Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places.Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 6
writes Dr. R. Paulli, in his
And there, he might have added, it rises still, and frowns down with mediaeval and almost feudal grandeur upon the waters of the river as they flow calmly on towards the sea, just as they did in the days of our Norman sovereigns. The palace, it must be owned, wears a very solemn and even gloomy appearance, resembling a fortress rather than an episcopal palace; and there was a time when it rose still more conspicuous before the eyes of the citizens of London than now-we mean when the river was the
along which nearly all the traffic and the travellers passed. The reader will not forget Pope's reference to this palace in his description of the Thames, in emulation of Spenser, which we have quoted above, as a motto to this chapter.
The quiet gardens and venerable towers might almost be taken as a symbol of the archbishopric itself.
writes Mr. A. C. Coxe, in his
As we have already seen, the manor of was given by Goda, sister of Edward the Confessor, to the see of Rochester, in the century. The manor was afterwards seized by William the Conqueror, who gave part of the lands to his halfbrother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. It was, however, ultimately restored to its former owners, the see of Rochester, of whose bishops, Glanville, erected here, at the close of the century, a residence for himself and his successors whenever they visited the metropolis. The ancient possession of by the see of Rochester is still commemorated by the payment to the latter, in half-yearly sums, of of silver, in consideration of the lodging, fire-wood, forage, and other accommodations which the Bishops of Rochester had been accustomed to receive here whenever they visited London. This house being afterwards exchanged for other lands with Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, became the episcopal residence. Pennant tells us that it was the original intention of Archbishop Walter to have erected here a
--he meant, of course, of
independent of those of Canterbury, but that circumstances obliged him to abandon his purpose.
Archbishops Hubert Walter and Langton successively lived at the Episcopal at . The latter repaired it, as well as the palace at Canterbury. His residence here is proved by some public acts in . Of this house there is no account or description, and it seems it was afterwards neglected and became ruinous. Archbishop Boniface, in , as an expiation, it is said, for his outrageous behaviour to the prior of St. Bartholomew's in , obtained a bull from Pope Urban IV., among other things, to rebuild his houses at
or to build a new on a different site, from which circumstance he is generally supposed to have been the founder of the present palace. It was gradually enlarged and improved by his successors, particularly by Chicheley, who enjoyed the primacy from to . He was the builder of that portion of the palace known as the Lollards' Tower.
Cardinal Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in , made many additions and improvements to the present palace. He was the builder of the magnificent brick gateway or principal entrance at the north-west.
[extra_illustrations.6.429.1] having acted as ambassador for King Henry VII. to the Duke of Burgundy, was, on his return in , appointed Chancellor of Wells, and soon afterwards Master of the Rolls. He was subsequently made Keeper of the Great Seal, then Chancellor; in he was raised to the see of London, and in the year following was enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury. In Warham resigned the Chancellorship, which was bestowed on Cardinal Wolsey, and retired to his palace. He was succeeded, in , by Thomas Cranmer, who, writes the author of
The part which he took in favour of the divorce between Katharine of Aragon and Henry VIII. induced the king to nominate him archbishop; he was, therefore, eventually raised to the see of Canterbury, in which capacity he pronounced the divorce between Queen Katharine and Henry, and ratified his marriage with Anne Boleyn--a step which so ingratiated him into the favour of the king. Cranmer's zeal in the cause of the Reformed religion frequently led him into
|acts of severity towards those whose opinions differed from his own, from which even the spirit of the times and the barbarous inhumanity exercised by the Protestants abroad is neither an excuse nor an apology. On the death of Edward VI., Cranmer espoused the cause of Lady Jane Grey; Mary triumphed, and the ruin and martyrdom of the archbishop speedily followed.|
To Cardinal Pole, who succeeded to the archbishopric, is attributed the foundation of the long gallery in . He was appointed to the deanery of Exeter by Henry VIII.; but was abroad when the king abolished the Papal authority in England, and, not attending when summoned to return, was proclaimed a traitor and divested of his deanery. In he was made cardinal; and when Mary ascended the throne he returned to England as legate from Pope Julius III., and had his attainder reversed by special Act of Parliament.
[extra_illustrations.6.429.2] died here in , and was buried in the chapel. After the Civil Wars, and in the time of the Commonwealth, when fanatical and political fury went hand in hand, it was found that every building devoted to piety had suffered more than they had done in all the rage of family contest. The fine works of art and the sacred memorials of the dead were, except in a few instances, sacrificed to Puritanical barbarism, or to sacrilegious plunder. House--for by that name, and the Manor of , the archbishops at that time distinguished their residence, and not by the modern title of palace-fell to the share of the miscreant regicides Scott and Hardynge, who pulled down the noble hall, the work of Chicheley, and sold the materials for their own profit. The chapel they turned into a dancing-room; and because the tomb of the venerable Archbishop Parker
The palace had for some time previous to this been used as a prison for the Royalists; Guy Carleton, Dean of Carlisle, was of the persons committed to it, but he fortunately escaped and quitted England. Bishop Kennett says, that of near ministers from the west of England who were imprisoned at almost all died of a pestilential fever.
Passing by Grindall and Whitgift, we come to Archbishop Bancroft, who, as we shall presently have occasion to state more fully, began the fine library in this palace, and left his books to his successors for ever. He died in , and was buried in . Of the other improvements in this venerable pile we shall speak in describing the buildings themselves.
writes the author of
With the exception of the chapel, the whole of the present structure has certainly been erected since the above-mentioned period. The palace, as it now appears, is an irregular but very extensive pile, exhibiting specimens of almost every style of architecture that has prevailed during the last years. The walls are chiefly built of a fine red brick, and are supported by stone buttresses, edged and coped with stone. The
is enumerated among the buildings of the palace in the stewards' accounts in the year of Edward II. Cardinal Morton rebuilt it about the year in the manner we at present see it. The building, which is chiefly remarkable for its vast size, consists of immense square towers, with a spacious gateway and postern in the centre; it is built of red brick, with stone dressings, and is embattled. The arch of the gateway is pointed, and the roof beautifully groined. Above, is a noble apartment, called the
where, until lately, the archives of the see of Canterbury were deposited. Access to the different storeys, now used chiefly as lumber-rooms, is obtained by spiral stairs in the towers.
Passing through the gateway, we enter the outer court. On the left is a low wall, partly covered with ivy, separating the palace demesnes from the Thames and what was once the favourite promenade known as Bishops' Walk, but now the . In front appears the Water Tower,
|with the Lollards' Tower beyond ; and on the right [extra_illustrations.6.430.2] , now the library and manuscriptroom. It is a lofty structure of brick, strengthened with buttresses, and ornamented with cornices and quoins of stone. It is nearly feet in length, in breadth, and in height. The roof is composed principally of oak, elaborately carved, and has in the centre a lofty and elegant lantern, at the top of which are the arms of the see of Canterbury impaling those of Juxon, and surmounted by the archiepiscopal mitre. The interior is lighted, in addition to the lantern, by ranges of high windows on either side, in some of which are heraldic devices in stained glass. Over the hall door appear the same arms as those above mentioned, together with the date MDCLXIII; and at the lower end is a screen of the Ionic order, on the top of which is the founder's crest, a negro's head crowned. The whole hall is wainscoted to a considerable height, and the floor is handsomely paved.|
This hall was probably built originally by Archbishop Boniface in the century. In the stewards' account, above quoted, the
is mentioned. It was
by Archbishop Chicheley; and in the roofing was
by Archbishop Parker. During the Commonwealth the hall is said to have been pulled down, and the materials sold by Colonel Scott and Matthew Hardyng, to whom the manor of had been granted. The present hall was commenced after the Restoration by Archbishop Juxon, precisely on the site of its predecessor, and as nearly as possible after the ancient model; but it was not finished at his death. Juxon appears to have been so anxious concerning its erection, that he left the following direction in his will:--
The reason why such large halls were built in the houses of ancient nobility and gentry was that there might be room to exercise the generous hospitality which prevailed among our ancestors, and which was, without doubt, duly exercised by most of the possessors of this mansion, though not particularly recorded. What great hospitality Cranmer maintained, we may judge by the following authentic list of his household-viz.,
Cardinal Pole, his successor, had a patent from Philip and Mary to retain servants, a fact which affords some idea of his hospitality and grandeur.
Of the hospitality of Archbishop Parker, Strype gives us the following account :--
[extra_illustrations.6.431.1] is now used as a library. Ranged on each side along the walls are projecting bookcases, containing nearly volumes, chiefly valuable for works relating to theology and ecclesiastical history and antiquities; these, however, are varied with old English poetry and romances, and topographical, heraldic, and genealogical works. A collection of books existed at an early period as an appendage to the archbishop's household; but the reliable date of the foundation of the present library is , in which year Archbishop Bancroft left by will
provided they bound themselves to the necessary assurances for the continuance of such books to the archbishops successively; otherwise, they were to be bequeathed to the
Bancroft's successor-Archbishop Abbot (-)-carried out these injunctions, and left his own books to the library. But the civil war marked the crisis in the history of the collection, for when the Parliamentarians were about to seize on , the learned Selden, fearing the danger of total dispersion, suggested to the University of Cambridge their right to the books, in accordance with Bancroft's will, as above mentioned. Very few of Archbishop Laud's books are here, nearly all of them having been presented to the library of College, Oxford. To Cambridge the books were transferred and preserved, until, at the Restoration, they were recalled by Archbishop Juxon (-). That primate's death occurring before the books could be restored, it was left to his successor, Archbishop Sheldon, to see them replaced at . This primate presented many books to the library; but not so his successor, Archbishop Sancroft, who, although he had many of the MSS. re-bound and preserved, yet on his resignation presented his collection to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, of which he had been master. From Archbishop Tillotson (-) we hear of no bequests; but his successor, Archbishop Tenison, bequeathed a portion of his library to , a part to , and the remainder to the library which he had founded in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. From to , when the see of Canterbury was filled by the primates Wake, Potter, Herring, and Hutton, few additions were made; but Archbishop Secker, who I followed next in order, will be gratefully remembered in the library annals as having given all the books in his own library, which included also many interesting pamphlets, to the archiepiscopal collection. To Archbishop Cornwallis we are indebted for presenting and causing the extensive collection of tracts to be bound and arranged. The names of Archbishops Manners-Sutton (-) and Howley (-) are associated with large bequests of theological lore to the library.
The great hall was converted to its present use by Archbishop Howley in , previously to which time the books were arranged in some galleries over the cloisters which were then standing. The bequests of successive primates are generally distinguished by their arms or initials on the outside cover of the books, while autographs and memoranda on the title-pages record noted names, and supply links of ownership. Among those autographs may be found the names of Cranmer; Foxe, the
Tillotson; Tenison; Henry Wotton, the well-known writer on architecture; the more famous of Charles I., attached to a
and several of less note. It is in this way that the interest of the books is identified with much that is historical. An exhaustive catalogue of the library and art treasures in the palace, with a full description of its illuminated manuscripts and ancient chronicles, was published in by the Archbishop's librarian, Mr. S. W. Kershaw. Space does not admit of our entering at any great length into a description of the varied contents of this library; but we may state that among the ancient printed books is of great rarity: this is
and was printed by Caxton at in . There are about other works printed by Caxton in the library, although imperfect. The
printed by the celebrated Wynkyn de Worde, also finds a place here; as also does the
(the library had copies), and the century MSS., known as the
Of illuminated MSS., there are about examples of the various styles of art in this library; of the most rare being the little MS. known as the
written about the year , and presented by King Athelstan to the City of Canterbury. The school of English art is represented most notably in the copy of the New Testament, printed on vellum, known as the
from the fact of the copy having been discovered in the library of that cardinal.
This Mazarine Bible, when complete, is of great rarity and value, and only copies are known. Another interesting example of English art is a MS. known as the
and in this illumination the author is represented as introducing a tonsured personage, who presents a copy of the work to King Edward IV., accompanied by his queen and their son, afterwards Edward V. Walpole, in his
has given an engraving of this miniature, and it has also been engraved by Strutt.
There is in the library only book which is known for certain to have belonged to Archbishop Parker, and that is a treatise entitled
The library contains, , an original impression
|of the scarce plan of London by Aggas, together with a series of prints of the archbishops of the see from the Reformation downwards, collected by Archbishop Cornwallis.|
In a donation was made of theological books from the collection of the late Professor Selwyn, of Cambridge, of the honorary curators of this library. This gift supplied many deficiencies in modern works.
Dr. Ducarel, who was the Archbishop's librarian, is recorded in
and not very anxious to oblige those who wanted to consult the library. From some incidental hints given by Horace Walpole, it may be inferred that a century ago the Archiepiscopal Library was not very easily available to scholars and literary men.
late librarian, Dr. Samuel Maitland, who died in , deserves mention in these pages. Born about the year , he graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and was for some time a barrister of the Inner Temple. He, however, applied himself to the study of church history, and
|entering into orders, became librarian and keeper of manuscripts here, under Archbishop Howley, who conferred on him the degree of D.D., in recognition of his learning and long and able services, and on whose death, in , he resigned his appointment. He was the author of many learned works, amongst which we may specify- ; ; ; , &c. He was also the compiler of an .|
The complete catalogue of printed books which was formed on the plan of the Bodleian Catalogue, was drawn up by Dr. Gibson (afterwards
| Bishop of Lincoln), the editor of |
who was some time vicar of , and also librarian here. This catalogue is deposited in the manuscript library. In it was fairly copied by Dr. Wilkins, in folio volumes, and has been continued by his successors to the present time. In -- the whole of the books and manuscripts underwent a complete repair, by a special grant from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. It may be added that the archbishop allows the library to be open to students, and, indeed, to all respectable persons, on application, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday during the year, vacations excepted.
Before quitting the hall, we may remark that a stone on the building gives the date of the erection ; but a leaden pipe attached to the walls, running from the roof to the ground, to carry off rain-water, bears the date . The pipe appears to be in a very good state of preservation; and a coat-of-arms, supposed to be that of Bishop Juxon, can be plainly observed on it. To account for the difference in date, it is supposed that the pipe belonged to an old building which stood on the site of the present structure.
A building of modern date, adjacent to the library, serves as the manuscript-room; it was put into thorough repair a few years ago, and rendered fire-proof. Here are preserved some manuscripts of the highest interest, together with the records of the palace, which are kept in patent
safes. Some of the documents date from a very early time, and of them, it is alleged, bears the signature of Canute.
of preserved in the manuscript-room is the habit of a priest, consisting of a stole, manuple, chasuble, cord, bands marked P, and the corporal; also a crucifix of base metal, a string of beads, and a box of relics. Here also is kept the shell of a tortoise, believed to have lived in the palace gardens from the time of Laud () to , when it perished by the negligence of the gardener; the shell is inches in length, and and a half inches in breadth.
From the south-east corner of the hall a flight of stairs leads up to the Guard-chamber; it is a large state room, feet long by feet wide, and is so called from having formerly contained the armour and arms appropriated to
| the defence of the palace. By whom the arms kept for this purpose were originally purchased does not appear, but they seem to have regularly passed from archbishop to another. The author of |
[extra_illustrations.6.434.1] is now used as a state diningroom. The principal feature which distinguishes the apartment at present is its venerable timber roof, which somewhat resembles that of the great hall, but is much less ornamented; the windows likewise are pointed, and of an ancient make. Over the door of this chamber is the date , which shows that there were some reparations made to it in Archbishop Sancroft's time. The lower part of the walls of the apartment is covered with oak wainscoting, above which are hung half-length portraits of many of the archbishops, the most interesting of which, perhaps, are those of Laud, Cardinal Pole, Chicheley, Warham, and Arundel. To the list of archiepiscopal portraits have been lately added those of Archbishops Sumner and Longley; the latter, by Richmond, is hung in the drawing-room. A portrait of Archbishop Laud, and also an etching of his trial in Hall, are to be found among the etchings of Hollar.
Leaving this chamber, we pass on to the [extra_illustrations.6.434.2] through a narrow gallery, which contains numerous portraits of ecclesiastical dignitaries, a small portrait of Martin Luther on panel, and also a splendid engraving of Old London. Descending the stairs at the end of this gallery, we enter the vestibule of the chapel. This apartment is sometimes called the
probably from the fact of the ceiling being supported in the centre by a stout pillar. It is on record that the builder of this tower, Archbishop Chicheley,
This so-called post-room has been by some considered as expressly set apart for that purpose; the pillar serving for the purpose of securing the unfortunate heretics, confined in the room above, while undergoing the degrading punishment of the lash.
The chapel is considered by far the most ancient part of the palace, being probably part of Archbishop Boniface's original erection. It is in the earliest style of English pointed architecture, being lighted on the sides by triple lancet-shaped windows, and on the east by a window of lights, set between massive and deep masonry. It consists of a body only, measuring feet in length, feet in breadth, and feet in height; but it is divided into parts by a handsome carved screen, which, curiously enough, is painted. Previous to the Civil Wars the windows were adorned with painted glass, put up by Archbishop Morton, representing the whole history of man from the creation to the day of judgment. The windows being divided into parts,
Archbishop Laud, on taking possession of the palace--to use his own words-found these windows
and he repaired them.
writes Dr. Ducarel, in his
The roof of the chapel, which is flat and divided into compartments, is embellished with the arms of Archbishop Laud.
The interior of the chapel is fitted up with a range of pews or stalls on each side for the officers of the archbishop's household, with seats beneath for the inferior domestics. The altar-piece is of the Corinthian order, painted and gilded; and the floor is paved with black and white marble in lozenge-shaped slabs.
The only interment that appears to have taken place here is that of Archbishop Parker, who died in . His body, by his request, was buried at the upper end of this chapel, against the
| communiontable, on the south side, under a monument of his own erecting, bearing a Latin inscription by his old friend, Dr. Walter Haddon. The spot where Parker's body now rests is marked by the following words cut in the pavement immediately before the communion rails:--
In the western part of the chapel is a monument, with a long inscription to his memory, placed there by Archbishop Sancroft.
During the Civil Wars, in , when was possessed by Colonel Scott, the chapel was turned into a hall or dancing-room, and the ancient monument of Parker's was destroyed. Nor was this all. We are further told that his body, by order of Matthew Harding, a Puritan, was dug up, stripped of its leaden covering (which was sold), and buried in a dunghill, where it remained till after the Restoration, when Sir William Dugdale, hearing of the matter accidentally, immediately repaired to Archbishop Sancroft, by whose diligence, aided by the , the bones were found, and again buried in the chapel, in the spot above indicated.
Underneath the chapel is a spacious crypt, which probably dates from the middle of the century. It consists of a series of substantial stone arches, supported by short massive columns. The roof, which is about feet from the ground, is finely groined.
Retracing our steps through the
we come to of the most interesting portions of , namely, the building called the [extra_illustrations.6.435.1] . It was erected by Archbishop Chicheley, in the early part of the century, as a place of confinement for the unhappy heretics from whom it derives its name. The building is constructed chiefly of brick, and is embattled. Chicheley's arms are sculptured on the outer wall, on the Thames side; and beneath them is a Gothic niche, wherein at time stood the image of St. Thomas a Becket. The prison in which the Lollards were confined is at the top of the tower, and is reached by a very narrow winding staircase. Its single doorway, which is so narrow as only to admit person at a time, is strongly barricaded by both [extra_illustrations.6.435.2] , each inches and a half thick, and thickly studded with iron. The dimensions of [extra_illustrations.6.435.3] are feet in length by in width, and in height; and it is lighted by windows, which are only inches high by inches wide on the inside, and about half as high and half as wide on the outside. Both the walls and roof of the chamber are lined with oaken planks an inch and a half thick; and large iron rings still remain fastened to the wood, the melancholy memorials of the victims who formerly pined in this dismal prison-house. Many names and fragments of sentences are rudely cut out on various parts of the walls.
In the Lollards' Tower, having fallen into a very dilapidated condition, was thoroughly repaired. The old roof was removed, the flooring renewed, the old side walls re-faced with new stone, every stone and brick ascertained to be faulty taken out and replaced with sound materials, and the whole structure restored. The tower for many years was used as a lumber-room, but since its restoration it has been occupied by the Bishop of Lichfield as a town house.
In addition to the apartments already mentioned, there are the
and the rooms in the new buildings which now serve as the residence of the archbishop. The Presence Chamber is a fine ancient room, feet by . The precise time of the erection of this part of the palace is not known. This room is at present remarkable only for the stained glass in the windows. of these contain portraits of St. Jerome and St. Gregory, with the following verses:--
In this room many causes relating to Merton and All Souls' Colleges at Oxford have been decided in presence of the Archbishops as Visitors.
The present buildings, used as the archiepiscopal residence, owe much of their unity and stateliness to [extra_illustrations.6.435.4] (-), who not only rebuilt the principal palace front on the south, but restored much of the older portions. The work was carried out under the direction of Mr. Blore; they were several years in progress, and the entire expense was little short of . The gardenfront of the palace is of Tudor character, and with its bays and enriched windows, battlements, gables, towers, and clustered chimney-shafts, is very picturesque.
and grounds, together with the palace, cover about acres of ground.
as John Timbs informs us in his
is named Clarendon Walk, from having been the scene of the conference between the great and wise Earl of Clarendon and the ill-fated Laud. It is with regret we add, that
with its pleasant elm-trees, trodden by the feet of so many visitors, both lay and clerical, was swept away to make room for in front of new .
There is extant [extra_illustrations.6.436.2] , of the river-side at , including , or
as it was called. In other respects it was in his time much the same as now, except that a grove of trees stands where now rises .
which have taken place at the palace, space will only allow us to speak briefly. Archbishop Anselm ordained Sampson, Bishop-elect of Worcester, both deacon and priest, together with the Bishop of Hereford, in , at . In , he ordained Hugh, Abbot of St. Austin, at , in the chapel of the church of Rochester, where the archbishop then lodged. He likewise presided in at the council held at which announced the legality of the intended marriage of Henry I. with Matilda, the daughter of Malcolm, King of Scotland.
Archbishops Ralph, Corboyl, Theobald, Richard, and Baldwin, were all consecrated at ; and though, as we have said, we have no account of Becket's being there, yet on the vacancy of the see of Canterbury by his death, the suffragan bishops, in pursuance of the order of Richard de Luci, assembled at that place, and, if not unanimously, they at least with voice, made choice of Roger, Abbot of Bec, to be his successor; but he would not accept the trust.
we learn how that, in , the year of Edward III., John de Montfort, Duke of Brittany, did homage to the king in .
In the consecration feast of [extra_illustrations.6.436.3] , Bishop of Winchester, was kept here with great magnificence by Archbishop Langham.
In , during the insurrection of Wat Tyler, the rebels not only beheaded Archbishop Sudbury, then Lord High Chancellor, but plundered this palace, and burnt most of the goods, books, and remembrances of Chancery. Sudbury's Register Book fortunately escaped destruction, and is still at . The damages done by this lawless banditti were repaired in a great measure by Arundel and Chicheley; but much was left for their successors to do, as may be reasonably concluded from the sums of money expended by Morton and Warham.
In the account given of the convocation assembled by Archbishop Arundel in , in June and , it is related that after the session of , the bishops, abbots, priors, chancellors of the universities, doctors of divinity and laws, deans, archdeacons,
were entertained with elegance, and with great profusion of viands, by the archbishop in his manor of .
In Archbishop Stafford held at a convocation of all the prelates resident in London, to deliberate about the payment of a imposed by the Pope. The king's prohibition was offered as a plea for not agreeing to this demand. In the bull of Pope Innocent IV. against the rebellious subjects of Henry VII. was exhibited to Archbishop Morton
In the year , Katharine of Arragon, afterwards Queen of Henry VIII., on her arrival in England,
It was afterwards honoured with the frequent presence of royalty. In , during a visit, it is presumed, from Henry VIII. to Archbishop Warham at this palace, Charles Somerset was created Earl of Worcester.
In , Archbishop Cranmer confirmed at the marriage of Henry VIII. with Anne Boleyn; and years afterwards the same prelate,
by a definitive sentence annulled the marriage between the sanme parties; the queen, in order to avoid the sentence of burning, having confessed to the archbishop some just and lawful impediments to her marriage with the king, A little before the latter eventnamely, on the -the commissioners sat at to administer the oath of succession to the Crown, upon the heirs of the same Queen Anne, to the clergy, and chiefly those of London that had not yet sworn. On the same
|day were conveyed thither from the Tower Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More, the only layman at this meeting, to tender their oath to them; but both of them, as readers of history know, refused.|
In , the archbishops and bishops, by virtue of the royal commission, held various meetings at , to devise the
usually styled, from the composers of it,
but were obliged to separate on account of the plague then raging at , and persons dying even at the palace gate.
In the rout of the Scots army, in , the Earl of Cassilis, who was of the many persons taken prisoners, was sent to , and was kept there on his parole.
Several circumstances respecting Cardinal Pole are noticed as having happened here by Strype, Burnet, and other authors. Queen Mary is said to have completely furnished for his reception at her own cost, and to have frequently honoured him with her company.
In the winter of the same year the queen removed from St. James's through the park, and took her barge to , where she visited Cardinal Pole. After dinner she resumed her journey to Greenwich, where she kept her Christmas.
In Cardinal Pole died at . His body lay in state days, when it was removed to Canterbury Cathedral for interment.
Queen Elizabeth was a frequent visitor here to Archbishop Parker; and the confidence she reposed in that prelate induced her to employ him in many affairs of great trust. On his promotion to the archiepiscopal see, she committed to him in free custody the deprived Bishops Tunstal and Thirlby, Bishops of Durham and Ely respectively, whom, we are told, he entertained most kindly. Tunstal survived his confinement only about months, and was buried in ; Thirlby, however, continued to be the archbishop's
for upwards of years, and was buried near his brother bishop.
On occasion when Queen Elizabeth visited Archbishop Parker-possibly during of her
--the following circumstance is said to have occurred:--The queen was never reconciled to that part of the Reformation which allowed the marriage of ecclesiastics; and, unfortunately, Parker had not only written a treatise on the lawfulness of marriage, but had absolutely entered into the holy state prior to the repeal of the statute forbidding celibacy. The haughty Elizabeth, although elegantly entertained by the archbishop and his lady for several days, could not at her departure refrain from venting her resentment in the following rude manner. Addressing herself to Mrs. Parker, by way of taking leave, she said:
In , we read, the queen
previous to which she had an interview with the archbishop at . It appears, according to Strype's
that the prelate had in some degree, about this time, fallen under the queen's displeasure by speaking freely to her concerning his office. The archbishop relates this incident in a letter to Lady Bacon :--
Grindall, Parker's successor in the archbishopric, soon fell under the queen's displeasure, and it does not appear that she ever honoured him with a visit. Archbishop Whitgift, however, seems to have been more fortunate, for it is reported that Elizabeth was entertained by him no less than different
| times, and that she frequently stayed here for or days together. James I. was likewise an occasional visitor of Whitgift; and the last occasion was on the , when the prelate lay on his death-bed. It was during the primacy of Whitgift that an important event occurred at which has linked its history more closely than anything else with that of the Established Church. This was none other than the Conference where the famous |
were propounded for the signature of the clergy. Macaulay mentions these articles thus:--
The precious document itself, which is thus connected in name with , may be read in Southey's or any other
and so we may be spared the necessity of quoting it here; we may, however, merely add that the
were in number, and ultra-Calvinistic in their character. They were drawn up by Dr. Whitaker, Master of College, Cambridge, and Regius Professor of Divinity in that University, at the request of Archbishop Whitgift, who sought to impose them on the clergy of the Established Church. They were rigidly suppressed, however, by order of Queen Elizabeth; and so strictly were her injunctions executed, that for many years a printed copy of them was not to be obtained
They were brought forward, some years later, at the Conference, but only to be rejected. The Irish Protestant Church, however, adopted them in .
Archbishop Abbot, who was appointed to the see of Canterbury in , was accused by the Duke of Buckingham of living at too costly a rate for an archbishop, and of entertaining people who were not well affected to the king and his court. On this occasion he replied to Secretary Conway:
of the banquets in the great hall, we may state that Mr. Fenton, a distinguished under of the archbishops during the present century, left to his family a valuable legacy --the recipe for
His grace was not a gourmand, but he liked a good dinner, and knew both a good dinner and a good cook when he had got ,
Although the dinners in the great hall have ceased to take place, and the fragments, therefore, are no longer given to the poor as of old, a substitute for the latter custom is still in practice, in the shape of the archbishop's bounty or
which has been dispensed before the principal entrance of the palace every week down to the present time: it consists of money, bread, and provisions, which are given to poor parishioners of , receiving it in turn on different days.
Going back again to the early part of the century, we must speak of [extra_illustrations.6.441.1] , who was translated to the archbishopric from the see of London on the death of Abbot in . This prelate unfortunately lived in troublous times; and Evelyn records, in his
under date --apparently as an eye-witness--the fact of
A few days later the palace was again attacked by a London mob. As we learn from the
days afterwards Laud made the following entry in his
The victim, it appears, was quite a youth, and the horrid punishment of treason was
| awarded to him by the court lawyers because there happened to be a drum in the mob, and the marching to beat of drum was held to be a levying of war against the king. Clarendon says that |
In their accusations against Archbishop Laud, the Puritan charged him with setting up and repairing Popish images and pictures in the window of his chapel in . The archbishop, in his defence, urged that the Homilies of the Reformed and Established Church allowed the historical use of images, and that Calvin himself permitted them in that sense; and that the Primitive Christians approved of, and had in their houses, pictures of Christ himself.
Laud was beheaded by the Parliamentarians in , and his body was interred in the church of Allhallows, Barking, near . After this event the see of Canterbury was vacant nearly years, during which period, as we have shown above, was nearly demolished.
under date of , we glean the following particulars concerning the ceremony attending the translation of Dr. Sheldon to the archbishopric :--
writes Miss Priscilla Wakefield,
When Archbishop Sancroft was deprived, in , he left behind him his nephew, who, refusing to give up peaceable possession, was
by the sheriff and imprisoned, whilst Tillotson was installed in the palace. Evelyn, who narrates this fact in his
also tells us how he
Here, in successive meetings of the Commissioners, was settled the plan of College, the project of Charles II., as already mentioned. Among the Commissioners were Sir Christopher Wren, Sir Stephen Fox, and John Evelyn, whose
records their proceedings from time to time.
Queen Mary II. paid a visit here to Archbishop Tillotson in , as appears from an entry in the churchwardens' accounts of
on that occasion. This was only a few weeks before the archbishop's death. In the preceding year the archbishop had called an assembly of the bishops at , when they agreed to several regulations, which were at designed to be enforced by their own authority; but upon more mature consideration it was judged requisite that they should appear under that of their Majesties in the form of royal injunctions. The queen was at different times consulted by the archbishop concerning this business, and it is not unlikely that it was the subject of their conversation on the occasion of the visit above mentioned.
Both of Dr. Tillotson's successors, Archbishops Tenison and Wake, lived and died here, and the former was buried in the parish church close by the palace. Dr. Wake was the author of
|several other theological works; he was celebrated especially for his controversy with Bossuet, and his project of union between the English and Gallican Churches.|
Hutton, Secker, Cornwallis, and Moore, who were archbishops successively from to , likewise ended their days here, and were all buried in .
The palace very narrowly escaped destruction during the Gordon Riots in . The alarm was given on Tuesday, , when a party, to the number of or more, who had previously assembled in Fields, came to the palace with drums and fifes, and colours flying, crying,
Finding the gates shut, after knocking several times without obtaining any answer, they called out that they should return in the evening, and paraded round the palace all that day. Upon this alarm, it was thought necessary to apply to the Secretary at War for a party of soldiers for the security of the palace; accordingly, a party of the Guards, to the amount of men, commanded by Colonel Deacon, arrived about o'clock that afternoon, when sentinels were immediately placed upon the towers of the palace and at every convenient avenue. The mob still paraded round the house, and continued so to do for several days, notwithstanding the number of the soldiers. In this alarming situation, Archbishop Cornwallis, with his wife and family, were with great difficulty prevailed upon to quit the palace, whither they did not return till the disturbances were entirely ended. The military remained at for upwards of months, during which period there were from to men quartered in the palace.
A good story is told of Archbishop Manners- Sutton (-) by the Honourable Miss Amelia Murray, in her
as, indeed, he well might be.
Coming down to more recent times, we find used for the holding of meetings of prelates of the Reformed Anglican Church at home and in the colonies. The of these meetings-called the Pan-Anglican Synod-was held here, under Archbishop Longley, in the autumn of . It was attended by upwards of bishops, from England, Ireland, the colonies, and America; but beyond the issuing of an address, couched in very general terms, nothing definite seems to have resulted from this great ecclesiastical gathering.
In the great hall, or public library, was used as Court of Canterbury, for the trial of cases brought before the Dean of the Court of Arches under the
The west end of the apartment was fitted up as a court for the accommodation of the bar, the reporters, witnesses, &c., and the east end was barriered off for the general public. The judge, Lord Penzance, occupied the archbishop's chair. The cases tried here were those of the Rev. Charles J. Ridsdale, of , Folkestone, and the Rev. Arthur Tooth, vicar of St. James's, Hatcham, for ritualistic proceedings in their respective churches.
There are still or items of interest concerning which we must not omit to mention. Here, for instance, every year during the month of December, the officials of the Stationers' Company still wait formally upon the archbishop in order to present him with copies of certain almanacks which they have the privilege of publishing, and which were formerly not allowed to be issued except with the sanction of the Established Church. The officials and their servants were in former times entertained by the archbishop, on the occasion of these visits, with a copious supply of cakes and ale. This curious custom had a somewhat singular origin, which is now not generally known, or, more probably, is now
though recorded by Sylvanus Urban in the for :--
Of course, since aquatic processions on the Thames have been discontinued, the barge of the Stationers' Company no longer performs the journey to ; but the present of the almanacks is still made to the archbishop, although somewhat nearer the end of the year; the honorarium of
for the bearer, however, seems to be forgotten.
The Archbishops of Canterbury used formerly to keep their own barge, in which they crossed the Thames to the or to Palace. Their favourite landing-place on the opposite side of the water was , the picturesque gateway of which, represented on page , was standing till the present century.
Degrees are occasionally conferred at on individuals who have risen to eminence among the English clergy, though they have not graduated in early life at of the great universities. They are, however, a legacy from times anterior to the Reformation, when the Archbishop of Canterbury had the recognised right of conferring them, as being the permanent legate for the Pope of Rome. The privilege was specially confirmed to the see of Canterbury by that self-elected Pope, Henry VIII., in , and it is still occasionally exercised by the archbishop.
The parish church of [extra_illustrations.6.443.1] , is situate near the water-side, and adjoins the palace. The whole of the building, with the exception of the tower, was pulled down and rebuilt in .
writes Mr. Tanswell, in his
Mr. W. Newton, the author of
says that the antiquity of the existing church is not known, and that it was
This, however, is scarcely the case, for in the Bishops' Registers at Winchester is a commission against such of the inhabitants of as refuse to contribute to the rebuilding and repairs of the church, dated . years afterwards there was another commission to compel the inhabitants to build a tower for their church,
and to furnish it with bells. Mr. Newton adds:
From this statement, however, we venture to disagree.
In , the work of restoration was commenced, according to the plans and under the direction of Mr. Philip Hardwick, and it was completed in little more than a year. Care was taken that the outline of the original foundations should be preserved, and that, wherever possible, the ancient detail should be reproduced. The church, as it now appears, consists of a nave, north and south aisles, and porch, chancel, and chapels; the fine western tower remaining without alteration. The arcades in the nave have been carefully restored, and the walling above them has been carried up to the original height and pierced with clerestory lights, the whole being surmounted by an open timber roof, divided into bays by arched trusses, resting on the ancient corbels. The chancel is divided from the nave, and the Howard and Leigh Chapels from the chancel, by lofty arches. The large east window, of lights, with the upper part filled with foliated tracery, is furnished with stained glass, and is inscribed to the memory of Archbishop Howley. The west end of the church is lighted by a large circular window filled with geometrical tracery, and the organ is placed immediately beneath it. There are extensive galleries on both sides of the church, and also at the west end. The flooring is closely and uniformly paved, and most of the walls are wainscoted.
In the old building, on the wall over the entrance to the chancel, were placed the royal arms as borne by Queen Anne, with the figures of Fame and Devotion, the sounding a trumpet and the other holding a flaming heart. These were afterwards placed at the west end of the north gallery. At the restoration of the church, the old altar-piece, which displayed a painting of Moses and Aaron supporting the tables of the Law, was removed, and is now placed against the wall of the north gallery. The present altar-piece is of carved oak, enriched with gilding and arabesque painting.
The east end of the old north aisle was called Howard's Chapel, from its having been built, in , by Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk (many of whose family are here interred); and that of the
| south aisle, Leigh's Chapel, built in the same year by Sir John Leigh (son of Ralph Leigh, lord of the manor of Stockwell), who, with his lady, lies buried here. At the bottom of the middle compartment of the south-east window, painted on a pane twentyfour inches by , was the picture of the pedlar and his dog, of which we have spoken in a previous chapter. At what time this memorial was put up there is no mention, but such a portrait certainly existed in , there being in the churchwardens' accounts of that year an entry of |
was put up, at the expense of ; but this was removed from where it was then placed, in the year (when the church was repaired and
), to the window above mentioned, which was much more conspicuous.
The churchwardens' books contain some in teresting and curious items concerning the old church. It appears that it contained, in pre Reformation times, no less than altars: they were dedicated respectively to the Blessed Virgin to St. Thomas, to St. George, to St. Nicholas, and to St. Christopher. Then there are the
from which it appears that the stipend paid to Sir William Webster, the priest,
amounted to the sum of In the reign of Queen Mary is a charge for replacing an altar in the Norfolk Chapel, on the revival of the old religion:
This chapel, it appears, was consecrated in , for in the churchwardens' accounts for that year are the following entries :--
Under date of the following entry occurs :--
The ancient pulpit must have been a curiosity in its way; for by the above-mentioned accounts it appears that in a new pulpit was erected in this church, at a cost of , and the old was valued at only. The new pulpit continued in use till the year , when Archbishop Abbot gave another at a cost of . It was placed against the south-east pillar of the nave, and was furnished, after the Puritan fashion of that time, with a hour-glass, of which, however, there are no remains, though it is mentioned twice in the churchwardens' accounts. The pulpit and reading-desk were subsequently removed to another
|position at the entrance from the chancel to the nave.|
The parish registers begin with the year . In the churchwardens' accounts are the following entries respecting them:--
During the Commonwealth the banns of marriage were often published in towns upon market-days, and the marriage ceremony was performed by a civil magistrate. In the registers is an entry of, at all events, such marriage:--
has numbered among its rectors many men who have risen to eminence, of whom we may mention Dr. Hooper, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph, and subsequently Bishop of Bath and Wells: he was the author of several works in defence of the Church of England. Dr. Gibson, the editor of
and author of the
he resigned the rectory on being raised to the bishopric of Lichfield. Dr. B. Porteus, afterwards Bishop, in succession, of Chester and of London. His successor, Dr. Vyse, rector of the parish during the latter part of the last century, was the son of a clergyman at Lichfield, the contemporary and friend of Dr. Johnson. To him Dr. Johnson addressed letters, printed in
soliciting him to ask the Archbishop of Canterbury to present to the Charterhouse Hospital a nephew of the learned Grotius.
The church contains some interesting monuments, including those to the memory of several of the archbishops, but they were, of course, shifted from the positions which they originally occupied when the rebuilding of the fabric took place in the year .
Here repose the bones of the brave old primate Bancroft, of the meek Secker, and of the learned Tenison, who successively sat in the archiepiscopal chair. Archbishops Cornwallis and Hutton, too, are likewise interred here, as also are Bishops Thirlby and TunstalL The body of Thirlby was accidentally discovered when Archbishop Cornwallis was buried in . The body, which was wrapped in fine linen, was moist, and had evidently been preserved in some species of pickle, which still retained a volatile smell, not unlike that of hartshorn; the face was perfect, and the limbs flexible; the beard of a remarkable length, and beautifully white. The linen and woollen garments were all well preserved. The cap, which was of silk, adorned with point lace, was in fashion like that represented in the pictures of Archbishop Juxon. A slouched hat, with strings fastened to it, was under the left arm. There was also a cassock, so fastened as to appear like an apron with strings, and several small pieces of the bishop's garments, which had the appearance of a pilgrim's habit.
Besides the above-mentioned, here, or in the churchyard, rest the bodies of Dollond, the noted maker of telescopes, and founder of the well-known firm in ; Madame Storace, the vocalist; and Moore, the author of the tragedy of the
Here, too, sleep in peace Ashmole, the antiquary, and the Tradescants, whose united collections of natural history formed the nucleus of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Of the Tradescants we have spoken at some length in our account of their house at South . In , a table monument of free-stone was erected here by the widow of John Tradescant the younger, covered on each of its sides with sculptures: at each corner is the representation of a large tree, seeming to support the slab; at end is a hydra picking at a bare skull; on the other are the arms of the family. On side of the tomb are ruins, Grecian pillars and capitals, an obelisk and pyramid; and on the opposite a crocodile, shells, &c., and a view of some Egyptian buildings. Having become very much dilapidated, this monument was repaired in ; but having again become almost illegible, it was entirely [extra_illustrations.6.446.1] , in , in accordance with the original form and design. The tomb, which is raised on a granite plinth, has upon it the following inscription :
The fund for the restoration of this tomb-about -was raised under the direction of the late Sir William Hooker, the distinguished botanist and curator of Kew Gardens; Sir Charles G. Young, Garter King-at-Arms; the Rev. C. B. Dalton, Rector of , &c. It was an old debt to the memories of these of English gardeners and naturalists; men who did so much to minister to
Dr. Ducarel, in his
tells us that a beacon was formerly placed on the top of the tower of this church; and in Hollar's view of the palace, engraved in , and also in his view of London from , it is plainly shown. The beacon also appears in the view of from the Thames in
and in a view taken by a Florentine artist in the suite of Cosmo, Duke of Tuscany, in . There are no remains of it in existence now.
Readers of English history will not have forgotten that it was under the shelter of the old church tower, on a wet and dreary night in , that Mary of Modena, having crossed the river from the in a tiny boat, sat crouching, with her infant son in her arms, till the companions of her flight could find the coach that should convey her safely to Gravesend. Miss A. Strickland draws a touching picture of the scene.
It is a satisfaction to know that her patience was rewarded, and that she and her child made their escape to France from this country.
[extra_illustrations.6.428.1] Archbishop Longley, 1862
[extra_illustrations.6.429.2] Matthew Parker
[extra_illustrations.6.430.1] Architectural Details of Library
[extra_illustrations.6.430.2] the Great Hall
[extra_illustrations.6.431.1] The great hall
 See Vol. III., p. 158.
[extra_illustrations.6.434.1] The guard-chamber
[extra_illustrations.6.435.1] Lollards' Tower
[extra_illustrations.6.435.2] an outer and an inner door of oak
[extra_illustrations.6.435.3] the apartment within
[extra_illustrations.6.435.4] Archbishop Howley
[extra_illustrations.6.436.2] a curious etching, by Hollar
[extra_illustrations.6.436.3] William of Wykeham
 See Vol. V., p. 70.
[extra_illustrations.6.443.1] St. Mary, Lambeth
 See ante, p. 388.
 See ante, p. 334.
[extra_illustrations.6.446.1] repaired by subscription