Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places.Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 6
Bermondsey (continued).--.-The Abbey, &c.
Bermondsey (continued).--.-The Abbey, &c.
Readers of English history need scarcely be told how that King Henry VIII., in his selfish zeal for novelties in religion, laid violent hands on all the abbeys and other religious houses in the kingdom, except a very few, which were spared at the earnest petition of the people, or given up to the representatives of the original founders. Before proceeding to the final suppression, under the pretext of checking the superstitious worshipping of images, he had laid bare their altars and stripped their shrines of everything that was valuable; nor did he spare the rich coffins and crumbling bones of the dead. Although years had passed away since the murder of Thomas Becket
118[extra_illustrations.6.118.1] [extra_illustrations.6.118.2] [extra_illustrations.6.118.3]
in Canterbury Cathedral, the venerated tomb was broken open, and a sort of criminal information was filed against the dead saint, as |
who was formally cited to appear in court and answer to the charges. As the saint did not appear at the bar of this earthly court, which was held in Hall in , it was deemed proper to declare that
Other shrines had been plundered before, and certain images and relics of saints had been broken to pieces publicly at Cross; but now every shrine was laid bare, or, if any escaped, it was owing to the poverty of their decorations and offerings.
writes the author of the
which were thus ruthlessly swept away was the [extra_illustrations.6.118.4] , which is now kept in remembrance mainly by the names given to a few streets which cover its site, and through which we are about to pass.
The earliest mention of this abbey occurs in the account of in
from which may be gathered some idea of the solitude and seclusion which the place then enjoyed; when it is stated that there was
round about for the
of a certain number of hogs; and that there was also
Soon after the Norman conquest, a number of Cluniac monks settled in this country; and in a wealthy citizen ot London, Aylwin Childe, founded a monastery at , which some of the ecclesiastics from the Monastery of La Charite, on the Loire, made their new home in the land of their adoption.
says Mr. A. Wood in his
The following interesting particulars of the customs of the Cluniac order are gathered from Stevens's translation of the French history of the monastic orders, given in his continuation of Dugdale, and transcribed in the great edition of the
The sites of the mill and the bakehouse of Abbey were both traceable as late as the year .
William Rufus enriched the abbey by the grant of the manor of ; and the establishment soon became of the most important in England. In , Prior Richard erected an almonry or hospital adjoining the monastery; but no traces of that now exist. The parish church of , rebuilt in , at the junction of and , occupies nearly the site of the conventual church. The monastic buildings were, doubtless, very extensive and magnificent; and the monks maintained a splendid hospitality and state. Katherine of France, widow of Henry V., retired hither to mourn, perhaps the victor of Agincourt, to whose memory she had erected, in , a life-sized silver-gilt statue; or it may have been her husband, Owen Tudor, who perhaps little thought he would ever become the progenitor of of the greatest monarchs who ever sat on the English throne-bluff King Henry and Queen Bess, not to mention Henry's father, the conqueror of crook-backed Richard, and Elizabeth's boy-brother and her sister Mary. Katherine died at , a double widow, in . In the convent here Elizabeth Woodville, the widow of Edward IV., was shut up as a sort of prisoner by Henry VII., shortly after the marriage of the latter with her daughter Elizabeth. The Queen Dowager died in . A few days before her death she made her will, and a pathetic document it is. Her son-in-law, Henry VII., cruelly neglected her; and when in after years he ordered an anniversary service to be sung on the , by the monks of , for the repose of the souls of his late queen and children, his father and his mother, he forgot to include poor Elizabeth, the mother of his wife, once queen of England, but who ended her days almost a pauper in the very abbey where the stately service was performed.
As a glimpse of what was sometimes doing in the old church, as well as of the old custom itself the following extract will be found interesting :
At the dissolution of the monasteries, Abbey, with its rich manor, was seized--as was the case with other similar places-by Henry VIII. At that time the Abbot of had no very tender scruples about conscience or principle, like so many of his brethren, but arranged everything in the pleasantest possible manner for the king; and he had his reward. While the poor monks had pensions varying from to a year each allowed them, the good Lord Abbot's pension amounted to The monastery itself, with the manor, demesnes, &c., were granted by the Crown to Sir Robert Southwell, Master of the Rolls, who sold them to Sir Thomas Pope, the founder of Trinity College, Oxford. In Sir Thomas pulled down the old priory church, and built House upon the site and with the materials. Here died, in , Thomas Radcliffe, Earl of Sussex, Lord Chamberlain to Queen Elizabeth. This was the Earl of Sussex who, according to Sir Walter Scott in his interesting romance of
was visited by
Tressilian at Sayes Court, Deptford, and restored from a dangerous illness by the skill of Wayland Smith, to the great wonder of Walter Raleigh and Sir Thomas Blount. About , the east gate of the monastery was removed; and early in the present century nearly all that was left of the old buildings shared the same fate, and was built upon the site. The Neckinger Road-at a short distance southward of Jacob's Island, , and the other waterside places mentioned towards the close of the preceding chapter-marks the ancient water-course, formerly navigable as far as the precincts of the abbey. This road, which is at the junction of Parker's Row with , leads westward,
|by and , into the , close by . This, then, is the spot on which the ancient monastery once flourished; there are, however, scarcely any remains of the conventual building left standing, and a walk over the site of the great abbey of the Cluniacs can now afford but little gratification. The entire site is now pretty well covered over with modern houses and dirty streets and courts.|
as Charles Knight pleasantly suggests in his
Although is, perhaps, not the most civilised and scholastic part of London now, it is no small credit to the churchmen of the early Norman times, that, according to Fitzstephen, as interpreted to us by honest John Stow, the earliest schools for youth in London and its neighbourhood were founded under the shadows respectively of Old , of Abbey, , and of the Abbey of .
In Faithorne's map of London and
|(-) the abbey is shown as standing in its entire condition in its own enclosed grounds.|
[extra_illustrations.6.121.1] , at the corner of and , stands on the site of the ancient conventual church. It is a brick-built structure, consisting of a chancel, nave, aisles, and a transept; and at the western end is a low square tower with a turret. The church contains no monuments worthy of note. In the tower was repaired and
after the usual
fashion of the period, and at the same time the Gothic windows were restored, and since that date the church has been re-seated, and otherwise greatly improved. The registers commence in , and have been continued with very few interruptions up to the present time. Some of the entries are very singular and curious. Here, for instance, is which we give , since it may serve as a model for such transactions in these days of judicial separations. It is headed,
Then follows a short prayer, suited to the occasion, and the entry thus concludes:
Another entry in the register also is remarkable.
It is to be hoped, for the sake of the family, that the history of the parent did not repeat itself in that of the son.
In this church is a very curious ancient salver of silver, now used for the collection of the alms at the offertory. On the centre is a beautifullychased representation of the gate of a castle or town, with figures, a knight kneeling before a lady, who is about to place his helmet on his head. The long-pointed solleretts of the feet, the ornaments of the armpits, and the form of the helmet, are supposed to mark the date of the salver as that of Edward II. The other memorial to which we have referred is of a much more interesting character; it is thus recorded in the
And again, under the date of :--
This Lord Morton was a son of the Earl of Morton mentioned in Domesday Book as possessing
in this parish, on which, it appears from another part of the record, he had a mansion-house. The above-mentioned nobleman seems to have had a perfect faith in the truth of the miracle; for the chronicle subsequently states:
In our account of old we have spoken of the scene which was witnessed at Paul's Cross on the breaking up of the
which had been brought from Boxley Abbey, in Kent; and we may mention here that the degradation of the
formed, as it were, an appendix to that day's proceedings. A reference to this transaction is to be found in an ancient diary of a citizen, preserved among the Cottonian MSS., under the date of , in the following passage:--
it may be stated, was often used in the widest sense to express an image or statue; and it may be remarked, with reference to the Rood in Abbey, that the words are
not that it was actually destroyed. In front of the building attached to the chief or north gate of the abbey was a rude representation of a small cross, with some zigzag ornamentation; the whole had the appearance of being something placed upon or let into the wall, and not a part of the original building; and there it remained till the comparatively recent destruction of this last remnant of the monastic pile. In a drawing made of the remains of the Abbey in , which was afterwards engraved by Wilkinson, in his
the same cross appears in the same situation; from this it has been conjectured, apart from the corroborative evidence of tradition, that this was the old Saxon cross found near the Thames, or that it was a part of the
before which pilgrims used to congregate in the old conventual church.
In Wilkinson's work above mentioned is engraved a ground-plan of the site and precincts of Abbey, copied from a survey made in . It exhibits a ground-plot of the old conventual church, with gardens enclosed by stone walls, and bounded on the north by the churchyard of ; the west and north gates, leading into the
the site of the mansion, with its long gallery, built by Sir Thomas Pope; and the east gate, leading into
Walk. In the same work is a general view of the remains of the monastic and other old buildings, with the adjacent country, taken in , from the steeple of the adjoining church, and also an east view of the ancient gateway, with several other engravings relating to the abbey and its attached buildings. The east gate of the monastery, in , was pulled down about the middle of the last century. We learn from Brayley's
We may add that King Stephen was a great benefactor to the abbey, on which he bestowed broad lands in Writtle, near Chelmsford, in Essex, and in other places.
In the previous chapter we have stated that , in a certain sense, may be regarded as a
Indeed, for several centuries this locality has been the centre of the tanning and leather trades. But even this unsavoury trade has its advantages. When the Great Plague raged in the City of London, many of the terror-stricken creatures fled to the tan-pits, and found strong medicinal virtues in the nauseous smell. The great leather market has been established on this spot for above years. Hat-making, too, is most extensively carried on; and it is said that in no place in the kingdom of equal area is there such a great variety of important manufactures. The intersection of the district by innumerable tidal ditches gave unusual facilities for the leather manufacture, but at the same time it also entailed frightful misery on the crowded inhabitants. If we draw a line from St. James's Church, in the , to the intersection of the with the , we shall find to the west, or rather to the north-west, of that line, nearly the whole of the factories connected with the leather and wool trade of London.
says Charles Knight, in his
The old-established house, known as
is situated in . The sign makes allusion, of course, to the tanner of Joppa, of whom we read in the Acts of the Apostles, as having St. Peter as his lodger.
says Mr. Larwood,
From the following enumeration of some of the manufacturers in alone, it will be seen how many branches of industry are carried on here in connection with the leather trade: hidesellers, tanners, leather-dressers, morocco leather dressers, leather sellers and cutters, curriers, parchment-makers, wool-staplers, horsehair manufacturers, hair and flock manufacturers, patent hairfelt manufacturers. There are besides these skin and hide salesmen, fellmongers, leather-dyers, and glue-makers, in other parts of the vicinity.
Market, the great emporium for hides and skins, is in , on the north side of . It was established on this spot about the year ; and the building, together with the ground whereon it stands, cost nearly . It is a long series of brick warehouses, lighted by a range of windows, and having an arched entrance gateway at either end. These entrances open into a quadrangle or court, covered for the most part with grass and surrounded by warehouses, and enclosing others for the stowage of hops. In the warehouses is transacted the business of a class of persons who are termed
who sell to the curriers or leather-sellers leather belonging to the tanners; or sell Londontanned leather to country purchasers, or countrytanned leather to London purchasers; in short, they are middle-men in the traffic in leather, as skin-salesmen are in the traffic in skins. Beyond this quadrangle is a , called the
and having entrances, from the larger quadrangle, and from a street leading into . This depository is an oblong plot of ground terminated by semi-circular ends; it is pitched with common road-stones along the middle, and flagged round with a broad footpavement. Over the pavement, through its whole
| extent, is an arcade supported by pillars; and the portion of pavement included between every contiguous pillars is called a |
There are about of these
which are let out to skin-salesmen at about per annum each; and on the pavement of his bay the salesman exposes the skins which he is commissioned to sell. Here on market-days may be seen a busy scene of traffic between the salesmen on the hand and the fellmongers on the other. The carts, laden with sheepskins, come rattling into the place, and draw up in the roadway of the depository; the loads are taken out, and ranged on the pavement of the bays; the sellers and buyers make their bargains; the purchase-money is paid into the hands of the salesman, and by him transmitted to the butcher; and the hides or skins are removed to the yards of the buyers.
As was supposed, when the New Skin Market was built, the trade in hides, as well as that in skins, has come to be carried on here. A large quantity of ox-hides, however, from which the thicker kinds of leather are made, are still sold at Leadenhall Market, which was long the centre of this trade; and nearly all the leather manufacturers in are still proprietors in that market.
The whole of the fellmongers belonging to the metropolis are congregated within a small circle around the Skin Market in . It forms no part of the occupation of these persons to convert the sheepskins into leather. The skins pass into their hands with the wool on, just as they are taken from the sheep; and the fellmonger then proceeds to remove the wool from the pelt, and to cleanse the latter from some of the impurities with which it is coated.
writes Charles Knight,
, in which we have now found ourselves, perpetuates the name of a somewhat eccentric individual who lived in in the latter part of the last century-Mr. Richard Russell, who died at his house in this parish, in . In Manning and Bray's
we read that he was a bachelor, that he desired to be buried in the church of St. John, , and that
As regards the monument to the memory of the deceased in , it may be stated that the provisions of his will were not complied with, but that his executors are said to have considered a payment which they made to the Rev. Mr. Peters, for a painting of the patron saint of the church over the altar, as an equivalent compensation.
In is Union, which consists of some extensive ranges of buildings, forming a large square court, and covering a con-
|siderable space of ground. It affords a home for a large number of poor persons, worn out with age, or otherwise incapacitated from earning their livelihood.|
Retracing our steps through , and by , we make our way to the south side of the , mentioned above. Here we again encounter evidences of the manufacturing industry of , in the shape of its tanyards-another of the numerous branches of trade arising out of the leather manufacture, which gives to so many of its characteristics. In , and or other places in the vicinity, may be seen instances of of the purposes to which tan is appropriated. A large plot of ground contains, in addition to heaps of tan, skeleton frames about or feet in height, consisting of a range of shelves above another; and on these shelves are placed the oblong, rectangular pieces of
with which the middle classes have not much to do, but which are extensively purchased for fuel, at
by the humbler classes.
says Charles Knight,
Between and the , and stretching away from on the north-west to Upper on the southeast, is the Bricklayers' Arms Station, the principal luggage and goods depot of the South-Eastern Railway. In the station itself, from an architectural point of view, there is nothing requiring special mention. The arrangements for the reception and delivery of the goods at this station are in nowise remarkable, nor are there any warehouses or stores worthy of particular notice. The site was purchased by the South-Eastern Railway Company in , and the lines of railway laid across the market-gardens of , in order to form a junction with the main line near New Cross. Besides being used as a heavy goods dept, the [extra_illustrations.6.125.1] was for many years--in fact, until the erection of the station at Charing Cross-used as the terminus for the arrival and departure of foreign potentates visiting this country, and also for members of our own Royal Family going abroad. Hither the body of the Duke of Wellington was brought by rail from Walmer Castle, in , in order to be conveyed to , preparatory to its interment in .
It is mentioned in the histories of England that shortly after the battle of Edgehill the Common Council of London passed an act for fortifying the City, which was done with such dispatch, that a rampart, with bastions, redoubts, and other bulwarks, was shortly erected round the cities of London and and the borough of . It has been suggested that --the thoroughfare running parallel with , on the south side, from Upper to St. James's Road--may mark the site of some of the fortifications here referred to.
A glance at a map of London of half a century ago-or, indeed, much more recently--will show that nearly the whole of the land hereabouts consisted of market-gardens and open fields. At a short distance eastward of the Upper , and south of the , stood a windmill, the site of which is now covered by part of . On the east side of the abbey enclosures was the farm known as
after which the and Grange Walkare named; and near wound the narrow tide-stream or ditch called the Neckinger, which was here spanned by a bridge. The Neckinger was formerly navigable, for small craft, from the Thames to the abbey precincts, and gives name to the . When the abbey was destroyed, and the ground passed into the possession of others, the houses which were built on the site still received a supply of water from this
| water-course. In process of time tanneries were established on the spot, most probably on account of the valuable supply of fresh water obtainable every hours from the river. |
says Charles Knight,
The Neckinger Mills, which cover a large space of ground between the and the
|South-Eastern Railway, were erected a century or more ago by a company who attempted the manufacture of paper from straw; but this failing, the premises passed into the hands of others who established the leather manufacture.|
An attempt was made in the latter part of the last century to raise to the dignity of a fashionable watering-place. Although that portion of the district near the river was so close and filthy, there were, as stated above, pleasant fields stretching away towards the . The abbot's fat meadows were still green; and, indeed, a singular characteristic of the eastern parts of to this day (especially noticeable from the railway) is the strange mingling of factories, in which the most offensive trades are vigorously carried on, with market-gardens and green fields. In a chalybeate spring was discovered in some grounds adjoining the , of which advantage was taken by the proprietor with the view of inducing the waterdrinkers and the lovers of a fashionable lounge and promenade to resort thither, and in that manner caused this district to become for a brief interval what Hampstead had just ceased to be-a favourite suburban watering-place. In the Almanac, for , it is stated that a public-house called the
having become vacant, an artist, Mr. Thomas Keyse, purchased it, in , along with some adjoining grounds, and formed it for the amusements of a
He ornamented it with his own paintings, and the discovery in the grounds of a mineral spring, which was found to be an excellent chalybeate, so increased the attractions of the gardens that found the word
added to its name. On application to the Surrey magistrates in , Mr. Keyse obtained a licence for music at his gardens, and this, with an expenditure of on their decorations, gave them a considerable popularity. The space before the orchestra, which was about a quarter of the size of that at , was totally destitute of trees, the few that the gardens could then boast being planted merely as a screen to prevent the outside public from overlooking the interior of the place. The paintings executed by Keyse himself long existed, and were exhibited in an oblong room known as the
they were chiefly representations of a butcher's shop, a greengrocer's shop, and so forth, all the details being worked out with Dutch minuteness.
Mr. J. T. Smith, in his
tells us how, on occasion, he was induced to pay a visit to this place, and how, when he reached the
he at considered himself the only spectator. When he had gone the round of the gallery he voluntarily re-commenced his view, but what followed will be best told in Mr. Smith's own words :--
A large picture model of the
painted by Keyse, and occupying about acres, was exhibited here in the year . Keyse died about years later, and their popularity having waned away, the gardens were shut up in , leaving the modern to perpetuate their name. There are a few
of the place extant; and the locality is also kept in remembrance by the
Station on the .
says the author of
At the corner of Neckinger and Spa Roads are some public baths and wash-houses. These institutions, which are now to be met with in almost every part of London, as well as in the country, originated in a public meeting held at the in , when a large subscription was raised to build an establishment to serve as a model for others, which it was anticipated would be erected, when it had been proved that the receipts, at the very low rate of charge contemplated, would be sufficient to cover the expenses, and gradually to repay the capital invested. The success of the bathing department in these establishments, as well as the necessity which existed for such means of cleanliness among the industrial classes, is to be found in the numbers who have used them since their opening.
At the junction of with the is Parker's Row, at the southern end of which stands , a brick-built edifice, of Romanesque architecture, erected in , from the designs of Messrs. Allen and Hayes. It was built chiefly out of the Church and School Fund. At the north-western corner of Parker's Row is a large Roman Catholic church and convent.
writes Charles Knight, in his work quoted above,
This edifice, then, which was founded in , was the convent of the Sisters of Mercy established in the metropolis. The convent adjoins the Roman Catholic Church of the Most Holy Trinity, which was built from the designs of Mr. A. W. Pugin. The stone of the church was laid in , by Dr. Bramston, the then Vicar-Apostolic of the London district, and it was formally opened in the following year. The church is a fine brick-built structure, in the Early Pointed style of Gothic architecture. The plot of ground on which it stands was purchased at the expense of a benevolent lady, the Baroness
|Montesquieu, who also bought and furnished a well-built house adjoining.|
The convent of the Sisters of Mercy is also in the Gothic style of architecture, in keeping with the church. Lady Barbara Eyre contributed no less than towards its erection. Considerable additions were made to the edifice in -. In addition to a large school conducted by the
of Our Lady of Mercy, there are other numerously-attended Roman Catholic schools in this district.
The edifice mentioned above was erected on a site which had previously served as a tan-yard, supplied with water from the tide-stream, which at time passed close to the convent in its progress from the
to the neighbourhood of the Neckinger Mills, of which we have already spoken.
, which winds eastward in the direction of and Deptford, is so named from an inn called [extra_illustrations.6.130.1] which stood in this immediate neighbourhood, in what is now , down till a comparatively recent date. The house itself, which was named, in compliment, no doubt, to the island which was the birthplace of rum, is traditionally said to have been of the many residences of Oliver Cromwell, but we cannot guarantee the tradition. It is thus mentioned, in a work published in :--I
Mr. J. Larwood, in his
tells us that after the Restoration this house became a tavern; and he reminds us how, after the homely, kindhearted custom of the times, Sam Pepys, on Sunday, , took his wife and her maids there to give them a day's pleasure.
writes the Secretary to the Admiralty in his
It is added that Pepys appears in after times to have frequently resorted to this placepossibly without madame-and it has been considered by some writers to be the same which he elsewhere terms the
probably in allusion to the dockyard at Deptford. From a reference to modern maps, however, it would appear that the
was about a mile nearer Deptford. A tavern called the
has been built on the west side of Jamaica Level, near the and Mill Pond Bridge. At , Wall--as that part of the river-side north of the is called--was an inn bearing the sign of the
This sign is often thought to be derived from some of the marriages between our own royal House of Stuart and that of Spain; though, as Mr. Larwood says, we need not accept this version, but may simply refer to
The Cherry Garden itself, the site of which is now covered by a street bearing that name, was a place of public resort in the days of the Stuarts. It is mentioned by Pepys in his
under date :
Charles Dickens, too, speaks of the place in of his inimitable works.
On the south side of , and at the northern end of , stands the parish [extra_illustrations.6.130.2] . It is a spacious building of brick and stone, and dates its erection from the year . The edifice, which is in the Grecian style of architecture, consists of a nave and side aisles, with a chancel and vestibules. The west front has a portico in the centre, composed of Ionic columns, surmounted by an entablature and pediment. The steeple, which rises from the centre of this front, is square in plan, and of stages or divisions, each of which are ornamented by clusters of columns and pilasters, the last storey being crowned with entablatures, having cinerary urns and vases above the angles. The spire is crowned with a vane in the form of a dragon. In the tower is a fine peal of bells.
Near St. James's Church is the Station, on the Deptford and . We have already spoken of the formation of this line of railway; but it may not be out of place to add here that few persons are aware of the enormous traffic
|passing daily in each direction between Station and , where the railway assumes its greatest width. The accompanying diagram, which represents the number of lines of railway seen at a point about a mile east of the Station, will give some idea of what this traffic really is. A passenger travelling over this particular spot will see lines of rails, besides the on which he is travelling, and over nearly all these lines trains are constantly passing. This is more than double the width of any other railway in England, the utmost number of pairs of rails seen elsewhere being . The line numbered No. is the up line from Greenwich, which, to avoid crossing from side to side at a point more distant is on the left hand instead of the right; the down line to Greenwich being the same as that used for the North Kent, Mid Kent, &c. (No. ). No. is the North Kent and Mid Kent up line. Over No. run the main line and many of the suburban down trains of the Brighton Company, as well as a few trains of The South-Eastern Company. No. is the South London down line to Victoria, Sutton, &c. Till about the year , when the South London line was opened, there were lines of rails running side by side for the mile and a half from . The South London branches off on the right, and at some distance lower down Nos. , , and diverge from Nos, , , ; and a short distance further, the North Kent line parts company with the Greenwich, which for the rest of the distance pursues its course alone to Deptford and Greenwich. Between . a.m. and . midnight, over line No. pass daily about trains to Greenwich, about for the Mid Kent Branch,|
|about for the North Kent line, and about of the South-Eastern main line trains: total, . Over No. , during the same period, run main line trains of the Brighton Company, about trains for Croydon, Crystal Palace, and Victoria; and about of the South-Eastern Company's trains to Red Hill, &c.: total, . Over No. also pass trains to Victoria, Peckham, and to Wimbledon, Sutton, Croydon, and Clapham Junction, &c.: total, . Thus, without reckoning the extra trains on Saturdays, we have the astonishing number of trains running daily, in direction, over lines of railway for comparatively short distances; and if to this number we add the return trains running over lines Nos. , , , , , , we have more than trains running for the accommodation of persons residing principally in the southern suburbs of London.|
In , close by St. James's Church, is the biscuit factory of Messrs. Peek, Frean, and Co. The manufactory covers a large space of ground immediately on the north side of the railway, near the Station. It comprises several high blocks of buildings, for the most part connected with each other, and gives employment to a very large number of hands. In the centre of the building is a lofty clock-tower.
The Blue Anchor Road-so named from a tavern bearing that sign, at the corner of Blue Anchor Lane-commences at the , and winding in a north-easterly direction under the railway, and so on to the end of the , forms the boundary between the parishes of and . In a map of London and its environs, published in , and also in Coghlan's map (), the whole of this thoroughfare, which in those times had but few houses built along it, is marked as
but in the Directory of the present day, that part of the road lying northward of the railway is called
the west side being entered as belonging to the parish of , and the east side to that of . In the maps above mentioned a narrow roadway running eastward across the market-gardens is marked as the
This thoroughfare, which diverges from the at the point where the latter passes under the railway, is now almost entirely built upon on both sides, and has been for many years known as the Manor Road. In the early part of the year , however, the Commissioners of the Board of Works caused it to resume its original name of
What may have been the origin of that name it is now somewhat
|difficult to decide. Close by the eastern end of this roadway there was till within the last few years a narrow canal or ditch winding its sluggish course from the Thames, across the , and through the fields and market-gardens, in a south-westerly direction. This ditch, although for the most part now filled up and obliterated, is the boundary line separating the counties of Kent and Surrey.|
It is said by historians that in order to reduce London, Knut cut a trench or canal through the marshes on the south of the Thames; and Maitland considered that he had discovered its course, from its
through the Spring Garden at , by the Black Prince at , and the south of , and across the , to its
It is quite possible that Maitland was rather credulous, like many other antiquaries and topographers; though certainly it ought to be added that he does not
but honestly gives his authority; for he says that he
which Maitland considers as
Allen adds, in his
a remark to the effect that
It has been suggested that the ditch here referred to may have been the same which we have mentioned above as passing by the end of ; and that there may have been near this spot, in very remote times, a
or landing-stage for the shipment of merchandise from the ancient
The trade of the Venetians in the spices and other merchandise which they brought overland from India and sent to London in their
has passed away; and few are reminded by the name of
in , that their proud argosies were once accustomed to ride at
|anchor there. It is just possible that there may have been a similar quay-or galley wall-at this spot for the use of the inhabitants of the south side of the Thames.|
It may be here remarked that in the early part of the present century there were pleasant walks about the and where we should now look in vain for rural enjoyments. The favourite route from to the was by way of the Halfpenny Hatch, the name of which is still retained, though the poplars and willows, and airy walks by the side of the small canals, are no more.
writes an enthusiastic cockney of our grandfathers' times,
The locality here referred to lies about midway between and , near the junction of Baalzephon and Hunter Streets.
We may remark here, by way of a conclusion to this chapter, that and are both well matched in point of filth, dirt, and unsavoury smells with their neighbour across the river--Wapping. But squalid as is their general appearance, they abound in wealth, the fruits of industry and labour, no inconsiderable portion of it their own, while the remainder is stored up and warehoused within their boundaries for the convenience of their richer neighbours.
[extra_illustrations.6.118.1] Ancient Houses in Long Walk, Bermondsey
[extra_illustrations.6.118.2] Arms and Seals of Abbey of Bermondsey
[extra_illustrations.6.118.3] East Gate of Abbey of Bermondsey
[extra_illustrations.6.118.4] Abbey of Bermondsey
[extra_illustrations.6.121.1] The church of St. Mary Magdalen
 See Vol. I., p. 243.
[extra_illustrations.6.125.1] Bricklayers' Arms Station
 See Vol. V., p. 469.
[extra_illustrations.6.130.1] the Jamaica,
[extra_illustrations.6.130.2] church of St. James