Walks in London, vol. 2
Hare, Augustus J. C.
Chapter II: The West-End.
Chapter II: The West-End.
From , , the handsomest street in London, leads to the west. Its name is a record of its having been the place where the game of Palle-malle was played--a game still popular in the deserted streets of old sleepy Italian cities, and deriving its name from , a ball, and a mallet. It was already introduced into England in the reign of James I., who (in his
) recommended his son Prince Henry to play at it. Charles II., who was passionately fond of the game, removed the site for it to .[n.43.1]
It was across the ground afterwards set apart for Pallemalle, described by Le Serre as
that Sir Thomas Wyatt led his rebel troops into London in , passing with little loss under the fire of the artillery planted on by the Earl of Pembroke, and forcing his way successfully through the guard drawn out to defend , but
|only to be deserted by his men and taken prisoner as he entered the City.|
The street was not enclosed till about , when it was at called , in honour of Catherine of Braganza, and it still continued to be a fashionable promenade rather than a highway for carriage traffic. Thus Gay alludes to it-
Club-houses are the characteristic of the street, though. none of the existing buildings date beyond the present century. In the last century their place was filled by taverns where various literary and convivial societies had their meetings: Pepys in was frequently at of these, The trial of street gas in London was made here in , in a row of lamps, on the King's birthday, before the colonnade of Carlton House. Amid all the changes of the town, London-lovers have continued to give their best affections to , and how many there are who agree with the lines of Charles Morris [n.44.1] -
Entering the street by , we pass, just beyond the rooms of the Old Water Colour Society, the entrance to , where Charles II.
[n.45.1] for his beloved Moll Davis, and where Pepys
[n.45.2] Here also lived Miss Esther Vanhomrigh, who has become, under the name of Vanessa, celebrated for her unhappy and ill-requited devotion to Dean Swift. On the right is the existed as early as , marking the site of a house of the Earls of Suffolk, but did not become important till the Restoration, when the residence of Secretary Coventry gave a name to the neighbouring .
On the left falls into . At the end of ,[n.45.3] which opens into it, stood Warwick House, where Princess Charlotte was compelled by her father to reside, and where
she determined to escape. She ()
A public-house at the entrance of still bears the sign of which recalls the habits of locomotion in the last century, when Defoe wrote-
Passing the equestrian statue of George III., by , , we now reach the foot of the , so called from the market for hay and straw which was held here in the reign of Elizabeth, and was not finally abolished till . On the right is the (opened ), on the left the Italian Opera House (built in
). It was between these, at the foot of the , that Thomas Thynne of Longleat was murdered on Sunday, , by ruffians hired by Count Konigsmarck, who hoped, when Thynne was out of the way, to ingratiate himself with his affianced bride, the rich young Lady Elizabeth Percy, already, in her year, the widow of Lord Ogle. The assassins employed were Vratz, a German; Stern, a Swede; and Borotski, a Pole; but only the last of these fired, though no less than of his bullets pierced his victim. The scene is represented on Thynne's monument in . The conspirators were taken, and tried at Hicks's Hall in Clerkenwell, where Königsmarck was acquitted, but the others sentenced to death, and hanged in the street which was the scene of their crime. They were attended by Bishop Burnet, who
| narrates that, in return for his religious admonitions, Vratz expressed his conviction that |
Stern, on the scaffold, complained that he died for.a man's fortune whom he never spoke to, for a woman whom he never saw, and for a dead man whom he never had a sight of.
[Addison lived in. the , and wrote his there. On the right are , where James II. used to play in the tennis court, and , so called from Colonel Panton, the successful gamester, who died in . At the corner of (left) lived Hannah Lightfoot, the fair Quakeress, beloved by George III. Farther on the left is the entry of the little court called , where Richard Baxter preached.] Proceeding down , and passing the , by , , we reach the opening of , which occupies the site of Carlton House, built for Henry Boyle, Lord Carlton, in , and purchased by Frederick, Prince of Wales, in . His widow, Augusta of Saxe-Cobourg, lived here for many years, and died in . The house was redecorated for the marriage of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. Here his daughter Charlotte was born (), and married to Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg (. ). Here also, in , George IV. gave his famous banquet as Prince Regent.
Horace Walpole was beyond measure ecstatic in his
| admiration of Carlton House, though where the money to pay for it was to come from he could not conceive; |
The redundancy of ornament induced Bonomi to write on the Ionic screen facing the epigram-
But all its magnificence came to an end in , when the house was pulled down, its fittings taken to Buckingham Palace, and its columns used in building the portico of the . Its site is marked by the ( feet high) surmounted by a , son of George III., by , which faces . On the right is a . On the left is a by . The relief on its pedestal represents the funeral of Franklin, with Captain Crozier reading the burial service: it wonderfully appeals to human sympathies, and there is scarcely a moment in the day when passers-by are not lingering to examine it.
We now enter upon a perfect succession of the buildings erected for the clubs, originally defined by Dr. Johnson as
They have greatly improved since those days, and are now the great comfort of bachelor-life in London.
Taine justly exclaims with regard to them. At the angle of is the , the chief literary club in London, built by Decimus Burton, . Beyond arise, on the left, the (by Barry, ); the
|(by Barry, ); and the (by Smirke, , from St. Mark's Library at Venice), the famous political Conservative club founded by the Duke of Wellington in . Beyond these, the occupies a house originally built for Edward, Duke of York, brother of George III., with an admirable meditative statue in front of it, representing Lord Herbert of Lea, Secretary of State for War (by , ). Beyond this are the (by Smirke, -); and the (by Harrison, ). On the right, opposite the War Office, is the Parnell and Smith, ).|
(The short streets on the right of lead into , which dates from the time of Charles II., when the adjoining and were named in honour of the King, and and in honour of the Duke of York. In the centre was a Gothic conduit, which is seen in old prints and maps of London, with a steep gable and walls of coloured bricks in diamond patterns. Its site is now occupied by a statue of William III. by the younger , . The great Duke of Ormond lived here in Ormond House, and his duchess died there. No. was the house of the Duke of Leeds.
|No. , which belonged to Sir Philip Francis, was lent to Queen Caroline (), and was inhabited by her during the earlier part of her trial. No. was the house of Lord Castlereagh, who lay in state there in . No. , the Duke of Cleveland's, is an interesting old house, and contains a fine picture of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland, by . No. , in the south-east corner, is , and has been inhabited by the Dukes of Norfolk since . Hither Frederick Prince of Wales, when turned out of St. James's by George II., took refuge with his family till the purchase of Leicester House; and here George III. was born, , being a -months' child, and was privately baptized the same day by Secker, Bishop of Oxford.)|
We may notice No. , , as occupying the site of the house which was given by Charles II. to Nell Gwynne,. described by Burnet as
She lived here from to . It is still the only freehold in the street.
The garden of the house had a mount, on which Nell used to stand to talk over the wall to the King as he. walked in .
This neighbourhood, so close to the palace, was naturally popular with the mistresses of the royal Stuarts. Barbara Palmer, Duchess of Cleveland, and Hortensia Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin, both lived at time in , and Moll Davis in . Arabella Churchill and Catherne Sedley, mistresses of James II., also lived in .
Nos. and are portions of , built for the great Duke of Schomberg, who was killed in his year at the Battle of the Boyne in , and over whose death William III. wept, saying,
[n.51.1] It was afterwards inhabited by John Astley the painter, who placed the relief over the entrance. He divided the house and after his death the central compartment was occupied by Cosway the miniature painter. Gainsborough lived in of the wings of the house from to , and Sir Joshua Reynolds sat to him for his portrait there. It was there also,
that Sir Joshua Was present () at the death-bed of Gainsborough, and heard his last words,
Much of the house has been demolished, but Gainsborough's wing remains.
On the opposite side of the street was the
where the Literary Club had the meetings which
|Swift describes in a letter to Stella; and where () William, Lord Byron, having a quarrel with his neighbour, Mr. Chaworth, as to which had most game on his estate, challenged him, fought him by the light of a single tallow candle, and gave him a wound which proved fatal the next day, and for which he was tried in Hall.|
On the left is , built (-) by Sir Christopher Wren for the great Duke of Marlborough, on an offset of the Park given by Queen Anne. The Duke died in the house in , and here also died his famous duchess, Sarah,
in spite of her retort when told, in her eigtty- year, that she must either be blistered or die-
She kept up the utmost pomp to the last, and talked of her
at St. James's. The bad entrance that still exists testifies to the spite of Sir Robert Walpole, who, when he found the old duchess desirous of making a suitable approach to her house, bought up the leases of the encroaching houses to prevent her. The house remained in the Marlborough family till it was purchased for Princess Charlotte in . It was the London residence of Queen Adelaide in her widowhood, and was settled upon Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in . The saloon still contains a number of very interesting pictures by of the victories of the Duke of Marlborough. George IV. made a plan for connecting Marlborough House with Carlton House by a gallery of portraits of the British Sovereigns and historical personages connected with them.
The building which projects into the grounds of Marlborough House, and which is entered from the roadway into the Park on the left of , is interesting as the Roman built by Charles I. for Henrietta Maria, the erection of which gave such offence to his subjects.
The picturesque old brick gateway of still looks up , of the most precious relics of the past in London, and enshrining the memory of a greater succession of historical events than any other domestic building in England, Windsor Castle not excepted. The site of the palace was occupied, even before the
| Conquest, by a hospital dedicated to St. James, for |
Henry VIII. obtained it by exchange, pensioned off the sisters, and converted the hospital into
[n.54.1] in the same year in which he was married to Anne Boleyn, who was commemorated here with him in love-knots, now almost obliterated, upon the side doors of the gateway, and in the letters
on the chimney-piece of the presence-chamber or tapestry room. Holbein is sometimes said to have been the king's architect here, as he was at . Henry can seldom have lived here, but hither his daughter, Mary I., retired, after her husband Philip left England for Spain, and here she died, .
James I., in , settled St. James's on his eldest son, Prince Henry, who kept his court here for years with great magnificence, having a salaried household of no less than persons. Here he died in his year, . Upon his death, St. James's was given to his brother Charles, who frequently resided here after his accession to the throne, and here Henrietta Maria gave birth to Charles II., James II., and the Princess Elizabeth. In the palace was given as a refuge to the queen's mother, Marie de' Medici,
|who lived here for years, with a pension of a month I Hither Charles I. was brought from Windsor as the prisoner of the Parliament, his usual attendants, with exception, being debarred access to him, and being replaced by common soldiers, who sat smoking and drinking even in the royal bedchamber, never allowing him a moment's privacy, and hence he was taken in a sedan chair to his trial at .|
On the following day the king was led away from St. James's to the scaffold. His faithful friends Henry Rich, Earl of Holland; the Duke of Hamilton and Lord Capel; were afterwards imprisoned in the palace and suffered like their master.
Charles II., who was born at St. James's (), resided at , giving up the palace to his brother the Duke of York (also born here, ), but reserving apartments for his mistress, the Duchess of Mazarin, who at time resided there with a pension of a year. Here Mary II. was born, ; and here she was married to William of Orange, at at night, . Here for many years the Duke and Duchess of York secluded themselves with their children, in mourning and sorrow, on the anniversary of his father's murder. Here, also, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, died, , asking
of Blandford, Bishop of Worcester, who came to visit her.
In also, James's wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to her child, Prince James Edward (
) on .
It was to St. James's that William III. came on his arrival in England, and he frequently resided there afterwards, dining in public, with the Duke of Schomberg seated at his right hand and a number of Dutch guests, but on no occasion was any English gentleman invited. In the latter part of William's reign the palace was given up to the Princess Anne, who had been born there, , and married there to Prince George of Denmark, .
|She was residing here when Bishop Burnet brought her the news of William's death and her own accession.|
George I., on his arrival in England, came at once to St. James's.
The Duchess of Kendal, the king's mistress, had rooms in the palace, and, towards the close of his reign, George I. assigned appartments there on the ground-floor to a fresh favourite, Miss Anne Brett. When the king left for Hanover, Miss Brett had a door opened from her rooms to the royal gardens, which the king's grand-daughter, Princess Anne, who was residing in the palace, indignantly ordered to be walled up. Miss Brett had it opened a time, and the quarrel was at its height, when the news of the king's death put an end to the power of his mistress. With the accession of George II. the Countesses of Yarmouth and Suffolk took possession of the apartments of the Duchess of Kendal. As Prince of Wales, George II. had resided in the palace, till a smouldering quarrel with his father came to a crisis over the christening of of the royal children, and the next day he was put under arrest, and ordered to leave St. James's with his family the same evening. Wilhelmina Caroline of Anspach, the beloved queen of George II., died in the palace, , after an agonizing illness, endured with the utmost fortitude and consideration for all around her.
Of the daughters of George II. and Queen Caroline, Anne, the eldest, was married at St. James's to the Prince of Orange, , urged to the alliance by her desire for power, and answering to her parents, when they reminded her of the hideous and ungainly appearance of the bridegroom,
The marriage, however, was a happy , and a pleasant contrast to that of her younger sister Mary, the king's daughter, who was married here to the brutal Frederick of Hesse Cassel, . The daughter, Caroline, died at St. James's, , after a long seclusion consequent upon the death of John, Lord Harvey, to whom she was passionately attached.
George I. and George II. used, on certain days, to play at Hazard at the grooms' postern at St. James's, and the name
as applied to modern gaming-houses, is derived from that given to the gloomy room used by the royal gamblers.[n.59.1]
The northern part of the palace, beyond the gateway (inhabited in the reign of Victoria by the Duchess of Cambridge), was built for the marriage of Frederick Prince of Wales.
The (which those who frequent levees and drawing-rooms have abundant opportunities of surveying) are handsome, and contain a number of good royal portraits.
The , on the right on entering the
has a carved and painted ceiling of . Madame d'Arblay describes the pertinacity of George III. in attending service here in bitter November weather, when
| the queen and court at length left the king, his chaplain, and equerry |
There is still a full choral service here at A.M. and P.M., when, on payment of ., any may occupy the
and say their prayers on crimson cushions. Bishop Burnet's complaint to the Princess Anne of the ogling which went on here during Divine service drew down the ballad attributed to Lord Peterborough-
When Queen Caroline (wife of George II.) asked Mr. Whiston what fault people had to find with her conduct, he replied that the fault they most complained of was her habit of talking in chapel.
It was in this chapel that the colours taken from James II. at the Battle of the Boyne were hung up by his daughter Mary, an unnatural exhibition of triumph which shocked the Londoners. Besides that of Queen Anne,[n.61.2] a number of royal marriages have been solemnised here; those of the daughters of George II., of Frederick Prince of Wales to Augusta of Saxe Cobourg, of George IV. to Caroline of Brunswick, and of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert.
The at the back of has a private entrance to the Park. It was as he was alighting from his carriage here, , that George III. was attacked with a knife by the insane Margaret Nicholson.
(where John Selwyn, Marlborough's aide de-camp, and his son, George Selwyn, lived, and where the latter died, ) now leads to (Earl of Ellesmere), built - by Barry, on the site of Cleveland House, once the residence of Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, having before that belonged to the great Earl of Clarendon, and afterwards to the Earls of Bridgewater. The principal windows bear the monogram of EE on their pediments, and, on the panel beneath,
| the Bridgewater motto--|
The can generally be visited on Wednesdays and Saturdays, but the pictorial gems of the house are all contained in the dwelling-rooms on the ground-floor, and can only be seen by an especial permission from its master. In the centre of the house is a great hall, surrounded, on the upper floor, by an arcaded gallery, which contains, turning left from the head of the stairs-
The is crowded with pictures, hung so entirely without reason that they are for the most part mere wall decoration. -thirds are so high up that it is impossible to see them, and nothing is
This fine room is spoilt by the lowness of the dado. We may notice-
Returning to the Ground Floor-
--from the Orleans Gallery, much retouched. There are many repetitions of this picture: the best is in the gallery at Naples.
-a beautiful circular picture. The Virgin has wound her veil around the infant Saviour, to whom St. Joseph, kneeling, gives some flowers. Supposed to have been painted at Florence for Taddeo Taddi in .
. (?). The Holy Family walking in a green landscape. Passavant and Kugler ascribe this picture to Francesco Penni. It is of exquisite beauty--the children
|especially graceful. Philip II. of Spain gave the picture to the Duke of Urbino, who gave it to the Emperor Rudolph II. Gustavus Adolphus carried it off from Prague to Sweden. It was inherited by his daughter Christina, who took it to Rome, where it was purchased, after her death, by the Duke of Bracciano. From his collection it was purchased by the Regent Duke of Orleans. Many repetitions are in existence.|
. . St. Catherine sees the Virgin and Child in a Vision. The saint recalls the work of Correggio, whom Lodovico especially studied and imitated.
. . -a very beautiful and unusually quiet work of the master.
*. . The Ages of Life.
. . The Infant Christ asleep upon the Cross--a lovely little picture.
. . -a replica of the picture in the Louvre.
. . Milking.
. . The Cross-bearing.
Colonel Blood, who afterwards became famous for his plot to seize the Crown Jewels, made his audacious attempt on the Duke of Ormond as he was returning to Cleveland House. At the end of , on the left, is the approach to (Duke of Sutherland), built by for the Duke of York, son of George III., on the site of
erected for Caroline of Anspach. Its hall and staircase, by , perfect in proportions and harmonious in their beautiful purple and grey colouring, are the best specimens of scagliola decoration in England. The noble collection of pictures, greatly reduced in importance through the sale of several fine works by the present owner, is scattered through the different rooms of the house, and can only be seen by special permission. Amongst the pictures deserving notice are-
Ante Dining Room.
.-(In the central compartment of the ceiling is St. Crisogono supported by angels, a fine work of Guercino from the soffita of the saint's church in the Trastevere at Rome.)
From , , built in , and at called , leads to . From its earliest days it has been popular.
On the left, the building of importance is the (the Tory club), built by and , , and occupying partly the site of the old Thatched House Tavern, celebrated for its literary meetings, and partly that of the house in which Edward Gibbon, the historian of the Roman Empire, died . No. was the Cocoa-Tree Tavern, mentioned by Addison as
No. is , so called from the proprietor of White's Chocolate House, who died in : the celebrated Kitty Fisher
|was maintained by a subscription of the whole club at Arthur's!|
On the right, beyond No. , where Lord Byron was living in , is the opening of , once celebrated as containing
which, opened in , continued to be the fashionable house of entertainment through the early part of the present century, when it figures in most of the novels of the time. But, as
passed away, it deteriorated, and now, as , is used for tradesmen's balls. Close by is the . No. is the house to which Napoleon III. drew the especial attention of the Empress, on his triumphal progress through London as a royal guest, because it had been the home of his exile: a plate in the wall records his residence there.
[Out of open and , ever-crowded nests of bachelors' lodgings, though the prices are rather higher now than they were () when Swift complained to Stella from -
Horace Walpole narrates how he stood in in the snow, in his slippers and an embroidered suit, to watch a fire at o'clock in the morning.] No. , on the right of , is (Whig), built by , . No. is the
On the east side of the street, No. , is , the country gentleman's club-
No. was the house where Gilray the caricaturist committed suicide by throwing himself from an upper
| window. No. - is (Tory), built by , the successor of White's Chocolate House (established in ),[n.69.1]
celebrated for the bets and betting duels of the last century, when it had the reputation of |
Walpole tells, in illustration of the overwhelming mania for gambling there, that when a man fell into a fit outside the door, bets were taken as to whether he was dead; and when a surgeon wished to save his life by bleeding him, the bettors furiously interposed that they would have no foul play of that kind, and that he was to let the man alone. The fire, in which Mrs. Arthur, wife of the proprietor, leaped out of a -floor window upon a feather bed unhurt, is commemorated by Hogarth in Plate VI. of the
On the left is , where Thomas Parnell the poet lived; also, for a time, Addison; and Samuel Rogers, from till he died in his year, . In , the next turn on the left, Hume the historian lived in . Then leads into , the streets commemorating the Bennets, Earls of Arlington. In lived Lady Mary Wortley Montague, in the house of her father, the Marquis of Dorchester. Here also (No. ) was the town house of Sir Robert Walpole, who died in it (), leaving it to his son Horace, who lived in it till . He had: previously resided in No. , where the quaint pillared drawing-room is represented in the scene of the It was in that (in the winter of -) Lord and Lady Nelson had their final
|quarrel on the subject of Lady Hamilton, after which they never lived together. In No. , the house of the Duke of Rutland, Frederick Duke of York died, .|
On the opposite side of opens , which (with ) commemorates Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's,[n.70.1] the chamberlain of Henrietta Maria, whom scandal asserted to have become her husband after the execution of Charles I. The great Duke of Marlborough was living here, -, as the handsome Colonel Churchill. It was in the St. James's Hotel in this street that Sir Walter Scott spent some of the last weeks of his life in , and thence that he set off on for Abbotsford, where he died on .
falls into the important street of , which is'- generally said to derive its queer name from
the favourite turn-down collars of James I., which we see in Cornelius Jansen's pictures. These collars, however, were not introduced before , and in we find Gerard, the author of the already speaking of gathering bugloss in the dry ditches of
Jesse ingeniously suggests that the fashionable collar may have received its name from being worn by the dandies who frequented Piccadilla House, which, probably as early as Elizabeth's time, was a fashionable place of amusement (on the site of ), and that the word, as applied to the house, may come from the Spanish , literally meaning a venial fault. Clarendon () speaks of Picccadilly Hall as
Sir John Suckling the poet was of its gambling frequenters, and Aubrey narrates how his sisters came crying
Turning eastwards, we find, on the right, , built by Wren, . Hideous to ordinary eyes, this church is still admirable in the construction of its roof, which causes the interior to be considered as of the architect's greatest successes. The marble font is an admirable work of Gibbons: the stem represents the Tree of Knowledge, round which the Serpent twines, who offers the apple to Eve, standing with Adam beneath. The organ was ordered by James II. for his at , and was given to this church by his daughter Mary. The carving here was greatly admired by Evelyn.
The Princess Anne of Denmark was in the habit of attending service in this (then newly built) church, and it was of the petty insults which William and Mary offered to their sister-in-law (after her refusal to give up Lady Marlborough) to forbid Dr. Birch, the rector, to place
|the text upon the cushion in her pew, an order the rector, an especial partisan of the Princess, refused to comply with.|
Among the illustrious persons who have been buried here are Charles Cotton, the friend of Izaak Walton, ; the painters Vandevelde; Dr. Arbuthnot, the friend of Pope and Gay, the slouching satirist, of whom Swift said that he could
-; Mark Akenside, the harsh doctor who wrote the ; Michael Dahl, the portrait-painter; Robert Dodsley, footman, poet, and bookseller, ; William, the eccentric Duke of Queensberry, known as
; the beautiful and brilliant Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany, ; James Gilray, the caricaturist, ; and Sir John Malcolm, Governor of Bombay, .[n.72.1] In the vestry are portraits of most of the rectors of St. James's, including Tenison, Wake, and Secker, who were afterwards Archbishops of Canterbury. On the outside of the tower, towards , a tablet commemorates the humble poet-friend of Charles II., who wrote
It is inscribed-
On the other side of , nearly opposite the church, are the , which take their name from the title of the Duke of York, to whom the principal house once belonged.
On the right in returning is , built by , -. The inner part towards the courtyard is handsome; that towards the street, and the sides of the building, are spoilt by the heavy meaningless vases by which they are overladen. In the construction of this commonplace edifice, of the noblest pieces of architecture in London was wantonly destroyed-the portico, built in , of which Sir William Chambers wrote as
and which Horace Walpole said
The old house (the on the site) was built from the designs of Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington,[n.73.1] but the portico has been attributed to Colin Campbell. The walls of the interior were painted by Marco Ricci. Handel lived in the house for years. Alas that we can no longer say with Gay-
was bought by the nation in . The central portion of the modern buildings is devoted to the Royal Academy, which was founded in , with Reynolds as President. It consists of Academicians and Associates. Their exhibitions took place in , but, after , they were held in the eastern wing of the .
The permanent possessions of the Royal Academy include-
The buildings to the right of the quadrangle on entering are occupied by the Chemical, Geological, and Royal Societies: those to the left by the Linnsean, Astronomical, and Antiquarian Societies.
The had its origin in weekly meetings of learned men, which were held in . When early meetings of the Society, under the Presidency of Sir Isaac Newton, were held in Crane Court in . After the meetings were held in till , when the Society moved to . It possesses a valuable collection of portraits, including-
In the up-stairs are preserved a model of Davy's Safety Lamp made by himself, and many relics of Sir Isaac Newton, the most important being the complete reflecting , which had so much to do with the evolution of astronomy from astrology,
The other relics include a sundial which he carved on the wall of Woolsthorpe Manor-house, near Grantham, where he was born; his telescope, made in ; his watch; a lock of his silver hair; various articles carved from the apple-tree which has long played an imaginary part as suggesting his discoveries; and an autograph written as
in which office he was not above speculations in the South Sea Bubble; and a MS.-apparently written by his amanuensis, with interpolations from his own hand-of the which occupies the same position to philosophy as the Bible does to religion. There is here a fine bust of Newton by , but a cast taken after death shows that the features are too small. A noble bust by represents Sir J. Banks, the President whose despotic will was law to the Society for years, and who transacted the business of the Society at his breakfasts. Mrs. Somerville has the honour of being the only lady whose bust (by ) is placed there. The portraits include-
The had its origin in an antiquarian society founded by Archbishop Parker in , whose members, including Camden, Cotton, Raleigh, and Stow, met in at the Heralds' College, though by the close of Elizabeth's reign we hear of the
as assembling at the house of Sir R. Cotton in . The suspicions of James I. compelled them for a time to suspend all public meetings, and in the beginning of the century they met at the
in Butchers' Row. In we find them at the
in ; then, in , hard by at the
and, in , at the
On , George II., who called himself
granted a charter of incorporation to the Society, who, in , moved to the Society's house in . In apartments in were bestowed upon the Society, which they occupied till . The room in which the Society now holds its meetings contains a number of curious ancient portraits, chiefly royal: that of Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV., is by . Here also are copies by from the lost historical paintings in Chapel at . A picture of the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus is interesting as an English work of the century. On the is a diptych representing the old , with Paul's Cross, painted by John Gipkym in . The handsome on the upper floor contains a fine bust of George III. by , and the splendid portrait of Mary I., painted by in . The queen is represented in a yellow dress with black jewels: the jewel which hangs from the neck still exists in the possession of the Abercorn family.
At the back of are the Palladian buildings of the , built from designs , -.
In , facing the back of , General Wade's house was built by R. Boyle, Earl of Burlington, a house which was so uncomfortable as to make Lord Chesterfield say that if the owner could not be at his ease in it, he had better take a house over against it and ] The was built by for Lord George Cavendish'in ISIS, and is
as Leigh Hunt says,
Just beyond is the little underground newsvendor's, whither Louis Napoleon Buonaparte
[n.78.1] , , , and occupy the site of Clarendon House and its gardens, built by the Lord Chancellor Earl of Clarendon, who laid out the gardens at a cost of . He sold the property in to Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who pulled down the house.
was built in by Sir Thomas Bond of Peckham, Comptroller of the Household to Henrietta Maria as Queen Mother, who was created a baronet by Charles II., and bought part of the Clarendon estate from the Duke of Albemarle. The author of Laurence Sterne, died at
No. , , without a friend near him.
No. is the , a Picture Gallery and Restaurant, opened , by Sir Coutts Lindsay. It has a doorway by , brought from the Church of St. Lucia at Venice, inserted in an inartistic front of mountebank architecture by . No. , at the corner of , is a capital modern copy of old Dutch architecture.
In , named from Christopher Monk, Duke of Albemarle, is the , established in , where the threads of science are unravelled by men. At the entrance of the street is the publishing house of John Murray, in the dynasty of John Murrays, whose house was founded in in , and whose fortunes were made by the .
derives its name from Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover. John Evelyn lived on the eastern side of this street, and died there in .his year, -.
Beyond the turn into , a high brick wall hides the great courtyard of . The site was formerly occupied by Berkeley House, built by Sir John Berkeley, created Lord Berkeley of Stratton (whence ) in . It was to this house that the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne retreated when she quarrelled with William III. in -.
Berkeley House was burnt in , and was built on its site by William Kent for the Duke of Devonshire.[n.80.1] It is a perfectly unpretending building, with a low pillared entrance-hall, but its winding marble staircase with wide shallow steps is admirably suited to the princely hospitalities of the Cavendishes, and its large gardens with their tall trees give the house an unusual air of seclusion. Of both house and garden the most interesting associations centre around the brilliant crowd which encircled the beautiful Georgiana Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire, whose verses on William Tell produced the lines of Coleridge-
Her traditional purchase of a butcher's vote with a kiss, when canvassing for Fox's election, produced the epigram-
[n.80.2] The reception-rooms are handsome, with beautiful ceilings. Few of the pictures are important. Ascending the principal staircase, we may notice-
Beyond , has only houses on side, which look into the . After passing , named from Sir Walter Clarges (nephew of Anne Clarges, the low-born wife of General Monk), we may notice No. as the house whence Sir Francis Burdett was taken to the Tower, ; at the corner of (No. ) , rebuilt in for Lord Ashburton; and No. , with a courtyard, now a Naval and Military Club, as , where Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, youngest son of George III., died . On the balcony of No. , on fine days in summer, used to sit the thin withered old figure of the Duke of Queensberry,
[n.82.1] He was the last grandee in England who employed running footmen, and he used to try their paces by watching and timing them from his balcony as they ran up and down in his liveries. day a new footman was running on trial, and acquitted himself splendidly.
said the Duke.
replied the footman, and gave a last proof of his fleetness of foot by running away with it.[n.82.2]
, so called from a tavern, leads into (named from George Augustus Curzon, Viscount Howe), associated in the recollection of so many living persons with the charming parties of the sisters Mary and Agnes Berry, who died in equally
| honoured and beloved. They lived at No. , where Murrell, their servant, used to set up a lamp over their door, as a sign when they had |
at their parties: a few habitués of the male sex, however, knew that they could still come in, whether the lamp was lighted or not.
says Lord Houghton,
Chantrey lived in an attic of No. , , and modelled several of his busts there.
All the streets north of now lead into the district of , which takes its name from a fair which used to be held in and its surrounding streets.
At the corner of (once Tyburn Lane!) is , where Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, died, . This was the house to which Lord Elgin brought the Elgin Marbles, and which was called by Byron the
In No. x, (named from James Hamilton, ranger of under Charles II.) lived the great
|Lord Eldon. Just beyond we may notice No. , Terrace, as the house in which the separation between Lord and Lady Byron took place.|
Returning to (named from John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Lord Deputy of Ireland in the time of Charles II.), we may remember that it was the London residence of Alexander Pope. On the left is , a stone alley sunk in the gardens of , leading to . The bar which crosses its entrance is a curious memorial of London highwaymen, having been put up in the last century to prevent their escape that way, after a mounted highwayman had ridden full gallop up the steps, having fled through , after robbing his victims in . This is
described by Trollope in with a persistency which almost impresses the fact as real, as the scene of Mr. Bonteen's murder-
On the right is , where Sir Thomas Wyatt's head was exhibited on a long pole after the rebellion of , his quarters being set up in various other parts of the City. It was here that George IV. and the Duke of York were stopped as young men, in a hackney coach, by a robber who held a pistol at their heads, while he demanded their money, but had to go away disappointed, for they: could only muster half-a-crown between them.
On the left a heavy screen of foliage gives almost the seclusion of the country to , which stands in a large garden approached by gates decorated with the bee-hives which are the family crest. The house was built
| by Robert Adam for the prime-minister Lord Bute, and, while still unfinished, was sold to William Petty, Earl of Shelburne, who became prime-minister on the death of Lord Rockingham, and upon whom the title of Marquis of Lansdowne was conferred by Pitt, from Lansdowne Hill, near Bath, part of the property of his wife, Sophia, daughter of John, Earl Granville. The ancient statues in were collected at Rome by Gavin Hamilton in the last century; the collection of pictures was formed by the Marquis of Lansdowne.
In the we may notice-
In the -
In the -
Of the we may especially notice-
, built , and named from Berkeley House in (see ), has the best trees of any square in London. They are all planes, the only trees which thoroughly enjoy a smoky atmosphere. It was in No. that Horace Walpole died in . No. has a noble staircase erected by Kent for Lady Isabella Finch. In No. the great Lord Clive, founder of the British Empire in India, committed suicide, . No. has obtained a great notoriety in late years
| as the |
about which there have been such strange stories and surmises. Many of the houses in this and in retain, in the fine old ironwork in front of their doors, the extinguishers employed to put out the flambeaux which the footmen used to carry lighted at the back of the carriages during a night drive through the streets. Ben Jonson speaks of those thieves of the night who--
and Gay says-
of the best examples is that at No. , where the doorplate of the Earl of Powis is, with the exception of that of Lady Willoughby de Broke in , the only remaining example of the old aristocratic door-plates, which were once universal.
Near the entrance of , we may notice the tavern sign of the -
-only too popular with the profession, which shows the dress worn by the running retainers of the last century, who have left nothing but their name to the stately flunkeys of the present.
Just behind , at the north-east corner, in , is , preserved through all the vicissitudes of this part of London as having been the
|little manor-house in the country which was the home of Miss Mary Davies, whose marriage with Sir Thomas Grosvenor in resulted in the enormous wealth of his family through the value to which her paternal acres rose. Her farm is commemorated in the rural names of many neighbouring streets-Farm Street, , , Hay Mews.|
In front of this house, (named from Oliver's Mount, part of the fortifications raised round London by the Parliament in ) and (right) lead into , which has for a century and a half maintained the position of the most fashionable place of residence in London. No. was the house in which
under Arthur Thistlewood
| arranged () to murder the Ministers of the Crown while they were dining with Lord Harrowby, President of the Council. |
Thistlewood exclaimed at their final meeting, and bags were actually produced in which the heads of Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh were to be brought away, after which the cavalry barracks were to be fired, and the and the Tower taken by the people, who, it was hoped, would rise on the news. The ministers were warned, and the conspirators seized in a loft in Cato Street,[n.90.1] , only.a few hours before their design was to have been carried out Thistlewood and his principal accomplices were tried for high treason, and, after a most ingenious defence in a speech of hours by John Adolphus, were condemned and hanged at the .
The old ironwork and flambeau extinguishers before many of the doors in deserve notice. In the last century the nobility were proud of their flambeaux, and it is remarkable that the aristocratic Square refused to
|adopt the use of gas till compelled to do so by force of public opinion in , having been lighted with gas from .|
is crossed by the great arteries of and . William, Duke of Cumberland, died () in . No. , with a courtyard, separated from the street by a stone colonnade with handsome metal gates (by Cundy, ) is (Duke of ), once, as , inhabited by the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George III. Its noble collection of pictures can only be seen by a personal order of admission from the Duke of . The pictures, which are all hung in the delightful rooms constantly occupied by the family, are most generously shown between the hours of and to all who have provided themselves with tickets by application. We may notice-
is so called from the Tye Bourne whose course it marks. No. , doors from , was the house of George Frederick Handel, the famous composer, who used to give rehearsals of his oratorios there.
North and south through runs , so called from Hugh Audley, . . No. , was the house of Alderman Wood, where Queen Caroline resided on her return from Italy in , and from the balcony of which she used to show herself to the people. Spencer Perceval was born in the recess of the eastern side of the street, called , in . At the bottom of , in (so named in , from a fair which began on May Day), gates and a courtyard lead to (Charles Magniac, Esq.), built by Ware in for Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, on land belonging to Curzon, Lord Howe (whence , , and ). It has a noble marble staircase with a bronze balustrade, which, as well as the portico, was brought from Canons, the seat of the Duke
| of Chandos at Edgeware. The curious still remains where Lord (hesterfield. wrote his. celebrated Letters, of which Dr. Johnson said, |
The busts and pictures which once made the room so
interesting have been removed, but under the cornice still run the lines from Horace-
Lord Chesterfield was of the English patrons of French cookery: his cook was La Chapelle, a
|descendant of the famous cook of Louis XIV. Chesterfield died in the house in , and in accordance with his Will was interred in the nearest burial-ground (that of Grosvenor Chapel), but was afterwards removed to Shelford in Nottinghamshire.|
The of , mentioned by Beckford as
has been lamentably curtailed of late years.
In the vaults of is still buried Ambrose Philips (), described by Lord Macaulay as
and ridiculed by Pope as
Here also rests Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (), who introduced the Turkish remedy of inoculation for the smallpox (practising it upon her own children), and who was the authoress of the charming which have been so often compared with those of Madame de Sévigné. A tablet commemorates
(). This chapel is of the places where public thanksgivings were returned () for the acquittal of Lord George Gordon.
and lead in a direct line to , so called from having been built on the property of William Henry Portman of Orchard
| Portman in Somersetshire (died ). , , , and , on this property, take their names from country houses of the Portman family. No. (Sir Edward Blackett, Bart.), prepared for the marriage of William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, with Lady Waldegrave in , has a beautiful drawing-room decorated by the brothers Adam, and hung with exquisite tapestry. The detached house at the northwest angle is Montagu House, which became celebrated from the parties of Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu, the |
who here founded the Bas Bleu Society, whence the expression Blue Stocking. Her rooms, decorated with feather hangings to which all her friends contributed, are celebrated by Cowper.
Johnson used to laugh at her, but said,
In the garden which surrounds the house Mrs. Montagu used to collect the chimney-sweeps of London every May
|Day and give them a treat, saying that they should have at least happy day in the year. Her doing so originated in her discovering, in the disguise of a chimney-sweep, Edward Wortley Montagu (Lady Mary's son), who had run away from School. Mrs. Montagu died in , aged : she is commemorated in and Street.|
, which leads north from , contains . Many of these, especially those relating to the French Revolution, were modelled from life, or death, by Madame Tussaud, who was herself imprisoned and in danger of the guillotine, with Madame Beauharnais and her child Hortense as her associates.
and [n.98.1] lead west to . On the left is , containing , the large brick mansion and of Sir Richard Wallace, who inherited it from Lord Hertford. The pictures, which are not shown to the public, include several good works of Murillo, some fine specimens of the Dutch School, and the and other works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The residence here of the Marchioness of Hertford will recall Moore's lines-
, laid out in , takes its name
| (with the neighbouring and ) from Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, who married, in , Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. In the centre stood till lately a statue of William Duke of Cumberland (-), erected in by his friend General Strode. On the south side is a statue of Lord George Bentinck, . The houses at the north-east and north-west angles were intended as the extremities of the wings of the huge mansion of the great Duke of Chandos, by which he intended to occupy the whole north side of the square, but.the project was cut short by his dying of a broken heart in consequence of the death of his infant heir, while he was being christened with the utmost magnificence. On the west is , built for Lord Bingley, and bought after his death by the Earl of Harcourt, who sold it to the Duke of Portland.[n.99.1] It has a courtyard and , like those in the Faubourg St. Germain. At No. lived and painted George Romney, always called by Sir Joshua Reynolds, whom he had the honour of rivalling, |
Princess Amelia, daughter of George II., lived in the large house at the corner of . In No. , Lord Byron was born in . There is little more worth noticing in the frightful district to the north of , which, with the exception of the squares we have been describing, marks the limits of fashionable society. We may take as a fair specimen of
| this dreary neighbourhood, with the grim rows of expression. less uniform houses, between which and |
Dickens draws such a vivid parallel in Taine shows it us from a Frenchman's point of view.
Though was the high-road to the University, it derives its name from Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, owner of the manor of Tyburn. It was formerly called the Tyburn Road, and in was only enclosed by houses on its northern side. Besides those already mentioned, we need only notice, of its side streets on this side , , where the Lord Mayor's Banqueting House stood, which was pulled down in . Thither the Lord Mayor occasionally came
[n.100.1] The end house in , which belonged to Cosway, the miniature painter, has a beautiful ceiling by Angelica Kauffmann.
leads to the north-eastern corner of , which is entered at by the of our national follies--a despicable caricature
|of the Arch of Constantine, originally erected by Nash at a cost of , as an approach to Buckingham Palace, and removed hither (when the palace was enlarged in ) at a cost .|
At this corner of , where the angle of now stands, was the famous
sometimes called the
being a triangle on legs, where the public executions took place till they were transferred to Newgate in . The manor of Tyburn took its name from the Tye Bourne or brook, which rose under , and the place was originally chosen for executions because, though on the high-road to Oxford, it was remote from London. The condemned were brought hither in a cart from Newgate-
the prisoner usually carrying the immense nosegay which, by old custom, was presented to him on the steps of St. Sepulchre's Church, and having been refreshed with a bowl of ale at . The cart was driven underneath the gallows, and, after the noose was adjusted, was driven quickly away by Jack Ketch the hangman, so that the prisoner was left suspended.[n.101.2] Death by this method was much slower and more uncertain than it has been since the drop was invented, and there have been several cases in which animation has been restored after the prisoner was cut down. Around the place of execution were raised galleries which were let to spectators; they were destroyed by the disappointed mob who had engaged them when Dr.
| Henesey was reprieved in . Mammy Douglas, who kept the key of the boxes, bore the name of the
[n.102.1] The bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were buried under the Tyburn tree after hanging there for a day. Some bones discovered in , on removing the pavement close to Arklow House, at the south-west angle of the Edgeware Road, are supposed to have been theirs. On the house at the corner of Upper and the Edgeware Road the iron balconies remained till , whence the sheriffs used to watch the executions.[n.102.2] Amongst the reminiscences of executions at Tyburn are those connected with-
[Tyburn still gives a name to the white streets and squares of , which are wholly devoid of interest or beauty. Farther west, Westbourne Park and take their name from the West Bourne, as the Tye Bourne was called in its later existence. The district called was Bayard's Watering Place, connected with Bainardus, a Norman follower of the Conqueror, also commemorated in Baynard's Castle. In a burial-ground facing (belonging to , ) was buried Laurence Sterne, author of &c., .
Sir Thomas Picton, killed at Waterloo, was buried here in his family vault, and in the vaults under the chapel was
|laid Mrs. Anne Radcliffe, authoress of the|
in Bayswater commemorates the
where Holinshed says that Roger Mortimer was drawn and hanged-
To the north of Kensington Gardens stood the Bayswater Conduit House (commemorated in and , Paddington), at the back of the houses in , which take their name from the Earl of Craven, once Lord of the Manor. This conduit was granted to the citizens of London by Gilbert Sanford in , and was used to supply the famous conduit in . Its picturesque building, shaded by an old pollard elm, was in existence in , when people still came to drink of its waters. Soon afterwards it was destroyed when the estate was parcelled out, and its stream was diverted into the , which flows under the centre of the roadway by Kensington .]
(open to carriages, not to cabs), the principal recreation ground of London, takes its name from the manor of Hyde, which belonged to the Abbey of . The Park was enclosed by Henry VIII., and the French ambassador hunted there in . In the time of Charles I. the Park was thrown open to the public, but it was sold under the Commonwealth, when Evelyn
| complained that |
Cromwell was run away with here, as he was ostentatiously driving horses which the Duke of Oldenburgh had given him, and as he was thrown from the box of his carriage, his pistol went off in his pocket, but without hurting him. has been much used of late years for radical meetings, and on
Sundays numerous open-air congregations on the turf near the make the air resound with |
melodies, and recall the days of Wesley and Whitefield.
In descending the Park from Cuimberland Gate to , we pass on the left (Earl of Dudley), which contains a fine collection of pictures. Then, beyond Grosvenor House and its garden, rises the beautiful Italian palace known as (R. S. Holford,
|Esq.), and built by Lewis Vulliamy in -. It is bolder in design than any other building in London, is an imitation, not, like most English buildings, a caricature, of the best Italian models, and has a noble play of light and shadow from its roof and projecting stones, feet inches square. The staircase is stately and beautiful, and leads to broad galleries with open arcades and gilt backgrounds like those which are familiar in the works of Paul Veronese. The upper rooms contain many fine pictures, chiefly Italian.|
Opposite , apparently in the act of threatening Apsley House, stands a by , erected in in honour of the Duke of Wellington and his companion heroes, from cannon taken at Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo. It is partially a copy (though much altered) of of the statues on the Monte Cavallo at Rome.
Between this statue and the open screen erected by Decimus Burton in is the entrance to , the fashionable of London, a mile and a half in length. The fragment of the walk on its southern side is the fashionable promenade during the season from to , as the corresponding walk towards the is from to . At these hours the walks are thronged, and the chairs () and arm-chairs () along the edge of the garden are amply filled. was already a fashionable promenade centuries ago, the
then being considered to begin with the . for , remarks-
People seldom suspect that the odd term is a corruption of , yet so it is. The old royal route from the palace of the Plantagenet kings at to the royal hunting forests was by what are now called
and this road was kept sacred to royalty, the only other person allowed to use it being (from its association with the hunting grounds) the Grand Falconer of England. This privilege exists still, and every year the Duke of St. Alban's, as Hereditary Grand Falconer, keeps up his rights by once down .
A little to the north of is the , an artificial lake of acres, much frequented for bathing in summer and for skating in winter. There is a delightful drive along its northern bank. Near this are the oldest trees in the Park, some of them oaks said to have been planted by Charles II. In this part of the Park was the
now destroyed, the fashionable drive of the last century. The most celebrated of the many duels in , that between Lord Mohun and the Duke of Hamilton, in which both were killed, was fought () near
at the north-western angle of the Park, where it is merged in Kensington Gardens.
[South of is the now populous and popular district of , wholly devoid of interest, and which none would think of visiting unless drawn thither by the claims of society. Its existence only dates from , before which Mrs. Gascoigne describes it as-
It occupies, in great part, the Ebury Farm in ,
|which belonged to the Davies family till , when Alexander Davies, the last male of the family, died, leaving it to his only daughter Mary, who married Sir Thomas Grosvenor in . George III. foresaw, when Buckingham Palace was acquired for the Crown, that it would make the locality fashionable, and that people would wish to follow royalty, and he was desirous of buying the fields at the back of the palace grounds, but George Grenville, the then prime minister, would not sanction the expenditure of for the purpose. The result was the building of in , which overlooks the gardens of the palace.|
behind , mentioned in the and as places where robbers lay in wait, remained vacant till , when their marshy ground was made into a firm basis by soil brought from the excavations for St. Katherine's Docks, and Messrs. Cubitt and Smith built Belgravia. Lord Grosvenor gave for the
Lord Cowper also wished to buy them, and sent his agent for the purpose, but he came back without doing so, and when his master upbraided him said,
Cubitt afterwards offered a ground rent of !
The only tolerable feature of this wearily ugly part of London is (measuring feet by ), designed by George Basevi, and named from the village of Belgrave in Leicestershire, which belongs to the Duke of .
Close to rises the pillared front of (Duke of Wellington), over which, on fine
|afternoons, the sun throws a spirit-like shadow from the statue of the great Duke upon the opposite gateway.[n.110.1] The house, which was built for Charles Bathurst, Lord Apsley, by the brothers Adam, was bought by the Marquis Wellesley in : it will always excite interest, from its associations as the residence of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, who died . [n.110.2]|
On the right of the Entrance Hall is a room appropriated as a kind of It is surrounded by glass cases containing--an enormous plateau, candelabra, &c., given by the Spanish and Portuguese Courts after the Peninsular War; a magnificent shield bearing the victories of the Duke in relief, presented, with candelabra, by the Merchants and Bankers of London in ; and services of china given by the Russian, Prussian, and French Courts. In a number of table-cases are preserved the swords, batons, and orders (including the extinct order of the Saint Esprit) which belonged to the Duke; his field-glasses; the cloak which he wore at Waterloo; the sword of Napoleon I.; the dress worn by Tippoo Saib at his capture; and the magnificent George set with emeralds, originally given by Anne to the Duke of
|Marlborough, and presented by George IV. to the Duke of Wellington.|
At the foot of the stairs is a colossal statue of Napoleon I. by , presented by the Prince Regent in . The collection of pictures includes-
In the (so called from an ugly picture of the lion-tamer by
In the (a magnificent room used for the Wellington Banquets on the till the death of the great Duke).
Close to Apsley House was the public-house known as the
whither Squire Western is represented as coming to seek for Sophia. Part of the ground on which the house is built was purchased from the representatives of Allen, who, when recognised by George II. while holding an apple-stall at the entrance of the Park, as an old soldier of the Battle of Dettingen, was asked by the king what he would wish to have granted him, and demanded and received
and the were once united by the piece of land now cut off as the gardens behind Apsley House and Terrace. Their being divided dates from the time of the Civil Wars, when the royal forces had advanced as far as Brentford, and London was arming for its defence. The great bulwark of was then erected just where now divides the Parks, which were
| never again united: it was a fort with bastions: all classes worked at it-
The Corinthian Arch opposite Apsley House, built. by in , supports an ugly equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington by (). It was between this gate and that of that Charles II., on foot, attended only by the Duke of Leeds and Lord Cromarty, met the Duke of York returning from hunting. The latter alighted, and expressed his disquietude at seeing the king walking with gentlemen only in attendance.
said the king,
The road which passes beneath the arch leads into the (of acres), and skirts the gardens of Buckingham Palace by , where no less than attempts have been made upon the life of Queen Victoria: the by a lunatic named Oxford, ; the by Francis, another lunatic, ; and the by an idiot named Hamilton, . It was at the top of the hill that Sir Robert Peel was thrown from his horse, ; , and received the injuries from which he died on the . The principal houses on the opposite side of the Park are, Stafford House, Bridgewater House, and Spencer House.
leads into close to , of which the gardens occupy acres. The northern part was the famous
planned by James I. in , mentioned by [n.114.1] and Wycherley [n.114.2] as a popular place of entertainment, whither Dryden came to eat tarts with his mistress, Mrs. Anne Reeve,[n.114.3] and which Evelyn () speaks of as
On this site Goring House was built, called Arlington House after its sale to Bennet, Earl of Arlington, in . It was Lord Arlington, says Timbs,[n.114.4] who brought from Holland for the of tea introduced into England, so that probably tea was drunk on the site of Buckingham Palace. Arlington House was sold to John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, in , and was rebuilt for him in by a Dutch architect of Bergen under the name of Buckingham House, when it was adorned with mottoes without, and frescoes within. Defoe [n.114.5] calls it
It was here that Horace Walpole describes the Duke's wife, daughter of James II. by Catherine Sedley, as receiving her company on the anniversary of
[n.114.6] George II., as Prince of Wales, wished to buy the house from this duchess in her widowhood, but the price she
|asked was too high, and it was left for George II. to purchase it from Sir Charles Sheffield, in , for . In it was settled upon Queen Charlotte instead of , and was called the Queen's House. In - it was rebuilt by Nash for George IV. (being always immediately over the Tye Brook, now a sewer), and in the east front ( feet long) was added by Blore. It is imposing-only by its size. The of the palace contains little that is worthy of notice beyond some of the collection of pictures formed by George IV., chiefly of the Dutch school. The white marble staircase is very handsome. In the former are Vandyke's portraits of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, and Winterhalter's portraits of the Queen and Prince Consort. In the State Dining Room is Lawrence's full-length portrait of George IV. The contain many royal portraits of great interest.|
In the Gardens is a of acres. A is adorned with scenes from by Eastlake, Maclise, Landseer, Dyce, Stanfield, Uwins, Leslie, and Ross. In the (visible by an order from the Master of the Horse) the Queen's State Coach may be seen.
( acres) was a bare, undrained field belonging to the hospital, afterwards , till it was enclosed by Henry VIII. Charles II., on his return from his exile, came back imbued with the Dutch taste for gardening, and laid it out with a long straight canal and regular avenues of elms and limes, such as were the or Duke Humphrey's Walk, the Long Lime Walk, and the Close Walk or Jacobite's Walk. Evelyn mentions the elms in branchywalk as
| The laying-out was probably due to Le Notre, who was employed at Wrest, the best of the trees which had existed before his time having been blown down in the great storm which marked the night of Oliver Cromwell's death. Near the south-west corner was Rosamund's Pond, the |
of Pope, painted by Hogarth, and mentioned by
|Otway, Congreve, Addison, Colley Gibber, and many other authors: it was filled up in . In - the whole plan of the Park was modernised, and both water and walks were made to wind and twist under George IV.: their rural character was, however, still sufficient to give application to the title of Wycherley's comedy--|
St. James's is far the prettiest of the London parks, and the most frequented by the lower orders. On Sundays they come by thousands to sit upon the seats mentioned by Goldsmith,[n.117.1] where,
and they bring bread to feed the water-fowl, which are the direct descendants of those introduced and fed by Charles II. Hither Pepys came () to gaze at
which he never saw before; and here Charles II. increased his popularity by coming unattended to look after his favourite ducks.
At the time the water-fowl were introduced, became also a kind of Zoological Garden for London.
The exiled Cavaliers had brought back with them the habit of skating, and to Evelyn went
| () to see them skate |
and Pepys () followed the Duke of York into the Park,
The exercise, however, seems to have passed out of fashion, for in Swift wrote to Stella of
The artificial water is now crossed by an ugly iron bridge, from which, however, there is a noble view of the new . On the peace of , a Chinese bridge and pagoda were erected here, and illuminated at night. It was this which caused Canova, when asked what struck him most in England, to answer,
[n.118.1] of the most remarkable sinecures ever known was that of the salaried Governor of Duck Island, which once adorned the water near this point, an appointment which was bestowed by Charles II. upon St. Evremond, and by Queen Caroline upon Stephen Duck,
ridiculed by Swift. It was while walking in on , that Charles II. received the intimation of the so-called
Kirby, a chemist, came up to him and said,
[n.118.2] Prior and Swift used constantly to walk round the Park together.
When he laid out the Park, Charles II. removed , for the game of Palle Malle, from the other side of to the straight walk on its north side, upon which the gardens of Stafford House, the Palace, Marlborough House, and now look down. Here the fashionable game of striking a ball with a mallet through an iron ring down a straight walk strewn with powdered cockle-shells was played by the cavaliers of the Court. Pepys () mentions coming to see the Duke of York play, and Charles himself was fond of the game. The flatterer Waller [n.119.1] says-
Till the present century, the Mall continued to be the most fashionable promenade of London, but the trees were then ancient and picturesquely grouped, and the company did not appear as they do now by , for the ladies were in full dress, and gentlemen carried their hats under their arms.
While he played at Palle Malle here in his prosperity, James Duke of York must often have remembered his escape by this way in his year, when, while all the young people in the palace were engaged late at night in playing at hide-and-seek, he slipped up to the room of his sister Elizabeth, shut up there the favourite little dog which was sure to have betrayed him, and gliding down the back stairs and through the dark garden, let himself out of a postern door into the Park, and so to the river.
It was by this road also that Charles I. (-) walked to his execution.
Till a very few years ago, when it was blown down, there existed in Sir John Lefevre's garden, at the corner of , a tree, which the king on this his last walk lingered to point out, saying,
And there still remains, at this corner of the Park, a remnant of old days coeval with the king's execution, in , as the pretty cow-stalls which still exist under the elm-trees used to be called. The milk-vendors are proud of the number of generations through which the stalls have been held in their families. We
| learn from Gay's that asses' milk was formerly sold here-
The houses behind Milk Fair stand in , the Spring (Fountain) Garden of Palace, which
formerly had its archery butts; bathing pond, and bowling-green. Milton lived in a house at which |
before he went to reside in .
Upon the east end of the Park--on the site formerly occupied by the vast buildings of Whitehall--the Admiralty, the , the Treasury, and the now look down. The wide open space in front of the Horse
|Guards was once the Tilt Yard of the palace. The centre of this space is the only position in London in which the Alexandrian Obelisk could be placed with advantage. Here stands the mortar cast at Seville for Napoleon, used by Soult at Cadiz, and captured after the retreat of Salamanca.|
The south side of the Park is bounded by , where an aviary was erected by James I. In the time of Charles II., who had a passion for birds, it was lined with cages, and the
was a regular office. Till as late as no , except the Duke of St. Alban's, as Hereditary Grand Falconer, was permitted to drive down the carriage way on this side the Park, except the royal family.
In former days the Park gave sanctuary. Timbs mentions how serious an offence it was to draw a sword there. Congreve in his makes Bluffe say,
The Park has been open to the public ever since the days of Charles II. Caroline, wife of George II,, wished to make it once more a private appurtenance of the palace, and asked Sir Robert Walpole what it would cost.
was his reply.[n.123.1]
[n.43.1] Curious details as to the game are given in Le Jen de Mail, par Joseph Lanthier, 1717. It was played with balls made from the root of box, which were gradually attuned to the stroke of the mallet, and were always rubbed with pellitory before being put away after use.
[n.44.1] The genial wit, of whom Curran said, Die when you will, Charles, you will die in your youth.
[n.45.1] Pepys, Jan 14, 1667-8.
[n.45.2] Feb. 15, 1668-9.
[n.45.3] Built 1681. Called after Sir Philip Warwick.
[n.45.4] Lord Brougham.
[n.51.1] Lettres an Roi de Danemark, par Jean Pay en de la Fouleresse, 1688-1692.
[n.59.1] Theodore Hook.
[n.61.1] Art. Whiston, Biog. Brit., vi. 4214.
[n.61.2] Mary II. was married in her bedchamber.
[n.63.1] Hazlitt asserts that the join may be detected, on careful inspection, passing through the body of the Child, and only just missing the forehead of the Virgin.
[n.69.1] Whites Chocolate House and St. James's Palace are represented in Plate IV of Hogarth's Rake's Progress.
[n.70.1] His arms are over the south entrance of St. James's Church. It was his nephew who gave a name to Dover Street.
 Memorials to London, i. 6.
[n.72.1] Removed to Kensall Green: his monument is on the outside of the church.
[n.73.1] Hogarth's print of Taste represents the Gate of Burlington House surmounted by his favourite Kent, with Lord Burlington on a ladder carrying up materials, and Pope whitewashing the gate and splashing the passers-by.
[n.78.1] Blanchard Jerrold's Life of Napoleon III., vol. II.
[n.80.1] Devonshire House is only shown on presentation of a special order from the family.
[n.80.2] History of the Westminster Election, by Lovers of Truth and Justice, 1718
[n.82.1] Leigh Hunt.
[n.82.2] See Notes and Queries, and series, i. 9
[n.90.1] The name was foolishly changed to Homer Street to obliterate the recollection of the conspiracy.
[n.98.1] Wigmore Street and Wimpole Street derive their names from country-seats of the Earls of Oxford.
[n.99.1] The neighbouring Welbeck Street and Bolsover Street are named from country-houses of the Portland family; but the great mass of streets in this neighbourhood--Bentinck Street, Holles Street, Vere Street, Margaret Street, Cavendish Street, Harley Street, Foley Place, Weymouth Street-commemorate the junction of the great Bloomsbury and Marylebone estates by the marriage of William Bentinck, Duke of Portland, with Margaret Cavendish Harley in 1734.
[n.101.2] The scene is depicted in Hogarth's Idle Apprentice executed at Tyburn.
[n.102.1] Timbs, Curiosities of London.
[n.102.2] Footnote to the engraving of Tyburn Gallows, by William Capon, 1783.
[n.110.1] See Quarterly Review, clxxxiv.
[n.110.2] Apsley House is not shown to the public.
[n.113.1] Dr. King's Anecdotes of his Own Times.
[n.114.1] The Humourists.
[n.114.2] Love in a Wood.
[n.114.3] Gentleman's Magazine, 1745, P. 99.
[n.114.4] Curiosities of London.
[n.114.5] Journey through England, 1722.
[n.114.6] Walpole's Reminiscences.
[n.118.1] Quarterly Review
[n.119.1] Poem on St. James's Park, 1661.
[n.123.1] Walpoliana, i.9.