Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places.Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 6

Walford, Edward

1872-78

The Old Kent Road, &c.

The Old Kent Road, &c.

 

Inde iter in Cantium.--Caesar.

 

Following the course of the old , we now make our way back to the southern extremity of the Borough, by the broad thoroughfare of the . All trace of at this point, we need hardly remark, has long since disappeared. The branch of the ancient , which extended from Dover to Canterbury, and thence through Faversham and Rochester to London, was the road followed by nearly all travellers from the days of the Romans, the days of pilgrimages and crusades, and thence again until the formation of railways diverted their steps into another track. M. Sorbierre, a French gentleman of letters, who visited London in the reign of Charles II., thus writes:--

That I might not take post, or be obliged to use the stage-coach, I went from Dover to London in a wagon; I was drawn by

six

horses,

one

before another, and driven by a wagoner, who walked by the side of it. He was clothed in black, and appointed in all things like another St. George: he had a brave

mounteror

on his head, and was a merry fellow, fancied he made a fine figure, and seemed highly pleased with himself.

Along this road travelled Charles II. and a gay train of cavaliers, on his Restoration and return, by way of Dover to London, in . Evelyn draws the following picture of the happy event:--

This day his Majesty Charles II. came to London after a sad and long exile, and calamitous suffering both of the king and Church. This was also his birthday, and with a triumph of about

20,000

horse and foote, brandishing their swords and shouting with inexpressible joy; the wayes strew'd with flowers, the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestrie, fountaines running with wine: the Maior, Aldermen, and all the Companies in their liveries, chaines of gold, and banners; lords and nobles clad in cloth of silver, gold, and velvet; the windows and balconies well set with ladies; trumpets, music, and myriads of people flocking even so far as from Rochester, so as they were

seven

hours in passing into the Citty, even from

two

in the afternoon till

nine

at night.

In the days nearer to our own, when there were no railroads, even this unfashionable thoroughfare was used by the most distinguished travellers. Stothard, the painter, for instance, tells us that, happening to be evening at an inn on this road, he met Pitt and Dundas (afterwards Lord Melville), who had been obliged to rest there for the night on their way from Walmer to London. Next morning, as they were stepping into their carriage, the waiter said to Stothard,

Sir, do you observe those

two

gentlemen?

Yes,

was the reply;

I see they are Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas.

And how much wine do you think they drank last night, for the good of the house?

Stothard could not guess.

Seven

bottles,

was the waiter's answer.

We find in Jeaffreson's

Book about Doctors,

the following ludicrous story relative to this part of the metropolis:--

One

of the sights of the

Old Kent Road

at the beginning of the eighteenth century was the cavalcade of

Mrs. Mapp

, the celebrated bone-setter, on her way to the City. On

one

occasion, we are told, as the lady was proceeding along the

Old Kent Road

towards the Borough in her carriage-and-

four

, and manifesting by her manner that she had partaken too freely of Geneva water, she found herself in a very trying position. Her fat frame, eccentric dress, and

dazzling equipage, were, in the eyes of the mob, sure signs of royalty, so that she was immediately taken for a court lady of German origin and unpopular repute, whose word was omnipotent at St. James's. Soon a crowd gathered round the carriage, and, with the proper amount of yelling and hooting, were about to break the windows with stones, when, acting very much as Nell Gwynne did on a similar occasion, she exclaimed, in a manner more emphatic than polite,

What! don't you know me? I'm Mrs. Mapp, the bone-setter!

The tale is familiar to all readers of the

Eccentric Biography.

The , known as Road until the end of the last century, was a continuation of , in the Borough, of which we have already spoken, and was the highway from Kent to the metropolis. There were but few houses in the a century ago. Rocque's Map, published in , shows the thoroughfare lined with hedgerows, bespeaking its rural character in the days of George II.

In the [extra_illustrations.6.249.2]  was founded, on acres of freehold land lying just off the . It consists of a group of onestoreyed houses, chapel, chaplain's residence, board and court rooms, library, &c., set round green lawns. The Duke of Sussex was its patron in , and he was succeeded by the Prince Consort, on whose death the Prince of Wales assumed the office. The idea of establishing an institution wherein the distressed members of the licensed victuallers' trade, and their wives or widows, might be enabled to spend the latter part of their days in peace and quietness, was conceived by the late Mr. Joseph Proud Hodgson, in the year , when he called a meeting of several influential gentlemen in the trade, and ventilated his views; and, after serious consideration, it was determined that a society should be formed under the title of the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum.

Subscriptions were solicited, and the hearty response that was accorded to the scheme by those most deeply interested in its success enabled the committee to purchase the land above mentioned, upon which it was resolved to erect an asylum, to consist of separate houses, containing rooms each, besides the requisite conveniences. In , the foundation-stone was laid, with full Masonic honours, by the Duke of Sussex, in the presence of a distinguished company, many of whom in after years exhibited a sincere attachment to the institution. At this time it was determined by the promoters of the institution to erect the central portion of the building, to consist of houses, which were perfected, and speedily became the abode of as many deserving individuals.

The applicants for admission being numerous, it was deemed advisable to perfect the asylum as early as circumstances would permit, and consequently, in the year , the south wing was erected, and in the north wing, thus completing the original design of the institution. The friends of the society, being relieved of the anxiety of erecting additional houses, in the year turned their attention to the advisability of granting weekly allowances of money to the inmates of the asylum, in order to provide them with the necessaries of life, and, as might be imagined, the proposal met with cordial approval, and allowances were then commenced, since which period they have been increased from time to time, until they have reached the sum of per week for married couples and for single persons-members of the Incorporated Society of Licensed Victuallers receiving per week extra. In addition to the allowances, a weekly supply of coal is granted to each inmate, besides being supplied with medical attendance, medicine, and wine, when recommended by the medical officer. In a charter of incorporation was granted to the institution, and in the following year, on the death of the Duke of Sussex, Prince Albert became patron.

In was commenced the

ladies' wing,

comprising habitations, the foundationstone being laid by H.R.H. the Prince Consort: this wing was completed in the following year. Several years having elapsed since an addition was made to the asylum, this important subject was considered, and so readily approved of by those who had the management of the institution, that in the year a new wing was commenced, the asylum being again honoured by its royal patron condescending to lay the foundation-stone. These buildings were designated the Albert Wing, in compliment to his Royal Highness, and consist of houses.

A donation of guineas having been made to the institution in , by a Mr. William Smalley, it was resolved that the only remaining space on the asylum grounds available for building purposes should be utilised. This was accordingly carried out, and additional houses built, which were named the Smalley Wing, the foundation-stone being laid by the Duke of Edinburgh. This addition completed the asylum as a building, and it

250

now consists of separate and distinct houses.

The beautiful little chapel is enriched with stained-glass memorial windows, and also several handsome marble tablets, in memory of donors to the institution; whilst upon the grounds in front of the building, and facing the , is erected a marble statue of the late Prince Consort, which was unveiled in by the Prince of Wales.

The expenses attending the institution are about annually, which is met by the subscriptions among the members of the trade, by bequests, by the proceeds of a ball given annually at Willis's Rooms or the Freemasons' Tavern, and also by the proceeds of the anniversary festival.

Close by the canal bridge, at a short distance westward of the , are the works belonging to the South Metropolitan Gas Company, whose operations extend over square miles, from the southwards as far as Croydon parish, taking in considerable portions of , St. George the Martyr, a small part of , nearly all Camberwell, a large portion of , and all Streatham. The company has altogether about miles of main-pipes; it consumes annually about tons of coal, and supplies about feet of gas in a year. The number of retorts is about , and the gas-holders are capable of storing nearly feet of gas; while the greatest quantity made in a day somewhat exceeds that amount. This gas company was founded in , for the supply of cannel gas, and incorporated in , with an authorised capital of . In the south side of the Thames was divided into districts, which arrangements were sanctioned by Parliament in the Metropolis Gas Act, . The company supplied gas in ; and after years' trial it was convincingly proved that to supply cannel gas made from the common coal was a financial mistake, and therefore cannel gas was abandoned in . In consequence of the gradual extension of these works, the district church of , Camberwell, which was built in , on the north side of the , has been demolished, and a new church built on the opposite side of the road. The new edifice, a brick building of Gothic architecture, was erected in .

Beyond mentioning the canal bridge, which spans the Canal close by the abovementioned gas-works, and making a passing reference to Marlborough (Congregational) Chapel, and also to the new Nonconformist chapel at the corner of Road-built for the congregation formerly assembling at the old Chapel, --there is little or nothing in this thoroughfare calling for special remark till we arrive near the junction of the Old and New Kent Roads with .

St. Thomas a Watering was once the boundary of the City liberties, and in the

olden time,

when the lord mayor and sheriffs

in great state

crossed the water to open Fair and to inspect the City boundaries, the City magistrates continued either to , Bridge, or

to the stones pointing out the City liberties at St. Thomas a Watering.

The precise situation was as near as possible that part of the which is intersected by the , and the memory of the place is still kept alive by , close by, and by the tavern-signs in the neighbourhood.

At the commencement of the present century,

writes Mr. Blanch, in his history of

Ye Parishe of Camierwell,

there was a stream here which served as a common sewer, across which a bridge was built; and in going from Camberwell into

Newington

or

Southwark

, it was not unusual for people to say they were going over the water. The current from the Peckham hills was at times so strong as to overflow at least

two

acres of ground.

St. Thomas a Waterings was situated close to the milestone on the , and was so called from a brook or spring, dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket. Chaucer's pilgrims, as we have seen in a previous chapter, passed it on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at Canterbury:--

And forth we riden a litel more than pas,

Unto the watering of Seint Thomas,

And then our host began his hors arrest.

Ben Jonson, in , makes mention of the spot in the following lines :--

These are the arts

Or seven liberal deadly sciences,

Of pagery, or rather paganism,

As the tides run! to which if he apply him,

He may perhaps take a degree at Tyburn

A year the earlier; come to read a lecture

Upon Aquinas at St. Thomas a Waterings.

This spot was in the old Tudor days the place of execution for the northern parts of Surrey; and here the Vicar of Wandsworth, his chaplain, and other persons of his household, were hung, drawn, and quartered in for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII. in matters of faith.

In ()

was caried from the

Marshalleshe unto Saynt Thomas of Wateryng a talman, and went thedur with the rope a-bowt ys neke, and so he hanggd a whylle, and the rope burst, and a whylle after and then they went for a-nodur rope, and so lyke-wyss he burst ytt and fell to the ground, and so he skapyd with his lyffe.

On the , a

nuw payre of galows was sett up at Sant Thomas of Watering ;

and on the -,

was reynyd [arraigned] in Westmynster Hall v men, iij was for burglare, and ij were cutpurses, and cast to be hanged at Sant Thomas of Watering:

one

was a gentyllman.

of the quarters of Sir Thomas Wyatt, who was beheaded for rebellion in , was exposed at this place; and on the , a younger son of Lord Sandys was executed here for robbing a cart, coming from a fair, at Beverley. The booty was estimated at about .

In men were executed here. Macbyn, in his Diary, thus records the event:--

The ix day of Feybruary at after-none a-bowt iij of the cloke, v men wher hangyd at Sant Thomas of watherynges;

one

was captyn Jenkes, and (blank) Warde, and (blank) Walles, and (blank) Beymont, and a-nodur man, and they were browth [brought] up in ware [war] all their lyffes,--for a grett robere done.

John Henry, the author of some of the

Martin Mar-Prelate Tracts,

was hung here in ; and Franklin, of the agents implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, was executed at the same place in .

The last persons executed at St. Thomas a Watering were a father and son, who suffered the penalty of the law for murder about the year .

The most noticeable feature in the is the number of public-houses, each with its swinging sign and drinking-trough for horses. Among these houses of

entertainment for man and beast

is the

Kentish Drovers,

which has existed here for about a couple of centuries, and was a well-known halting-place on the road to Kent, at a time (not very far distant) when the thoroughfare was bordered on either side by green fields and market gardens. The

Thomas a Becket,

at the corner of , commemorates the spot where the pilgrims halted on their way from London to Canterbury (as mentioned above); the

Shard Arms

perpetuates the cognisance of the once powerfill and wealthy Shard family, who were large landowners in the neighbourhood. The oldest of the inns in the , perhaps, is near the Bricklayers' Arms Station, which rejoices in the somewhat singular sign of

The World Turned Upside Down.

The house is supposed to be upwards of years old, and down to about its sign-board represented a man walking at the South Pole. It may have been set up after the discovery of Australia, Van Diemen's Land, or Terra del Fuego; but Mr. Larwood, in his work on

Sign-boards,

interprets it as

meaning a state of things the opposite of what is natural and usual: a conceit in which,

he adds,

the artists of former ages took great delight, and which they represented by animals chasing men, horses riding in carriages, and similar conceits and pleasantries.

The old sign-board was blown down many years ago; and in the house itself was in great part rebuilt and wholly new-fronted.

Nearly opposite this old hostelry stands the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. This admirable institution, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the Duke of Gloucester in , is a large but plain and unpretending edifice, separated from the roadway by a grove of trees. Miss Priscilla Wakefield, in her

Perambulations,

published in , commences of her

letters

as follows :

We continued our excursions into the county of Kent, stopping on the

Kent Road

to view a handsome building now erecting for the Asylum for poor Deaf and Dumb Children, an unfortunate class of persons, too long overlooked, or ineffectually commiserated among us. The applicants becoming so numerous that not onehalf of them could be admitted, it was resolved to extend the plan. A new subscription was set on foot for the purpose, and the present building was raised, without encroaching on the former funds of the institution.

This asylum or school was the established in England for the Deaf and Dumb, and was originally opened in , in , , under the auspices of the Rev. John Townsend, of Chapel, and of the Rev. H. C. Mason, then curate of , both of whose names are perpetuated by and , on either side of the Asylum.

The teacher,

as Timbs tells us in his

Curiosities of London,

was Joseph Watson, LL.D., who held the situation upwards of

thirty-seven

years, and counted upwards of

1,000

pupils, though he commenced wish

six

pupils only. In

1807

the

first

stone of a new building was laid in thle

Old Kent Road

, whither the establishment was removed in the year

1809

; and the Society celebrated the event by a public thanksgiving at the church of

St. Mary Magdalen

,

Bermondsey

,

the Rev. C. Crowther preaching the sermon. A memorial bust of the Rev. Mr. Townsend has been placed in the committee-room. The pupils, male and female, are such children only as are deaf and dumb, not being deficient in intellect. Other children are admitted on payment of

£ 20

annually for board; and private pupils are also received. The term of each pupil's stay is

five

years; they are taught to read, write, draw, and cipher, to speak by signs, and in many instances to articulate so as to be clearly understood. They are wholly clothed and maintained by the charity, are instructed in working trades, and in some cases apprentice-fees are given. The Asylum is amply supported by the wealthy; and besides its annual receipts from subscriptions, dotations, and legacies, &c., it has some funded sock. The pupils are elected half-yearly, without reference to locality, sect, or persuasion. The importance of this Asylum is attested by the fact that in

1833

, in

twenty

families of

159

children,

ninety

were deaf and dumb.

In connection with the above-mentioned institution, there is a branch establishment at Margate, which was used for the time in .

From the report for we learn that during that year children were admitted and sent to the branch asylum at Margate. children left the London asylum during the year, and were apprenticed to various trades. As many as children had been admitted since the foundation of the Asylum, and apprenticed since the year . The ordinary receipts in , including a balance from the previous year of , amounted to upwards of , and the general expenses to , the deficit having to be met by absorbing the sum of bequeathed as legacies instead of being funded.

Close by the Deaf and Dumb Asylum the terminates in the branch thoroughfares of , which trends south-westwardly to the

Elephant and Castle,

and of , which unites wvith the Borough, close by . The former of these thoroughfares-formerly called the Greenwich Road--is a broad and open roadway; it has been lately planted on either side with trees, so that in course of time it will doubtless form a splendid boulevard, of the Parisian type, and worthy of being

253

copied in many other parts of London. is of comparatively recent growth, having been formed since the commencement of the present century to supersede the old, narrow, and disreputable , which runs parallel with it on the north side, and to which we have referred above. [extra_illustrations.6.253.1] 

Among the residents of this street was Mr. T. C. Noble, the uthor of

Memorials of

Temple Bar

,

and of other antiquarian works. It may be recorded that in , when a bill was introduced into the to divest some of the great City companies of the estates in the north of Ireland which they had purchased from James I., Mr. Noble published a series of letters, which had an important effect in causing the abandonment of the bill. For his successful opposition to the scheme, Mr. Noble received special votes of thanks from the Court of the Irish Society, likewise the thanks of the London Livery Companies, being also presented with the freedom of the City and of the Company of Ironmongers.

At the east end of

Kent Street

, in

1847

,

writes Mr. Blanch, in his

History of Camberwell,

was unearthed a pointed arched bridge of the

fifteenth

century, probably erected by the monks of

Bermondsey

Abbey, lords of the manor. In Rocque's Map, this arch, called Lock's Bridge, from being near the

Lock Hospital

,

See Vol. V., pp. 14, 215, and 528; and also ante, p. 70.

carries the road over a stream which runs from

Newington

Fields to

Bermondsey

!

, which are still in existence-at all events in name--on the south side of the , were doubtless so named for the same reason.

In Trinity Street--which diverges from , and terminates at the junction of with Causeway-is , and also , a modern edifice of the Grecian style of architecture. This church is situated on the south side of , at a short distance from , and nearly on the verge of the parish of St. Mary, . It is enclosed in a small square of respectable-looking houses, with a plantation in the centre, in which is erected a statue of King Alfred. The portico and principal front of the church, with the steeple, is placed on the north side of the body of the edifice; the portico consisting of fluted Corinthian columns supporting a plain entablature and pediment. The body of the church is a parallelogram, and is divided into storeys by a plain course. The interior presents a vast unbroken area, roofed in span, and the ceiling is panelled. The galleries, resting on Doric pillars, extend round sides of the church, and the altar-screen, situated below the eastern window, consists of a pediment surmounting slabs, inscribed with the Decalogue, &c. The stone of the edifice was laid by the Archbishop of Canterbury in , and the building was consecrated in December of the following year. The ground on which the church is built was given by the corporation of the Trinity House, which possesses considerable property in the vicinity.

On the south side, of , with its principal entrance in (formerly ), stands the prison and place of execution for the county of Surrey, commonly known as Gaol. It is a substantially-built structure, chiefly of brick, arranged upon the approved plan of John Howard, the prison philanthropist. It is of a quadrangular form, with storeys above the basement, and was completed for the reception of prisoners in , and has accommodation for prisoners. This prison not being a house of correction, the average duration of imprisonment undergone by each prisoner is very short. Instruction is confined to the juvenile prisoners, who are assembled in classes for hours daily. The number of attendances during the months of the year ending Michaelmas, , was ; the number of prisoners confined during the year ending Michaelmas, , was ; and the greatest number of prisoners at any time was .

In , Colonel Despard, and about of his accomplices, were arrested at the

Oakley Arms

public-house in , on a charge of treasonable conspiracy, tending to dethrone the king and subvert the Government. In the following February they were tried by a special commission, held in the adjoining the prison, and the colonel and of his colleagues were hung and beheaded here. It may be added that the

hurdle

on which the colonel was drawn from the cell in which he was last confined to the place of execution --in conformity with the sentence formerly passed upon criminals convicted of high treason-remained in the gaol till very recently, and was regarded as an object of curiosity.

This place has its romance, for Leigh Hunt was for years (-) imprisoned here for libellously styling the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV., an

Adonis of

fifty

;

and here it was that Moore and Lord Byron paid that memorable visit to

the wit in the dungeon,

when the noble poet saw him for the time in his life. Mr.

254

Cyrus Redding, in his

Recollections,

says:--

I remember paying Leigh Hunt a visit in

Horsemonger Lane

Jail, a miserable low site. I missed Byron and Moore by only about half an hour, on the same errand. Horace Smith and Shelley used to be visitors there, and many others of Hunt's friends. He was composing

Rimini,

a copy of which he gave me, and which I still possess. His apartment, on the ground floor, was cheerful for such a place, but that only means a sort of lacquered gloom after all. I thought of his health, which seemed by no means strong. I am certain, if the place was not unwholesome, it lay close upon the verge of insalubrity. Hunt bore his confinement cheerfully, but he must have had unpleasant moments. He was naturally lively, and in those days I never knew a more entertaining companion. For such an

one

to be alone for weary, dreary hours, must have been punishment enough even to satisfy an Ellenborough or a Jeffries.

Times and rules are changed since then,

writes Mr. Hepworth Dixon, in his

London Prisons :

the

luxurious comforts--the trellised flower-garden without, the books, busts, pictures, and pianoforte within

--which Moore describes on the occasion when Byron dined with him in the prison-would be looked for in vain now.

Here is a picture of the interior of the prison at the time Mr. Dixon's book was published, only a quarter of a century ago ():--

There are for criminals,

he writes,

ten

classes, or wards, each ward having its yard and day-room. On entering

one

of these, the visitor is painfully impressed with the absence of all rule and system in the management., He finds himself in a low, long room, dungeon-like, chilly, not very clean, and altogether as uncomfortable as it can conveniently be made. This room is crowded with

thirty

or

forty

persons, of all ages and shades of ignorance and guilt-left to themselves, with no officer in sight. Here there is no attempt to enforce discipline. Neither silence nor separation is maintained in the largest prison in the metropolitan county of Surrey! In this room we see

thirty

or

forty

persons with nothing to do --many of them know not how to read, and those who do are little encouraged so to improve their time. Some of them clearly prefer their present state of listless idleness: with hands in their pockets, they saunter about their dungeon, or loll upon the floor, listening to the highly-spiced stories of their companions, well content to be fed at the expense of the county-upon a better diet, better cooked, than they are accustomed to at homewithout any trouble or exertion on their own part. Conversing with them, we find that a few of these pariahs of civilisation hate the listless, apathetic bondage in which they are kept; that they would be glad to have work to do--to get instruction if they could. But the majority prefer the state of vegetation as more congenial to their cherished habits of inaction. Here they are gratified to their wish.

That this state of things no longer exists, we need scarcely inform our readers; for since the passing of the Prisons' Discipline Act, in , the silent system has been adopted here, and the regulations of the prison are carried out on much the same principle as those at Holloway, which we have already described, and the prisoners, excepting in cases of emergency, are confined in separate cells, and kept entirely apart from each other.

Down to the passing of the Act by which executions ceased to take place in public, the scaffold for the execution of criminals at this gaol was erected upon the roof of the gateway; and the roadway in front, during these

exhibitions,

became the scene of the wildest depravity. Charles Dickens, who was present at the execution of the Mannings on the , gives us the following description of what he saw:--

I was a witness,

he writes,

of the execution at

Horsemonger Lane

this morning. I went there with the intention of observing the crowd gathered to behold it, and I had excellent opportunities of doing so at intervals all through the night, and continuously from daybreak until after the spectacle was over. I believe that a sight so inconceivably awful as the wickedness and levity of the immense crowd collected at that execution could be imagined by no man, and could be presented in no heathen land under the sun. The horrors of the gibbet and of the crime which brought the wretched murderers to it faded in my mind before the atrocious bearing, looks, and language of the assembled spectators. When I came upon the scene at midnight, the shrillness of the cries and howls that were raised from time to time, denoting that they came from a concourse of boys and girls already assembled in the best places, made my blood run cold. As the night went on, screeching, and laughing, and yelling in strong chorus of parodies on negro melodies, with substitutions of

Mrs. Manning

for

Susannah,

and the like, were added to these. When the day dawned, thieves, low prostitutes, ruffians, and vagabonds of every kind, flocked on to the ground, with every variety of offensive and foul behaviour. Fightings, faintings, whistlings, imitations of Punch,

brutal jokes, tumultuous demonstrations of indecent delight when swooning women were dragged out of the crowd by the police with their dresses disordered, gave a new zest to the general entertainment. When the sun rose brightly--as it did-it gilded thousands upon thousands of upturned faces, so inexpressibly odious in their brutal mirth or callousness, that a man had cause to feel ashamed of the shape he wore, and to shrink from himself, as fashioned in the image of the devil. When the

two

miserable creatures who attracted all this ghastly sight about them were turned quivering into the air, there was no more emotion, no more pity, no more thought that

two

immortal souls had gone to judgment, no more restraint in any of the previous obscenities, than if the name of Christ had never been heard in this world, and there were no belief among men but that they perished like the beasts. I have seen, habitually, some of the worst sources of general contamination and corruption in this country, and I think there are not many phases of London life that could surprise me. I am solemnly convinced that nothing that ingenuity could devise to be done in this city, in the same compass of time, could work such ruin as

one

public execution; and I stand astounded and appalled by the wickedness it exhibits. I do not believe that any community can prosper where such a scene of horror and demoralisation as was enacted this morning outside

Horsemonger Lane

Gaol is presented at the very doors of good citizens, and is passed by, unknown or forgotten.

The , for the meetings of the magistrates of the county of Surrey, adjoins the western side of the prison, and has its front towards . This building, together with the gaol, was completed in , having been built in conformity with an Act of Parliament, passed in the year , entitled

An Act for building a new common gaol and sessions' house, with accommodations thereto, for the county of Surrey.

In pursuance of this Act, acres and a half of land, used by a market gardener, were purchased; and the buildings were erected under the direction of the late Mr. George Gwilt, the county surveyor, the total cost having amounted to nearly . The has been recently rebuilt; and since the whole of the interior has been reconstructed upon improved principles, and the building new fronted, under the direction of the county surveyor, Mr. Howell.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] See ante, p. 70.

[extra_illustrations.6.249.2] Licensed Victuallers' Asylum

[] See p. 83.

[extra_illustrations.6.253.1] Mrs. Gladstone opening Playground on site of Horsemonger-Lane Jail

[] See Vol. II., p. 380.

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 Title Page
 Preface
 Chapter I: Introductory -- Southwark
 Chapter II: Southwark (continued) -- Old London Bridge
 Chapter III: Southwark (continued) -- St. Saviour's Church, &c.
 Chapter IV: Southwark (continued) -- Winchester house, Barclay's Brewery, &c.
 Chapter V: Southwark (continued) -- Bankside in the Olden Time
 Chapter VI: Southwark (continued) -- High Street, &c.
 Chapter VII: Southwark (continued) -- Famous Inns of Olden Times
 Chapter VIII: Southwark (continued) -- Old St. Thomas's Hospital, Guy's Hospital, &c.
 Chapter IX: Bermondsey -- Tooley Street, &c.
 Chapter X: Bermondsey (continued) -- The Abbey, &c.
 Chapter XI: Rotherhithe
 Chapter XII: Deptford
 Chapter XIII: Greenwich
 Chapter XIV: Greenwich (continued) -- The Hospital for Seamen, &c.
 Chapter XV: Greenwich (continued) -- The Parish Church, &c.
 Chapter XVI: Greenwich (continued) -- The Park, The Royal Observatory, &c.
 Chapter XVII: Blackheath, Charlton, and its Neighbourhood
 Chapter XVIII: Eltham, Lee, and Lewisham
 Chapter XIX: The Old Kent Road, &c.
 Chapter XX: Newington and Walworth
 Chapter XXI: Camberwell
 Chapter XXII: Peckham and Dulwich
 Chapter XXIII: Sydenham, Norwood, and Streatham
 Chapter XXIV: Brixton and Clapham
 Chapter XXV: Stockwell and Kennington
 Chapter XXVI: St. George's Fields
 Chapter XXVII: St. George's Fields (continued) -- Bethlehem Hospital, &c.
 Chapter XXVIII: Blackfriars Road -- The Surrey Theatre, Surrey Chapel, &c.
 Chapter XXIX: Lambeth
 Chapter XXX: Lambeth (continued) -- The Transpontine Theatres
 Chapter XXXI: Lambeth (continued) -- Waterloo Road, &c.
 Chapter XXXII: Lambeth Palace
 Chapter XXXIII: Vauxhall
 Chapter XXXIV: Vauxhall (continued) and Battersea
 Chapter XXXV: Wandsworth
 Chapter XXXVI: Putney
 Chapter XXXVII: Fulham
 Chapter XXXVIII: Fulham (continued) -- Walham Green and North End
 Chapter XXXIX: Hammersmith
 Chapter XL: Chiswick
 Chapter XLI: General Remarks and Conclusion