Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
1.  The vast peninsula called by the westerns is as big as all Europe west of Russia, and includes as many differences of race, tongue, manners, civilisation, climate, and productions as Europe itself. Geographically it is divided into the Mountain district of the Himalayas, which cuts it off from Asia proper by a double wall of snow, the great plain of the North, or Hindostan, watered by the Ganges and Indus, and, south of the Vindhya Mountains, the southern table-land of the Deccan peninsula.  The oldest historical inhabitants were flat-nosed savages, whose descendants still remain in the wild hill tribes, some still in their ancient barbarism, but others settled down to peaceful life, and showing trustworthiness and bravery as soldiers.  Long before recorded history begins, North-west was invaded by a small body of fair-skinned Aryans, with both a vernacular and a sacred tongue (Sanskrit) akin to those of Europe, and enjoying a primitive civilisation of the same origin as our own. They enslaved many of their forerunners, and drove the rest into the hills and into the south, and, gradually civilising and blending with their dependants, there grew up the mixed but Aryan-speaking Hindu races of Northern and Western . The stationary civilisation which grew up in Aryan Hindostan was due to the growth of a rigid caste system, at once the social and religious basis of life, which built up impassable walls between the
high castes, proud of their less tainted Aryan blood, and headed by the noble Brahmans, and the
low castes, who in feature, manners, and faith show the blood of the primitive non-Aryan folk. The Hindu mind soon practically abandoned the aristocratic worship of the Aryan gods of the Vedas for the worship of Vishnu the Preserver, and even Siva the Foul Destroyer, and for the local adoration of the formless gods of clay and rough-hewn stones that are venerated by the simple husbandmen. In the south the Dravidian non-Aryan tongues prevail, such as Tamil, Telugu, and Kanarese, and even the northern dialects like Hindi and Marathi show many traces of a non-Aryan commixture.
|But the variety of the conditions and the vastness of Indian distances bring out very wide differences in the Hindu stock. The fierce warlike clans preyed upon the easy-going peace-loving husbandmen organised into self-governing tribal village communities.|
2.  The history of , helpless in its mild population and tempting with its fancied wealth, is a long series of foreign invasions, beginning with the Greeks under Alexander and his successors. Early in the eleventh century the all-conquering Mohammedans of Central Asia first crossed the mighty mountain wall and carved out kingdoms for themselves in the rich plains beyond. Besides bringing in an exclusive caste of ruling foreigners, who with their Persian speech and semi-Turkish semi-Arab civilisation were cut off very sharply from their subjects, they forced a large minority of the northwestern states and a majority of the lower Bengalis to turn to the faith of Islam.  A long series of conquests from Mahmud of Ghazni and Timur culminated in the invasion of Babar (the Lion) in , the founder of the Mogul (Mughal) Empire, which under his grandson Akbar the Great () became a mighty power ruling the vast plains of the north through a careful civil and military organisation, and raising a greater revenue from them than has ever since been drawn from the same districts. Under Jahangir () and Shah Jahan () the Empire continued to flourish, and extended its conquests to the Deccan. Aurangzeb () was the last great Mogul Emperor. But he wasted his strength in the vain effort to consolidate his rule in the south, and after his death the Empire fell asunder.
3.  A great Hindu revival had begun with the career of Sivaji, the leader of the warlike Marathas (), whose descendants soon fell into sloth and impotence as Rajas of Satara, leaving the real lordship of the people to the Peshwa, or hereditary prime minister, who ruled at Poona, over nearly all Southern , and extended his ravages as far north as the Punjab. But the hardy Afghans came to the help of the Mohammedans of , and internal dissensions broke up the unity of the Maratha power, though even in their decay they remained the greatest military influence in Central . The high Brahman Peshwa sank to be the local lord of Poona, and the titular head of a so called
of five Maratha houses, whose other chieftains were of humble stock like the low-caste warriors who made up the real strength of the Marathas. In the north lines of chiefs named Sindhia and Holkar, sprung respectively from a slipper-bearer and a shepherd, ruled over fertile Malwa at Gwalior and Indore. The Bhonslas of Nagpur bore sway over Berar and Central , and by their conquest of Orissa threatened Bengal. The Gaekwars of Baroda governed a rich though scattered territory in Gujarat and Kathiawar. Bit by bit the Marathas ceased to be freebooters and became rulers and conquerors.
4.  The degenerate lords of Delhi, after losing Afghan assistance became in turns dependent on the English and the Marathas. The Viceroys of the Moguls had now become for all real purposes sovereign chiefs. Beyond the Vindhyas the Nizam-ul-Mulkh (Regulator of the State), whose capital was Haidarabad, was nominally Subadhar or Viceroy of the Mogul Emperors in all Southern , but his power was circumscribed by the Bhonsla on the north, and the Hindu Rajas of Mysore, Trichinopoli, and a swarm of petty hill chieftains on the south. Even his own vassal, the Nawab of Arcot, lord of the Karnatik, acted quite independently of him. In the north the Nawabs were equally free to do what they would, but power easily dropped from their nerveless hands to any strong adventurer. It was thus that the Arcot and Bengal succession questions became, as we have seen, the occasions for the fierce rivalry of French and English, and the triumph of over Dupleix, which made the English Company the virtual ruler of Bengal. Higher up the Ganges ruled the Mohammedan Wazirs of Oudh. In the extreme north the Punjab became the possession of the Sikhs, a martial sect of reforming Hindu Puritans, who taught the unity of God and the duty of living a pure life, and rejected caste altogether. To their south the high- caste chieftains of Rajputana had been the first to lead the Hindu revolt against the Moguls.
The death of Aurangzeb began the confusion, which culminated in , when the defeat of the Marathas at Panipat by the Afghans, leagued with their Moslem brethren of , prevented the further growth of the Maratha power, though it was powerless to restore the tottering Mogul Empire. Everywhere were anarchy and confusion, warfare and brigandage. Population fell off, till
|there were hardly men enough left to till the fields. Such was the state of things which made possible a European conquest of . The triumph of over Dupleix had already settled that England, not France, should win the prize.|
5.  Plassey and Wandewash gave the East Company a supremacy over Bengal and the Karnatik, but in no way enlarged their territorial possessions. For nearly forty more years the Governor of Madras ruled over little beyond the town and factories. The Governor of had not even an ascendency until the end of the century. Even in Bengal the only legal change was the grant by Mir Jafar of the zamindari or right of collecting the rents of the cultivators in the Twenty-four Parganas (the district round Calcutta), and where they were after the feudal subjects of himself, who received from the Emperor the jagir or military fief of the same district, an arrangement only ended after 's death.
 From to 's presence as Governor of the Calcutta factory ensured the keeping up of the English supremacy, but from to he was away in England. During this period the greedy officials sought only to turn the Company's position into a means of heaping up ill-gotten fortunes from the helpless Bengalis, and managed so badly that they drove the new Nawb Mir Kasim, son-in-law of Mir Jafar, to break with the Company. Mir Kasim now went to war, massacred 200 English at Patna, and formed an alliance with the Nawab Wazir of Oudh and Shah Alam, the new Emperor. But the English were still the stronger. In the Nawab was badly beaten at the decisive battle of Baxar, which laid not only Bengal, but Oudh and the Emperor himself, at the feet of the Company.
6.  In (now a peer) came back as Governor, and by giving the districts of Allahabad and Kora, which made up most of the Doab (the region between the Jumna and the Ganges), back to the Emperor, and restoring the Nawab Wazir to Oudh, he got ShAh Alam to grant the Company the Diwani or fiscal administration of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, though the Nizamat or criminal jurisdiction still remained with the puppet Nawab at Murshidabad. 's other great work was to stop the monstrous corruption which had resulted from every servant of the Company engaging in private trade and receiving presents from the natives. He compensated
|the unwilling and mutinous civilians and officers by a large increase to their hitherto scanty pay. Thus he laid the foundations both of our territorial Empire and of our system of administration. But his Dual System of government, by which the Company and the Nawab were still joint rulers, and corrupt native underlings still collected the revenue from the suffering and patient cultivators, soon proved a complete failure. Yet it bridged over the transition from a state of affairs very similar to our present position in Egypt, to a time when Bengal became in name as well as in deed a possession of the Company. Anyhow it was a great improvement on the mere anarchy and robbery of the times between , and the violent attacks which embittered the closing years of 's life were inspired by the jobbers and robbers that he had curbed in their evil deeds.|
 In died of his own hand. He was in person
He suffered terribly from nervous depression and from weak health. He was simple and soldierly in his manner, and won enormous influence over the natives, though he never spoke their tongues. He was not untouched by the laxity and unscrupulousness of Indian politics, nor did he disdain to build up a mighty fortune for himself, but his whole influence made for efficiency, justice, and sound government. He was the founder of our Indian Empire.
7. The Dual System lasted from to . In a terrible famine cut off a third of the population of Bengal, and the Company's finances fell into a sorry plight. This led the sluggish Directors in Leadenhall Street to complete their work as rulers. In they appointed Warren Governor of Bengal to give effect to their new resolution to
Warren , born in , was sprung from a Worcestershire family of old descent, but of complete poverty, and, losing his father young, had been sent out to by an uncle. He soon got known as a hardworking
and able civilian.  Disgusted at the mismanagement in the
days of anarchy, he had gone back to England in , but
was sent out again in as a member of the
Madras Council. He was |
living a life very different from the riotous disorder of most of the Company's agents,
He was dignified, liberal, proud of his descent, and somewhat reserved; but of warm affections, playful and kindly among his friends, and fond of amusing himself by writing bad verses. He had great ambition, and was, like Chatham, thoroughly conscious of his great powers. He ruled till , and proved the organiser and consolidator of our Empire, and one of the greatest Englishmen that have ever lived.
8.  From to controlled the destinies of British . He abolished 's system, and by appointing European collectors to every district, establishing courts of justice and a police system, created the administrative system which has become one of the great glories of the British rule, and turned an Eastern despotism, exercised by Western merchants, into a stable, settled, and enlightened government. But he had to make Bengal pay, and found that his easiest way of getting money was by a brilliant foreign policy. He wisely cut down the enormous allowances of the Nawab, when he transferred the real government from Murshidabad to Calcutta.  Seeing that Shah Alam had now become a tool of the Marathas, he broke 's settlement of Allahabad and Kora to the Emperor, and for a vast sum allowed it to be occupied by the Wazir of Oudh, lending him British troops to put down in the ruthless Eastern way the brave resistance of the Rohillas, an Afghan brigand tribe that had lorded it brutally over the peasantry of the two provinces ().  He deprived Chait Singh, the vassal Raja of Benares, of his throne, on his resisting his demand to pay for a force of soldiers, and exacted an increased tribute from his nephew and successor ().  He charged the Begam or queen- mother of Oudh for abetting the Raja in his resistance, and extorted over a million from her (). Such acts shewed the vigour of his northern foreign
|policy, but the constant cry for gold from Leadenhall Street forced him to exact crushing tribute from his foes.|
9.  No sordid money-seeking cares marred the policy of in Southern . He found the English power at a low ebb, both at and Madras. The Presidency had lagged far behind the other two, but was now seeking to bring its greatest neighbour under its influence by setting up a friendly candidate for the throne of the Peshwa. The result was the First Mardtha War, in which the forces were thoroughly beaten until sent the Bengal army to their help, and set matters right by the rapid conquest of Gujarat, and the storming of the isolated and strongly fortified rock of Gwalior. But the Peshwa was put off with a pension, and all the English won in the strife were the petty places of Salsette and Elephanta.
 Formidable troubles threatened the very existence of the Madras Presidency, where the dependent Nawabs of the Karnatik were still suffered to rule, and even to have a foreign policy of their own. The outbreak of the American revolt found the French making an active effort to win back their position in . With this object they joined hands with Haidar Ali, a mercenary leader, who had in made a prisoner of his old master the Hindu Raja of Mysore, and was shewing himself a crafty statesman and a born soldier and leader of men in his careful, persistent, and successful efforts to make Mysore the great power of Southern . Haidar was a tall, robust, strong, active man of fair and florid complexion, a bold horseman, a skilful swordsman, and an unrivalled shot. He was a Mohammedan, but tolerant and kindly to his Hindu subjects. He now overran the Karnatik, frightening the trembling Nawab into a doubtful policy, defeating the English troops, and wasting the country up to the very gates of Madras.  The Madras army could do little, and again came to the rescue. He sent the veteran Sir Eyre to Madras, and on 1st July the victor of Wandewash won the hard-fought battle of Porto Novo, which saved Madras, though it left Haidar Ali's power unbroken. The old soldier held his own till his death in , and his son and successor, Tipu Sultan, carried on the fight till . But if Haidar was
Haidar had long lamented that Tipu's
As a child he slew, half in sport and half in fanatic fury, the sacred bulls of the Hindus, and as a man he proclaimed a holy war and shut up the Hindu temples.
The French proved but cautious and backward allies, and , though hampered by his subordinates, was able to cope with Tipu. The peace providing for the mutual restitution of conquests recognised the division of Southern between Mysore and the Company.
10.  The progress of the Company's sovereignty led Lord North to pass the Regulating Act, , the first intervention of the English State in the affairs of the Company. This turned the Governor of Bengal into the Governor-General of Bengal, and the chief ruler of the Company's possessions, with power to control the Governors of Madras and , provided him with a Council, and set up a Supreme Court of Justice at Calcutta.
 was rightly nominated the first Governor- General. The most prominent member of the new Council was Philip Francis, an able but factious War- Office clerk, often suspected of being the author of the Junius letters. The first Chief-Justice was Sir Elijah Impey.  as Chairman had only a casting vote, and Francis led the majority of his brethren in maliciously thwarting all his best-laid plans and most prudent schemes. The Bengalis thought ' power was gone, and his old enemy, the crafty and subtle Brahman financier Nand Komar (Nuncomar), plied the Council with tales, eagerly received, and lightly believed, of the Governor's illegal acts. In Nand Komar was tried, convicted, and hanged for forgery, an act in which Impey has been most unjustly accused of wresting the law to get rid of ' chief enemy. But bit by bit the opposition dropped off, and triumphed.
he proudly boasted,
He was now able to carry out his great schemes of administrative reform, which his enemies had so long thwarted. He only laid down power after 's Bill had brought about a new system which it was fitting that other hands should carry out. But on his return he found that the desperate and dispirited Whigs had greedily taken up the new cry which
Francis' malice furnished, and that the whole opposition, led by the generous but blind and misdirected fury
of Burke, was crying for his impeachment as
the wickedest of oppressors of the Indian
peoples.  Though brave King stoutly
upheld , himself had acquiesced in their proceedings (). The trial dragged on its slow length from
to , relieved only by the splendid speeches of
and Burke, managers of the impeachment for the
House of Commons. At last it ended with the complete
acquittal of the great Governor-General, who, ruined by law
expenses, lived henceforth on the bounty of the Directors
in calm and dignified retirement till his death at a green
old age in .  His own words before his accusers best
sum up his great work: |
11.  A new and better devised constitution for the Company's Dominion in was roughly sketched out by 's Bill, which became law in , and remained in force until .  Its leading principle was to draw a distinction between the Company as traders and the Company as rulers. Left to themselves to pursue their natural business, the Company was henceforwards checked and guided in its political acts by the Board of Control, a department of the Home Government. But the greater part of the initiative still rested with the Directors, and the Board, as a rule, only examined and ratified their acts. The result was that the effective Home Government of still rested with the Company, except in the spheres of war and diplomacy, where the power of starting plans lay with the Board of Control. But was still many months away from England, and just as it had been conquered by Indian agencies and Indian resources, so now its government had mostly to be carried on on the spot, and the whole Indian Executive, save the Commander-in-chief and King's troops lent to the Company, consisted of the servants of the Company, which had its own army, English and Sepoy, and its own navy as well as its own Civil Service. The Company still appointed even to the highest posts, but in those the Crown henceforth had a veto, and great English noblemen are henceforth as a rule appointed to the chief governorships.
12.  Lord , a painstaking though unlucky general, a careful and clear-headed politician, and a man of high and estimable character, now accepted the Governor-Generalship under the new system. Three great events mark his tenure of office, which completed and consummated the home and foreign policy of . They were the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, the reform of the Company's administration. and the second Mysore War.
Between in person carried on
|the Second Mysore War, having by his wise diplomacy got the Nizam and the Maratha chiefs to join him in the alliance against Tipu Sultan.  Such a combination could not be withstood, and, after Seringapatam, his capital, had been besieged, Tipu sought peace in despair, surrendering about half his dominion to his three enemies, and paying all the costs of the war.|
13.  In , now a marquis, went back to England, leaving as his successor the able and experienced civilian Sir John Shore, afterwards Lord Teignmouth, who had been his chief adviser in carrying out the Permanent Settlement.  In Shore was replaced by the extremely able and brilliant Irish nobleman, Lord Mornington, afterwards Marquis , the friend of and the elder brother of Arthur , afterwards Duke of . Despite the inordinate self-esteem which led him to scorn the advice of others, Mornington proved one of the greatest, most resourceful and successful of Indian rulers. He came with a definite external policy of withstanding Revolutionary France, which now made its last great attempt to bring back the glories of Dupleix and Lally. French officers were now drilling the huge but undisciplined hordes of Sindhia and the Nizam. Tipu Sultan planted
in Mysore, and was enrolled in a Republican club as
's expedition to Egypt was avowedly the first step to a grandiose scheme of Asiatic conquest, of which was plainly the final aim.
 Mornington saw that England's supremacy must be thoroughly established in . Despite all that had been done, our territorial possessions were, outside the Lower Ganges, very insignificant. The Marathas, with the puppet poet-emperor Shah Alam in their power, the Nizam of the Deccan, and Tipu, despite his recent defeat, were all powerful rivals. By direct annexations and by subsidiary treaties, which bound the native states which signed them to formal vassalage to the Company, Mornington sought to carry out his schemes of ascendency.
The Governor-General's success was brilliant. The treaty of Lucknow () secured for England the lower parts of the fertile Doab between the Ganges and Jumna along with Rohilkhand, and made the Nawab Wazir of Oudh acknowledge the English overlordship. Still earlier the Nizam had abandoned his French soldiers and sympathies,
|and had become the vassal and ally of the Company (). Tipu in the south, the Marathas in the north, alone resisted the new system.|
 In Mornington' offered Tipu, who had provoked him by hostile acts, the alternative of war or a subsidiary treaty. The lord of Mysore accepted the former, so that the same year saw war renewed in Europe, Egypt, and Southern .
failed more signally than his French allies.
General Harris besieged and stormed Seringapatam, and Tipu died a soldier's death at the gate of his citadel. His sons became respectable magistrates and citizens at Calcutta. His state, save some districts that went to the English and the Nizam, was handed over to the infant descendants of the Hindu Raja his father had deposed. Mornington now completed his successes by the complete annexation of the Karnatik, up to now still ruled by the Nawab of Arcot. The absorption of Tanjore completed the settlement of Southern . He had found the Presidency of Madras a scanty and scattered territory round the old factory of Fort St. George. He now extended it to almost its present limits. His services were recognised by the title of Marquis .
14.  The Marathas' power had received a great blow in the death of Madhaji Sindhia, who had built up a formidable kingdom in Central , extending as far northwards as Aligarh. They were now divided among themselves by internal factions. Holkar now drove the Peshwa out of Poona, and the fugitive Maratha chieftain concluded in the subsidiary Treaty of Bassein, by which he promised, if restored with English help, to become a vassal of the Company. But Sindhia and the Bhonsla were indignant that the old chief of the confederacy should turn traitor, and joined with Holkar in withstanding the invaders. The Second Maratha War was the result.
The result was that Sindhia and Bhonsla accepted subsidiary treaties, dismissed their French officers, and surrendered large slices of territory Sindhia gave up all his lands north of the Jumna to Shah Alam, henceforth ruling under English protection. The provinces of the north and north-west were joined with those previously ceded by Oudh in the separately administered
The Bhonsla yielded the lands he possessed in Orissa to the English, and gave up Berar to the faithful Nizam. The Peshwa was restored as an English vassal to Poona. Yet for two years longer the undaunted Holkar continued to uphold the Maratha cause, and drove Monson's force in panic flight through Central in and, , beat off Lake from the siege of Bhartpur, whose Raja had now made common cause with the Marathas. All through the war the Gaekwar, a boy, under the influence of the Government, remained neutral.
15.  A great cry was now raised against Wellesley and his subsidiary system by the same factious crew that had impeached and rejoiced over English defeats in France. The Directors were terribly alarmed at the responsibility and expected cost of the new system. Wellesley was rewarded by a cold recall, and in his old age was sent out a second time to satisfy the Whigs and the Economists by patching up peace on any terms and undoing the great achievements of his predecessor. But had only been a few weeks in when he succumbed to the dangers of the rainy season.  For the next two years, Sir , an insignificant civilian, ruled with little courage or skill, devoting himself mainly to financial details, but suffering Holkar to go unpunished for his contumacy. The mutiny of the Madras Sepoys at Vellore () was another proof of the decay of English energy.  In the Earl of Minto, a stronger ruler, was sent out, though still strictly committed by the Directors and the
|Government to a policy of non-intervention. The capture of Mauritius from the French and of Java from the Dutch gave some military glory to an otherwise uneventful rule. But nothing could destroy the fruits of Wellesley's triumphs, and, all against their will, the Company were forced by irresistible facts to accept their position as rulers of half , and suzerains of the rest.|
16.  In more stirring times began with the governor- generalship of Lord Moira, the friend of the Prince Regent, and after Marquis of Hastings.
 In a fierce struggle was carried on in the Lower Himalayas with the brave Gurkhas of Nepal, who were a danger and a trouble to our northern frontier, which ended in the cession of large tracts of the vast hill country, where were soon to spring up such health-stations as Naini-tal and Simla, as refuges from the sweltering heats of the plain of the Ganges.  In a vast army was set on foot to stamp out the bands of Pindaris or freebooters, who from their strongholds in Malwa had long spread havoc throughout Central , and were politically formidable from the hardly concealed sympathy of the Maratha chieftains.  Their defeat was immediately followed by the rising of Holkar, the Peshwa, and the Bhonsla against the English. But the defeat of Holkar at Mehidpur soon brought their resistance to an end. The Peshwa was degraded with a pension, and sent to Bithur, near Cawnpore; his forfeited dominions swelled out the little Presidency to the dimensions of a great state. Two children were set up at Indore and Nagpur to reign under British protection. The Central Provinces of a later period now had their beginning in the territories taken from the Pindaris. The warlike chieftains of Rajputana now accepted the English overlordship. But more important even than these conquests was the establishment of peace and sound government in the regions so long devastated by Marathas and Pindaris.
17.  A long period now sets in, during which the frontiers of British were but little enlarged, though important dealings were entered into with great foreign states beyond the limits of English influence, such as Burma and Afghanistan, and a new departure was made in administration and internal improvements. The rule of Lord , nephew of the favourite of Chatham and conqueror of Canada, is mainly remarkable by the First
|Burmese War, which first brought the English into relations with Further .  The Burmese, a people akin to the Chinese, and Buddhists in their faith, had long been encroaching on the extreme eastern possessions of the Company. The result was a long and destructive war, in which three British expeditions suffered terribly from the pestilential climate. But the king of Burma was forced to sign in the Treaty of Yandabu, which yielded up Assam on the Brahmaputra and the coast provinces of Arakan and Tennaserim to the English, Burma still retaining the whole valley of the Irawadi down to the sea. A disputed succession now brought about a new war with Bhartpur, and in the hitherto impregnable city, which had defied Lake in , was captured by the skilful undermining of its solid walls of mud.|
18.  The courageous, high-minded, and unaffected Lord William (younger son of the third Duke of Portland, Prime Minister in and ), who had been Governor of Madras during the stormy days of the mutiny at Vellore (), was the next Governor-General. His first work was to restore the finances, terribly disturbed by the vast expenses of the Burmese War. But his economies and his efforts to extend freedom of speech and writing, and to give greater facilities for entering the public service to the native races, aroused the class-feelings of the English civilians and officers, and nothing but the active support of the Directors and the Grey ministry enabled to carry through his policy. In he had the courage to put down the ancient Hindu custom of Sati(Suttee) or widow-burning, despite the outcry of Hindus and Anglo-Indians, who thought that a revolt would follow an attack on a long-cherished superstition. He also stamped out Thagi, and rooted out the brotherhoods of Thags (Thugs) or hereditary murderers, who had wandered over the country in disguise and made a trade of strangling. He removed the old restrictions on missionaries, and took off the disabilities imposed by the Company on native Christians. He encouraged steam navigation on the Ganges. In the Company's Charter was renewed on terms which fitted in with the liberal character of 's acts. The Company ceased to trade, and allowed Europeans to settle.
The new charter added a
to the Council, and appointed a commission to codify Indian law, coming out as the first legal councillor and president
of the commission. set his face against all
forward policy. His only permanent annexation was Coorg,
in which he believed he had the good-will of the inhabitants.
But he had to put Mysore for a time under British administration. It only got back native rule in . 's
great administrative work was organising the Lieutenant-
Governorship of the North- West Provinces, with Agra as the
capital, out of the |
of Wellesley's time. With 's advice and approval, he sought to educate the higher classes of the native races in Western Literature and the English language. 's inscription on his statue at Calcutta shows what his friends thought of him:
It was the fault of his time and training that he sometimes carried out those great aims in a rather too Western way for .
19.  Sir ably ruled during the interregnum, which was at last ended by the nomination of Lord Auckland by the Ministry. It was now that the dread of Russian advance in Central Asia first seized upon Indian statesmen, and inspired Auckland to a policy which brought about the greatest disasters that have ever befallen the British arms in .  Russian agents had won over the Persians to their side and were now intriguing in Afghanistan, a mountainous country inhabited by scattered Aryan tribes of warlike and fanatical Mohammedans, who of old had been united under the Durani kings descended from Ahmed Shah, the victor of Panipat. But in the Durani line had been driven from Kabul and Kandahar, and only held its own with difficulty in western Herat. Dost Mohammed now usurped the throne of Kabul under the title of Amir. He was a man of graceful person, bold and frank manner, intelligent, brave, unscrupulous, and self-disciplined. His friendship was worth winning, but better terms turned him from the English to the Russian alliance. Auckland thereupon resolved to drive him out of his throne and restore Shah Shuja, his rival, then an exile in British . It was a task both dangerous and unnecessary, for the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab and the lands of the Amirs of Sind lay between the British Indian frontier and Afghnistan. These however were won over.
20.  Ellenborough continued Governor-General until . With all his vanity and love for vain show, he was a vigorous and active-minded man, bent on putting down abuses, and anxious for the credit of England. He now became involved in hostilities with the three Baluchi Amirs of Sind, the
of the Lower Indus. In a war could not be
|put off, and Sir Charles Napier, an heroic, enthusiastic, and talented soldier, the foremost of a noble family, led The Conquest of an eight-days' march through the burning desert Sind . which divided Sind from British territory. On 17th February his 2500 soldiers won the Battle of Miani, near Haiderabad.|
Sind was now annexed to the Presidency, and Napier as its first Commissioner laid the basis of its future prosperity. In a new Gwalior war brought the infant Sindhia into greater dependence on his British overlords. But in the Directors recalled Ellenborough in spite of .
who had crushed the Sikh confederacies into a well-ordered des potism, and had organised a strong, steady, and enthusiastic army of Sikh devotees, but had always kept on good terms with the English. The Punjab was thrown into confusion, and the powerful army was eager to try its strength with the power that had failed so signally in Afghanistan.
By the treaty which followed a tract of land was ceded to the British, a war indemnity paid, and the Sikh army
|reduced. The infant Maharja Dhulip Singh, son of Ranjit, was recognised as ruler of the Punjab under his mother's regency, but Major Henry Lawrence, the noble brother of , was appointed Resident at Lahore. Before long, however, the Regent's rule working badly, further powers were extended to Lawrence.|
22.  From to was ruled by the Earl of Dalhousie, whose government proved more eventful than any since the days of Wellesley, both as regards extension of territory and internal progress. His first great difficulty was a great revolt in the Punjab. The high-spirited Sikhs had borne with the utmost impatience the loss of their independence, and cried violently against the treachery which, they thought, had undone the valour of their armies.  The murder of two officers, Agnew and Anderson, at Multan was the prelude to a general rising.
 The Punjab was now annexed, and the energy of Dalhousie, well seconded by Henry and John Lawrence, built up the
of mixed military and civil rulers for its administration.
 In was fought the Second Burmese War, springing from the bad treatment of some of our merchants chants at Rangoon, and resulting in the annexation of Pegu or Lower Burma, including the great trading station of Rangoon.
More characteristic of Dalhousie's rule was the wholesale annexation of protected states. Disregarding as a solemn deceit the universally recognised Hindu custom of adoption, he laid down his famous
and Dalhousie's Docfreely absorbed states whose rulers' bodily heirs trine of Lapse. had died out. In he seized Satara, the lordship of the descendants of Sivaji. In Nagpur was absorbed on the death of the last of the Bhonslas, and became the nucleus of the Central Provinces. In the same year the little Maratha
state of Jhansi was similarly absorbed. It was also in
that the Nizam assigned over the Berars, henceforth called
to the Company as the pledge for his arrears of military subsidies. In Dalhousie forcibly annexed Oudh, a step rendered necessary by the shameful misgovernment of the last of the Nawab Wazirs, since called Kings of Oudh, but in the settlement scant respect was paid to the rights of the Talukdars, a wealthy class of landed gentry. By these annexations the modern boundaries of British were in substance attained. Moreover, many mediatised princes (princes who had lost their sovereign rights) were docked of their pensions or denied their old dignities, Dalhousie in particular refusing to recognise Nana Sahib, the adopted heir of the last of the Peshwas.
 Dalhousie was as great in administration as in conquest. In Lower Burma, as in the Punjab, his new system marks an epoch. He established the Public Works Department, brought in canals, roads, cheap postage and telegraphs. He founded the Indian railway system. He completed the Ganges Canal. He opened up the Civil Service to the competition of all British subjects, without distinction of race. He furthered education and promoted trade and commerce. But though not much over forty, his health gave way amidst his strenuous labours in an Indian climate, and in he went home to die. His policy has been severely criticised, but his annexations sprang from no mere lust of conquest, but from the over- powering necessities of the situation. Some lack of imagination and want of sympathy for Oriental methods and ideals may have existed in his strong, stern, practical mind, and the swift rush of his reforms did not always sufficiently take into account the unconquerable conservatism of and the strength of local prejudice. His love of autocracy suffered no rivals, and his disagreement with Sir Charles Napier, the conqueror of Sind, who, sent out by as Commander-in-chief to retrieve the disaster of Chilianwala, and, finding the war ended, had busied himself with much-needed military reforms, led to Napier's retirement in disgust. But with all allowances Dalhousie remains among the greatest and most successful of Anglo-Indian statesmen.
was Napier's prediction,
The new Governor-General, Lord , the son of George , a reserved, clear-headed man, had been little over a year in when a formidable mutiny
of the native army of Bengal placed British rule in
in the utmost peril.  had been stripped of English
troops to carry on a little war against Persia,
which state was again threatening Herat and
hearkening to Russian intrigues. The Queen's regiments
sent to the Crimea had not been replaced, and the ablest
English officers had been drawn from the native regiments
to act as administrators of newly-annexed districts. The
Bengal army had been pampered and spoiled by foolish
indulgences. The high-caste Hindus declared that they
were ill-treated by 's new enlistment orders, necessitated by the Burmese annexation and the like, which
made all Indian troops liable to be sent across the |
of the ocean. The new Enfield rifle required greased cartridges, the end of which the soldier had to bite off before loading. But the punctilious Brahman and bigoted Mussulman came to believe that the new ammunition was greased with the sacred fat of cows and the contaminating lard of swine. A rumour arose that the Government meant to rob the Hindu of his caste and creed. In vain explanations were given, and the greased cartridges recalled. The fears of a suspicious race were not easily allayed, and a new alarm was raised that the shiny paper of the cartridge packets owed its gloss to the same polluted source. A wild religious panic broke up the habits of years, and with reckless abandonment of professional pride and worldly prospects, to the astonishment of the oldest officers, a mutiny was skilfully and secretly planned. Mussulman and Brahman co-operated against the English rule, and the Bengal army broke into open revolt.
24.  The mutiny sealed the fate of the East Company, whose political power by a strange anomaly had outlived its trading days. Though useful for checking the over-zeal of aggressive Viceroys by its uniform anxiety for an unadventurous and peaceful policy, it led in many ways to divided control, and prevented direct responsibility. In the Derby Ministry carried the Bill under which the great dependency has since been governed, despite the dignified protest of the Company.
25.  appropriately became the First Viceroy under the new system, and on 1st November proclaimed the Queen's direct sovereignty in a great darbar at Allahabad. A new series of economical, financial, and legal reforms brought in happily the new state of things.
 In went home, dying within a month of his arrival in England. Lord Elgin now became Viceroy, but died in , when Sir John (afterwards Lord) Lawrence became the ruler of the Empire that more than any single man he had saved.  During his government further annexations were severely discouraged, though in the Bhutan War involved a fresh extension of the frontier. In a terrible famine devastated Orissa.  Lord Mayo now became Viceroy, and set to work with great energy to extend public works and develop the material and commercial resources of . But his vast activity was prematurely cut off by his murder in the Andaman Islands, where he had gone on a visit to the convict settlement.  Lord Northbrook now governed from to . His administration was marked by great financial changes, and by the successful grappling with a threatened famine in Bengal in . In the Gaekwar was deposed for disloyalty
|and maladministration, but, faithful to the new non-annexation policy, Baroda was handed on to a new infant ruler of the same stock. It was hoped by the visit of the Prince of Wales to in to develop the loyalty of the vassal princes.|
26.  Fresh troubles had long been brewing in Afghanistan. The death of Dost Mohammed was followed by sanguinary strife for his succession, but in his third son, Shir Ali, established himself as Amir, and in held an interview with Lord Mayo, who recognised his position but refused to support his efforts to win the succession for his favourite son, preferring, on Lawrence's principles, to leave Afghanistan to itself. Northbrook carried out the same policy, but a new school of Indian Governors had now grown up represented by Sir Bartle Frere and Sir Henry Rawlinson, who persuaded the Government that it was of the utmost importance that English residents should be maintained in the chief Afghan cities as the best means of counteracting the intrigues of Russia, now slowly but surely conquering the brigand states of Turkestan, and, like England, of necessity embarked on a career of Asiatic conquest.  On Northbrook's resignation sent Lord Lytton, a diplomatist, son of the brilliant and popular novelist, to to carry out the new ideas.
27.  In Lytton had heralded the new forward policy by the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of at Delhi. In the very same year a severe famine cut off over 5,000,000 souls in Southern . In Lytton resigned with the Conservatives, and the Marquis of succeeded him as a Liberal Viceroy. Besides the abandonment of Afghanistan, 's government was marked by the restoration of Mysore to its native Raja, by unbroken peace and great internal changes. The miserable vernacular press was allowed a liberty that quickly became licence. Local self-government was widely extended, even to country districts, always to the disadvantage of local administration. Important steps were taken towards extending education, developing agriculture, and reforming the land revenue so as to secure the cultivator the fruits of his industry both against the state and the Zamindars.
 In Lord Dufferin succeeded . The great event of his government was the annexation of Upper Burma in , a step rendered necessary by the mad tyranny of King Thebau.  In Lord Dufferin returned to England, and was suc ceeded by the Marquis of Lansdowne.
28.  At the time of the Queen's Jubilee, British consisted of 235 Districts, each under a Collector- Magistrate (Regulation District) or Deputy Commissioner (Non-Regulation District). Except in Madras these Districts are grouped into Divisions under a Commissioner. The highest unit of government is the Province, including the old Presidencies of Madras and (each with a Governor sent from England, and a separate army and civil service of their own) and the other Provinces,
|most directly under the Viceroy, who is however supreme everywhere. These are Bengal, the North- Western Provinces, and the Punjab (each ruled by a Lieutenant-Governor), and Assam, Oudh, the Central Provinces, and Burma (each under a Chief Commissioner), together with some smaller irregular districts, under Commissioners. In these regions were inhabited by 200,000,000 inhabitants, while 56,000,000 more dwell in the protected states. This enormous mass of human beings now enjoys a peace and material prosperity such as was never known in before. A noble series of public works, railways, roads, canals, bridges, have brought districts together, opened up new trade routes, and given means for warring against want and famine. Great irrigation schemes have made the harvests more regular and the fields more fertile. Population, however, grows with great rapidity, now that the old checks of war, pestilence, famine, widow-seclusion, and child-murder are all but done away with. Manufactures, however, are springing up to take away some of the surplus population from the soil, and in the great industrial cities of modern the stationary stage of civilisation has almost been outgrown. , with its cotton-mills, is becoming an Indian , and the jute factories of Calcutta bid fair to rival Dundee. The coal-mines of Raniganj supply Bengal with fuel. But the mass of the population still live their old life, tilling the soil, and worshipping their gods as their fathers have done, and quite untouched by the marks of busy Western life around them, though finding now a market in Europe for their wheat and cotton, and cultivating fresh articles like tea for the same markets. Nothing is more wonderful than the constant contrast of old and new, east and west, which British presents. We must go back to the eastern parts of the old Roman Empire in its palmy days to find its like. The conquest of is one of the greatest achievements of Englishmen. Its government by them is still more creditable and wonderful.|
 India and its peoples.
 The Non-Aryans.
 The Aryans.
 The Hindu race.
 The Mohammedan rule.
 The Mogul Empire, 1526-1707.
 The Marathas, 1674-1761.
 The five Maratha states.
 India on the eve of the British Conquest.
 The English supremacy.
 The period of anarchy, 1760-1765.
 The Dual System, 1765-1772.
 Death and Character of Clive, 1774.
 Warren Hastings,1732-1818.
 The Begam.
 The First Maratha War, 1778-82.
 Haidar Ali.
 The First Mysore War, 1778-84.
 Regulating Act, 1773.
 Hastings the First Governor-General of Bengal, 1774-85.
 Hastings and Francis, 1774-80.
 Impeachment of Hastings, 1786-95.
 His work.
 Pitt's India Bill, 1784.
 The Double Government, 1784-1858.
 Cornwallis Governor-General, 1786-93.
 Second Mysore War, 1790-92.
 Sir John Shore, 1793-98.
 The Marquis Wellesley, 1798-1805.
 The system of Subsidiary Treaties.
 Third Mysore War, 1799.
 Second Maratha War, 1802-4.
 Cornwallis' Second Government, 1805.
 Sir George Barlow, 1805-7.
 Lord Minto, 1807-13.
 The Marquis of Hastings, 1814-23.
 Nepal War, 1814-15.
 The Pindaris, 1817.
 Third Maratha War, 1817-18.
 Lord Amherst, 1823-28.
 First Burmese War, 1824-26.
 Lord William Bentinck, 1828-35.
 Lord Auckland, 1836-42.
 Lord Ellenborough, 1842-44.
 Lord Hardinge, 1844-48.
 First Sikh War, 1845.
 Lord Dalhousie, 1848-56.
 Second Sikh War, 1848-49.
 Annexation of the Punjab, 1849.
 Second Burmese War, 1852.
 Dalhousie's civil administration.
 Earl Canning, 1856-62.
 Causes of the Mutiny.
 End of the India Company. India under the Crown, 1858.
 Lord Canning Viceroy, 1858-62.
 Lord Elgin, 1862-63.
 Sir John Lawrence, 1864-69.
 Lord Mayo, 1869-72.
 Lord Northbrook, 1872-76.
 Afghan troubles, 1868-78.
 Lord Lytton, 1876-80.
 Marquis of Ripon, 1880-84.
 Lord Dufferin, 1884-88.
 Marquis of Lansdowne, 1888.
 India in 1887.
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|PART III: BOOK VIII|
BOOK IX: 1760-1820, INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I: George III's First Struggles for Power,1760-1782
CHAPTER II: George III, the American Revolution, and the younger Pitt, 1765-1789
CHAPTER III: Great Britain during the Eighteenth Century, The Industrial Revolution
CHAPTER IV: George III. The War against the French Revolution, 1789-1802
CHAPTER V: Ireland in the Eighteenth Century
CHAPTER VI: George III The Struggle against Napoleon, 1803-1815 the Regency, 1810-1820
BOOK X: 1820-1887 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I: George IV, 1820-1830
CHAPTER II: William IV, 1830-1837
CHAPTER III: Victoria - Melbourne and Peel 1837-1846
CHAPTER IV: Victoria - Russell and Palmerston 1846-1865
CHAPTER V: Victoria - Gladstone and Disraeli, 1865-1887
CHAPTER VI: The United Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century