass of , by . The organ is that, made by Harris, which was discarded at the Temple on the judgment of Judge Jeffreys. The monuments formerly in the church are removed to the ante-chapel under the tower: they include a tablet to John Emery the comedian, . His epitaph narrates that-

Each part he shone in, but excelled in none

So well as husband, father, friend, and son.

The register commemorates the marriage, in the old church, of Col. Hutchinson, with the charming Lucy, daughter of Sir Allan Apsley, late Lieutenant of the , . Other interesting entries record the burial (in the cemetery of workhouse) of the unfortunate Chatterton, , and the baptism here of the almost more unfortunate Richard Savage, son of Lord Rivers and the Countess of Macclesfield, who was treated with the utmost cruelty by his mother, who disowned him, abandoned him, and used all efforts to have him hung for the death of a Mr. Sinclair, killed in a fray at . The principal poems of Savage were the and the in which he exposed his mother's unnatural conduct. He died in Newgate, where he was imprisoned for debt, and he was buried in Churchyard. Another poet, Henry Neele, author of the was buried in St. Andrew's Churchyard, in his father's grave, on which he had inscribed the lines-


Good night, good night, sweet spirit! thou hast cast

Thy bonds of day away from thee at last;

Broke the vile earthly fetters which alone

Held thee at distance from thy Maker's throne:

But oh! those fetters to th' immortal mind,

Were links of love to those thou'st left behind;

For thee we mourn not: as th' apostle prest

His dungeon pillow, till the angel guest

Drew nigh, and when the light that round him shone

Beamed on the prisoner, his bands were gone:

So wert thou captive to disease and pain

Till Death, the brightest of the angelic train,

Pour'd Heaven's own radiance by Divine decree

Around thy suffering soul-and it was free.

In this churchyard also was buried Thomas Wriothesley, the violent Chancellor of Henry VIII., who impeached Queen Catherine Parr for heresy, and also, not content with sitting in judgment, himself lent a hand to turn the rack by which Anne Askew was being tortured. Joseph Strutt, author of was buried here in . Against the north outside wall of the church, opposite the handsome steps leading to the Viaduct, is a curious relief of the Day of Judgment-the Saviour appearing in the clouds above; and below, the dead bursting open their coffins.

Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield, had been previously rector of St. Andrew's. day while he was reading prayers here in church, a soldier of the Earl of Essex came in, and pointing a pistol at his breast, commanded him to read no further. Hacket calmly replied,

I shall do my duty as a clergyman, you may do yours as a soldier,

--and proceeded with the service. Stillingfleet, Bishop of Worcester, was also rector of St. Andrew's (presented ). In the chancel is the grave of another eminent rector, Dr. Henry Sacheverel


(. ), presented to the living by Bolingbroke in gratitude for a good story told him by Swift, and impeached before the for his political sermons, -. He was, says Bishop Burnet

a bold insolent man, with a very small measure of religion, virtue, learning or good sense; but he resolved to force himself into popularity and preferment, by the most petulant railings at dissenters and low churchmen, in several sermons and libels, written without either chasteness of style or liveliness of expression.

The Duchess of Marlborough describes him as

an ignorant impudent incendiary; a man who was the scorn even of those who made use of him as a tool.

Almost opposite St. Andrew's Church, on the left, is the entrance of , marking the site of the grand old palace of the Bishops of Ely, once entered by a great gateway, built by Bishop Arundel in . The palace was bequeathed to the see by Bishop John de Kirkeby, who died in . Here, in , died

Old John of Gaunt, time-honoured Lancaster,

his own palace of the Savoy having been burnt by the rebels under Wat Tyler.

It fell, about the feast of Christmas,

says Froissart,

that Duke John of Lancaster--who lived in great displeasure, what because the king had banished his son out of the realm for so little cause, and also because of the evil governing of the realm by his nephew, King Richard-(for he saw well, if he long persevered, and were suffered to continue, the realm was likely to be utterly lost)-with these imaginations and others, the duke fell sick, whereon he died; whose death was greatly sorrowed by all his friends and lovers.

It is here that, according to Shakspeare, Richard's dying uncle thus addressed him:--


A thousand flatterers sit within thy crown,

Whose compass is no bigger than thy head;

And yet, incaged in so small a verge,

The waste is no whit lesser than thy land.

Oh, had thy grandsire, with a prophet's eye,

Seen how his son's son would destroy his sons,

From forth thy reach he would have laid thy shame,

Deposing thee before thou wert possessed,

Which art possessed now to depose thyself.

Why, cousin, wert thou regent of the world,

It were a shame to let this land by lease:

But, for thy world, enjoying but this land,

Is it not more than shame to shame it so?

Landlord of England art thou, and not king.

The garden of Ely House was great and famous. still bears witness to the saffron which grew there, and to its adjacent vineyard, while its roses and its strawberries are both matters of history. Holinshed describes how (on the ), while the lords were sitting in council at the Tower,

devising the honourable solemnity of the young King (Edward V.'s) coronation,

the Protector came in, and requested the Bishop of Ely to send for some of his strawberries from his garden in . The scene is given by Shakspeare.

Gloucester comes in and says-

My lord of Ely, when I was last in Holborn,

I saw good strawberries in your garden there;

I do beseech you, send for some of them!

and the Bishop replies-

Marry, I will, my lord, with all my heart.

The Bishop then goes out to send for the strawberries, and, on his return, finds Gloucester gone, and exclaims-

Where is my lord of Gloucester? I have sent for those strawberries ;


and Lord Hastings replies-

His grace looks cheerfully and smooth this morning.

There's some conceit or other likes him well,

When that he bids good-morrow with such spirit.

But a few minutes after Gloucester, returning, accuses Hastings of witchcraft, and he is hurried off to be beheaded in the Tower courtyard below.

Another record of the fertility of the Ely Place garden will be found in the fact that when, to please Elizabeth, Bishop Cox leased the gatehouse and garden to her favourite, Sir Christopher Hatton, for a quit-rent of a red rose, loads of hay, and yearly, he retained the right not only of walking in the gardens, but of gathering bushels of roses yearly! Sir Christopher Hatton expended a large sum upon Ely Place, and petitioned Elizabeth to alienate to him the whole of the house and gardens. She immediately desired Bishop Cox to do so, but he refused, saying that

in his conscience he could not do it, being a piece of sacrilege;

that he was intrusted with the property of the see

to be a steward, and not a scatterer.

The Bishop was, however, eventually obliged to consent to the alienation of the property to Sir Christopher till all the money he had expended upon Ely Place should be repaid by the see. It was when the Queen found his successor, Dr. Martin Heton, unwilling to fulfil these terms, that she addressed to him her characteristic note-

Proud Prelate! I understand you are backward in complying with your agreement: but I would have you know that I, who made you what you are, can unmake you; and if you do not forthwith fulfil your engagement, by God I will immediately unfrock you.


The money which Sir Christopher had expended upon Ely


Place was borrowed from the Queen, and it was her demanding a settlement of their accounts which caused his death.

It broke his heart,

says Fuller,

that the queen, which seldom gave loans, and never forgave due debts, rigorously demanded the payment of some arrears which Sir Christopher did not hope to have remitted, and did only desire to have forborne: failing herein in his expectation, it went to his heart, and cast him into a mortal disease. The queen afterwards did endeavour what she could to recover him, bringing, as some say, cordial broths unto him with her own hands; but all would not do. There's no pulley can draw up a heart once cast down, though a queen herself should set her hand thereunto.

Sir Christopher died in Ely House, . His residence here gave a name to , which now occupies a great part of the site of the gardens of Ely Place. Here the beautiful Lady Hatton, widow of Sir Christopher's nephew, was courted at the same time by Lord Bacon and Sir Edward Coke, the famous lawyer. She married the latter, but soon quarrelled with him and refused him admittance to her house, with the same success with which she and her successors repelled the attempts of the Bishops of Ely to recover the whole of their property, though they retained the old buildings beyond the gateway, where Laney, Bishop of Ely, died in -. It was not till the death of the last Lord Hatton in that the years' dispute was settled, when the bishops resigned Ely Place to the Crown for No. , , , which they still possess. In the reign of James I., Ely Place was inhabited by Gondomar, the famous Spanish ambassador.

The only remaining fragment of old Ely House is the chapel, dedicated to (), daughter of Anna, King of the West Angles, and wife of Egfrid, King of Northumberland, whose society she forsook to become Abbess of Ely and foundress of its cathedral. She was best known after death by the popular name of St. Awdry. A fair was held in her honour, at which a particular kind of beads was sold called St. Awdry or Tawdry beads. Gradually these grew to be of the shabbiest and cheapest description, and became a by-word for anything shabby or flimsy-whence our familiar word


commemorates St. Etheldreda. The chapel, long given up to the Welsh residents in London, is now in the hands of Roman Catholics, who have treated it with the utmost regard for its ancient characteristics. The walls of the ancient crypt are left with their rugged stonework unaltered. The ceiling is not vaulted, and the roof is formed by the chapel floor, but some stone pillars have been supplied in the place of the solid chestnut posts by which it was once sustained. A solemn half-light steals into this shadowy church from its deeply recessed stained windows, and barely allows to distinguish the robed figures of the nuns who are constantly at prayers here. The church has not been


into something utterly unlike its original state, as is usually the case in England.

In the upper church, which retains its grand old decorated window, the last was publicly performed in England--the Passion--in the time of James I. It was here also that John Evelyn's daughter Susanna was married () to William Draper, by Dr. Tenison, then Bishop of Lincoln. Cowper, in the commemorates


the over-loyalty of the chapel clerk, who astonished the congregation by singing God save King George on the arrival of the news () of the defeat of Prince Charles Edward by the Duke of Cumberland.

So in the chapel of old Ely House,

When wandering Charles, who meant to be the third,

Had fled from William, and the news was fresh,

The simple clerk, but loyal, did announce,

And eke did roar, right merrily, two staves

Sung to the praise and glory of King George.

A relic of the bishops' residence in Ely Place may be observed in a blue mitre, with the date , on the wall of a court leading from hence to .

At the entrance of the Viaduct from is an Equestrian Statue of the Prince Consort, Albert of Saxe Gotha, saluting the City of London, by , erected in . Since the opening of the Viaduct people have ceased to remember the steepness of , down which the pestilent street-marauders called Mohocks in Queen Anne's time used to amuse themselves by rolling defenceless women in barrels.

Who has not heard the Scourer's midnight fame? Who has not trembled at the Mohocks' name? I pass their desperate deeds and mischief, done Where from Snow Hill black steepy torrents run, How matrons, hooped within the hogshead's womb, Were tumbled furious thence.--Gay. Trivia.


[n.150.1] J. T. Smith, Life of Nollekens.

[n.150.2] Commemorated in Monmouth Street

[n.151.1] Mrs. Cornelys, afterwards reduced to sell asses' milk in Knightsbridge, died in the Fleet Prison in 1797.

[n.159.1] Sketches by Boz.

[n.161.1] The name of Tabernacle was first applied to the churches of boards hastily raised after the Great Fire.

[n.163.1] The manors of St. Giles and Bloomsbury were divided by Blemund's Dyke, afterwards Bloomsbury Great Ditch. The manor-house of the Blemunds stood on the site of Bedford Place, and is described in the St. Giles's Hospital grant as the capital messuage of William Blemund.

[n.184.1] Rev. J. Mitford in the Gent. Mag., Jan., 1818.

[n.193.1] Named after Baldwin, one of the royal gardener of Elizabeth.