History of England, Part III, William and Mary to 1887
Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
CHAPTER I: William and Mary (1689-1694) William III (1689-1702).
1.  's first business was to choose his ministers. Called in by a body of Whig and Tory gentlemen, he would not be the king of one party, and took care that both should be represented in his cabinet. The chief Tory ministers were Danby, now President of the Council and Marquis of Carmarthen, and Daniel Finch, Earl of Nottingham, Secretary of State. Nottingham was a very strong churchman. In appearance he was
so that he was called Don Diego Dismallo by the Whig wits. Sidney, Lord , who had been with to the
last, soon became First Lord of the Treasury. He was |
His quiet business-like habits, great knowledge of figures, and unobtrusive usefulness soon made him as necessary to as to . Halifax, as Privy Seal, represented the Trimmers. The most prominent Whig was the young Earl of Shrewsbury, who combined great ability with
But the chief household posts were given to 's old friends from Holland, such as the trusty William Bentinck, soon Earl of Portland, with his
that won more recognition abroad than with the churlish English, and the more brilliant Arnold Joost van Keppel, after Earl of Albemarle, a
Lord Churchill was now made Earl of . himself had no notion of reigning without governing; his long and wide experience of foreign affairs led him to act as his own foreign minister: all the strings even of home policy remained in his hands, though here he knew less when and how to act.
2.  The Convention, as in , was turned into a Parliament. The king was granted the to support his household, but parliamentary grants were henceforth made from year to year, so that the king was now forced to have a session of Parliament every year. The same object was also got by passing for a short period a , which allowed the king to keep discipline in the army by military law. The abolition of the harsh and burdensome relieved the poor. The Dissenters were rewarded by the , which gave Protestants who believed in the Trinity the right to worship in their own chapels. But the harsh Clarendon Code, though relaxed, was not repealed. No one was willing to relieve the papists, and a to bring back moderate Dissenters to the Church was thrown out through the opposition of the clergy and the languid interest of the Dissenters themselves. A new Oath of Allegiance was forced on all office-holders in Church and State. Many of the clergy scrupled to take it, and were turned out of their livings. Thus arose the schism of the , which was saved from being formidable by very few laymen following the 300 clergy who refused
|to swear allegiance to and . Among the Non-jurors were Archbishop Sancroft and the holy Bishop Ken. filled up their places from the party now beginning to be called , or Tillotson, Dean of St. Paul's, a liberal and fair-minded man and a polished though cold preacher, became Archbishop of Canterbury. The active, fussy, good-natured Whig partisan, Gilbert Burnet, a famous writer and preacher, was made Bishop of Salisbury. The clergy, who were the great majority, and who followed more closely on the footsteps of Laud, strongly disliked 's Church policy. But the mass of them took the oaths, though without giving up their old theories of divine right and passive obedience. They still had a strong hold over the people.|
The was now turned into the the last of the great charters of English liberty.
The Convention Parliament was dissolved in January , after wild debates and much excitement. Many Tories were now sorry for the Revolution, and wished back, while the extreme Whigs attacked almost as fiercely as his uncle. The had already lost his popularity. Rival factions, war in Scotland, Ireland, and the Continent made a bad beginning for his reign.
3.  In Scotland the fall of the was hailed with general delight. Popular disturbances broke out everywhere. On Christmas Day the (as the Episcopalian ministers were called) were, in many cases, that is, driven out with violence and insult from their churches and manses. A was summoned as in England, and sat in Edinburgh, while the Duke of Gordon held the castle for King , and a Cameronian rabble poured in from the fervid south-west. The Duke of Hamilton became President of the Convention, where Whig feeling rose so high that
Graham of Claverhouse (now Viscount Dundee) withdrew
with his party in disgust. It was resolved that
had the Scottish Crown, and a was
drawn up, which declared that |
On 11th May and accepted the Scottish throne, and, with uplifted right hands, took the coronation oath in the noble Banqueting-House at Whitehall. In the General Assembly of the Church (the first since ) again set up the Presbyterian system. The bishops and non-juring ministers formed a separate Church of their own, strongly (friendly to King ), and bitterly persecuted. But even hotter against the new settlement than the Scottish Episcopalians were the extreme Covenanters, indignant that the Westminster Confession, and not the Covenant, was the standard adopted by the Assembly. They rejected the Erastian Church and the un-Covenanted king, and sought by secession to keep alive the true spirit of their teacher Cameron. 's adviser in Scottish Church affairs was the wise and cautious minister William Carstares, his chaplain, who had such influence over him that he was called
Lord Melville at first acted for in State affairs, but had much trouble with the factious of Whig malcontents (who aimed at an aristocratic republic) led by Hume of Polwarth and Fletcher of Salton. But the government soon passed to the stronger hands of James Dalrymple, Lord President of the Court of Session (the head of the Scotch judges), and Viscount Stair, and his son John, the Master of Stair, now Secretary for Scotland.
 Celtic Scotland paid little heed to the acts of the Convention. But when Dundee left Edinburgh, he betook himself to the Highlands, and easily persuaded the Macdonalds, Camerons, Macleans, and Stewarts of Appin (the same clans that from the same motives had once followed Montrose), that the turning out of King James would mean bringing back to power their hated enemies the greedy and cunning Campbells, whose chief, (son of the earl executed in ) now again ruled in the west. A large Highland army soon gathered round him. At first it did little. But a family quarrel among the Murrays of Atholl brought both Dundee with the clansmen, and General Mackay with King 's
|regular troops, into the Perthshire Highlands.  Dundee secured Blair Atholl; but Mackay's forces were already threading the Pass of Killiecrankie (the chief road from Perth into the Highlands), a few miles to the south-east. On 27th July a battle was fought near the summit of the pass. The Lowlanders gave way at the fierce Highland rush, but Dundee was slain in the moment of victory. Mackay showed great coolness in rallying his scattered soldiers. The stern piety of the newly raised Cameronian regiment beat off the clansmen from the walls of Dunkeld. The Highlanders went home, each man to his own house, and was undisputed King of Scots.|
 Measures were taken to pacify the Highlanders. But the favour shown to the Whiggish Campbells still more disgusted their rivals the Macdonalds. When the order came that all were to swear, before the end of , to live peaceably under King , Mac Ian, chief of the Macdonalds of Glencoe, made it a point of honour to hold out as long as he could, though a few days after the time fixed he came in and took the oath. But the Campbells had now their chance to pay off old scores, and the Master of Stair thought no harm in helping them, and was glad to frighten, by a stern example, the wild Highland savages. Through him signed an order that,
that is, the tribe of Glencoe. A gang of soldiers from 's own regiment carried out this command by a brutal and treacherous massacre of all the clan they could lay their hands on (), after having been kindly entertained by them for a week. was severely blamed for his order, but the worst guilt of the murders rests with John Dalrymple and the Campbells. Yet the harsh lesson kept the Highlands in peace for a generation.
4.  Tyrconnel's government had brought Ireland back into Catholic hands, though, in his zeal to get rid of Protestantism, he had almost destroyed the English ascendency, and was now proposing to repeal the Act of Settlement, and give back the land to the old Irish landlords. After the English Revolution the last check was withdrawn, and Tyrconnel began to aim openly at the restoration of Irish independence. In great alarm the Protestants rushed to arms. At Enniskillen and Londonderry the best and bravest of Ulster Protestantism gathered together to withstand their revolted servants.
| as an Englishman had no sympathy with
Tyrconnel and the Irish; but their common Catholicism still
kept them together. He left France for Ireland, and on
12th March landed at Kinsale, bringing with him some
French troops, and the Count of Avaux, as ambassador,
whose great aim was to |
But soon saw that there were only two parties in Ireland, the national Irish party, who cared nothing for him personally, but supported him as a Catholic and as the best way of getting French help against the English, and the Protestant party, who hated him and his creed, and looked for salvation from William of Orange. This was soon seen when an Irish parliament met in Dublin, including hardly any but Catholics. It declared war against the Englishry by repealing the Acts of Settlement and Explanation, and drew up a great Act of Attainder which took in over 2000 people. To make up for his want of money, issued a debased coinage of brass and copper, which was to pass as if it had been silver.
A deadly war of race and religion now burst out. The Protestant strongholds at Enniskillen and Londonderry held out bravely. The feeble walls of were besieged by a great French and Catholic army, and a boom cut off all access from the sea and the English fleet.  Provisions ran short, but the starving garrison, under the leading of Walker, a clergyman (afterwards made Bishop of for his gallantry), kept body and soul together on whatever garbage they could get, and refused to surrender. At last on 30th July a merchant ship sailed up Lough Foyle and broke the boom. The Catholic army at once raised the siege. Three days later the men of Enniskillen fought and won the .
General Schomberg, who as a young man had led the Portuguese to victory against Spain, and now in his old age had been turned out of France for his Protestantism, was at last sent with an English army to Ireland, and encamped near Dundalk. But a terrible sickness raged in his army, and he could do nothing. Next year () himself went to Ireland. Landing at Carrickfergus, he advanced rapidly towards Dublin. resolved to hold the line of the river Boyne, which, dividing the counties of Louth and Meath, runs into the sea just below Drogheda. On 1st July was fought.  The French under Lauzun were taken away from the defence of the river to save the retreat to Dublin being
cut off by the threatened flank march on the pass of Duleek.
After a fierce struggle the Protestant army forced the
passage of the river, but Schomberg fell in the fight.
hurried away to Dublin, whence he soon fled to France.
now conquered nearly all Ireland, but the Irish at
last stood gallantly at bay behind the weak mud walls of
Limerick, which |
The English sought to storm the town, but failed completely, and in September , despairing to capture it, went back to England. A little later led a fresh expedition to the south, which easily reduced Cork and Kinsale.
 The flight of left the Catholics in a state of wild anarchy; but in General Saint-Ruth came from France and sought to discipline their disorderly hordes. In June the Dutch General Ginkel captured Athlone, which commanded the passage of the Shannon. This enabled him to invade Connaught. On 12th July the battle of was fought, in which Saint-Ruth was slain and his army defeated with terrible slaughter. Galway was now captured, and again the last Irish army stood at bay at Limerick under the gallant Sarsfield. But this time resistance was useless, and Ginkel offered easy terms to bring the war to an end. By the Treaty of Limerick (October ) all the Irish soldiers who chose were shipped over to France, where many of them won great glory in the service of King Louis. Amnesty was promised to all who took the oath of allegiance, and the Catholics were guaranteed the same liberties that they had had during the reign of But Ginkel went beyond his powers in making these concessions, and the Irish parliament meanly refused to be bound by them. The was now restored. A penal code of odious severity was gradually imposed on the wretched Catholics, who now atoned by a long century of degradation and oppression for their last attempt to shake off the English yoke, while the Irish Protestants paid for English help by the destruction of their trade and the increased dependence of their country upon England.
5.  's greatest object in coming over had been to get England to join in the great league which he had long been trying to form to defend Europe from 's aggressions, become more and more barefaced in the years after the Treaty of Nijmegen. At the very time he landed at Torbay a
|European war had broken out. Louis, by sending to Ireland, practically began to fight against England himself. On 13th May England declared war against France, and joined with Holland, Brandenburg, Spain, and the Empire in the general attack upon the French King. Nothing shows better the strong position which Louis had won in Europe than that even with England against him he was more than able to hold his own in the eight years' struggle that now ensued. In Marshal Luxemburg won a great victory over the allies at . More remarkable still was the victory of Admiral Tourville over the combined fleets of England and Holland (the two great naval powers) off (30th June). This shameful defeat was mostly due to the incompetence of the careless and self-indulgent Admiral, Lord Torrington. The defeat of in Ireland prevented the French from getting any good from their triumph at the time. But pressed Louis to invade England, and the treachery of some of 's most trusted supporters, such as , seemed to show that invasion might bring about a Stewart restoration. All such schemes were finally ended by Admiral Edward 's (afterwards Lord Orford) great naval victory off La Hogue on 19th May . Tourville's fleet was dispersed, and the fear of invasion was over. But the French still harried English commerce. In the great Smyrna fleet, with its rich cargoes of Eastern wares, was almost entirely destroyed by the French.|
 Year after year went to the Low Countries in the summer, and led the armies of the Coalition to battle against the French. Year after year he was beaten, but he had a wonderful power of rallying his army under defeat, so that the French did not win much except glory. In he was beaten at Steinkirk; in at Landen or Neerwinden; and in an expedition, led by the gallant Tollemache, failed completely in an attack on Brest. But in won his last and greatest triumph as a soldier, the capture of the strong fortress of Namur, in the face of a French army. In Louis was glad to sign the Peace of Ryswick, by which he restored to England and Holland all conquests made since , and recognised as King of England. Louis was allowed to keep Strassburg and his annexations in , but he promised to restore to its Duke. This was the first peace Louis had signed in which he had
|not got important additions to his territories. England had now again taken her proper position in Europe.|
6.  During the years of the war 's position in England grew more and more difficult. Plot after plot was discovered to bring back King , such as (), in which the non-juring Bishop Turner was mixed up, and the (), which led to the attainder and execution of the great north country Tory, Sir John Fenwick, and to the drawing up by Parliament of a Bond of Association to stand by King and the Protestant succession. The Princess , II.'s younger daughter by Anne Hyde, and the heir to the throne (as and had no children), was a weak foolish woman, wholly in the hands of and his wife, and was now on very bad terms with her brother and sister, and bidding hard for Tory support.  The death of in deprived the king of his last hope of popularity, as she was thoroughly English, a good churchwoman, pleasant, bright, and generally beloved. , now left alone, was positively hated as a silent Dutchman, selfish, cold-hearted, and with no manners, who cared nothing for England, but wasted her resources on a useless war, and by giving great estates to his foreign friends and favourites. The Tories cried out against the war, and denounced all war by land, saying that it did not matter to England who was supreme on the Continent, and that as long as we kept up our navy, we had better let foreign politics alone. Faction rose high in Parliament, and even in the Cabinet 's Whig and Tory ministers wrangled fiercely with each other.
7.  The turncoat , now again a Protestant and back from exile, had insinuated himself into 's favour, and shown him that a ministry drawn from both parties could not work, and that it was wiser to throw himself altogether into the hands of the Whigs, who alone really wanted to carry on the French war. In was forced to see the truth of this advice. He adopted the Whig policy, and, as proofs of his conversion, gave the royal assent to the new Triennial Act he had previously vetoed, which declared that no parliament should last more than three years, and in dropped the censorship of the press, so that a swarm of political newspapers sprang up. The great Whig Earls of Bedford (father of William, Lord ) and Devonshire were now made dukes. Bit by bit the Tory ministers were forced
|out of office. Almost the last to remain was Carmarthen, recently made Duke of Leeds; but in he was proved to have been mixed up with the corruption of the Tory speaker, Sir John Trevor, whom the Whigs had turned out of office. Barely escaping a second impeachment, Leeds was now forced to give up public life, and soon followed him into retirement.|
By a united Whig ministry had been formed by the little knot of statesmen called the . It included (Lord Keeper since , and Lord Chancellor and a peer in ), a high-minded and skilful lawyer,
(Lord Halifax in ), who was a wonderfully ready debater, and a very dexterous financier; Lord Orford, Bedford's nephew, the rough and vigorous hero of ; and Thomas Lord Wharton, a famous party manager, and violent partisan,
The establishment of the first really united ministry in English history was the greatest indirect result of the Revolution. It was next found out that the party in power must be the party that was also in a majority in the House of Commons. Every change of ministry now brought these truths nearer home. At last the modern Cabinet system was established, which in time entirely took away from the king the chief share in the government of the country. But this was a very slow process, not worked out fully until after the accession of the house of Hanover.
8.  The great expenses of the war forced Parliament to grant supplies of unheard-of amounts, and led to new expedients for raising money which mark an epoch in English finance. In , as Chancellor of the Exchequer, carried a Land Tax of four shillings in the pound despite the opposition of the Tory country gentlemen. As this did not bring in enough, began the National Debt, by borrowing, not as hitherto, temporary loans for a short period, but permanent loans, the interest of which became a constant charge on the nation. In he followed the advice of the far-seeing Scotch projector , and established the Bank of England, a privileged company of merchants who, in return for a large loan to Government, were allowed special advantages in carrying on their banking business. The Bank proved a
|great success, because it gradually became the agent of the State for managing the national debt, and because it was so much safer than the goldsmiths who had hitherto taken charge of people's money. In the worn-out silver coinage was called in, and large amounts of new good silver coined, to the great convenience of all traders, providing for the outlay by his plan of Exchequer Bills. Alarmed at the Whigs' successes in finance, the Tories started a Land Bank, which turned out an utter failure. But the East India Company, now getting very prosperous, was in Tory hands. So in the Whigs got a charter for a new East India Company, which they kept to themselves. For some years the two companies competed fiercely one against the other: but this harmed both alike, so that in they agreed to unite, and in the union was completed. In every way English commerce now grew apace. The old struggle with the Dutch had ended by the union of the two states under . But the had worked its effects. Dutch commerce was now falling behind that of England, and required English help to protect itself against the rising trading navy of France. One result of this growth was that the English merchant class got much influence on English politics, and used it in favour of the Protestant succession.|
9.  The wave of commercial prosperity reached even Scotland, then a miserably poor and backward country, with little trade and less wealth. But the Scots had no chance of making money by foreign trade, because they had no colonies of their own, and the , which treated them as foreigners, shut them out from all trade with England and English colonies. , already famous as the real founder of the Bank of England, now came forward with a plan, which, he said, was to make Scotland a new Holland or Venice, the market of the world, and the greatest trading nation in Europe. His scheme was to establish a Scottish colony and trading station on the Isthmus of or Panama, which separates North and South America. He believed that it would be able to bring nearly all the trade which went round the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn, through his new colony. The Scots heard with enthusiasm that they had now a chance of getting rich. In an Act of Parliament established a great Scottish Company, with a monopoly of trade to Asia, Africa, and America. In and the first colonists left for . But they found there a pestilential climate in which northern Europeans could not
|live, and Spain, sluggish as she was, bitterly resented the settlement of the intruders on territories long claimed as Spanish. England would give no help; the first expedition fled from ; and a second one, which bravely settled among the abandoned ruins, was soon driven out by the Spaniards. The Scots were indignant that England had done nothing to help them in their plan to ruin English trade, and an angry feeling grew up between England and Scotland. But the whole scheme showed that union of the Crowns, without a union of the kingdoms, was more impossible than ever, after the Revolution had destroyed the dependence of Scotland on England, and left it free to work out its own fate.|
10. The Treaty of Ryswick led to no lasting peace, for the
|sickly and half-idiotic of Spain was now slowly dying, and there was no certainty who the next King of Spain would be.  As had no children, the nearest heir by blood was Louis, Dauphin of France, the son of , by his wife Maria Theresa, 's elder sister. But Maria Theresa had solemnly given up all claims on the Spanish inheritance, when she married the French king, though Louis pretended that this had no legal force because the (the Spanish Parliaments) had not agreed to it. But to avoid the danger to the European balance, which the|
|union of France and Spain would have produced, the Dauphin gave up his claims to his younger son Philip, Duke of Anjou. But next in succession to the Dauphin was the Electress of Bavaria, who gave her right away to her son Joseph, the Electoral Prince. His claims also were barred by his grandmother Margaret's renunciation of her rights, but the European balance of power would not be upset by the union of Bavaria and Spain. There was yet a third claimant in the Emperor Leopold himself (see Table), whose mother Maria had made no renunciation like her nieces. The Emperor waived his right in favour of the Archduke , his second son, by his second wife. If the renunciations held good, the Emperor's claim was best; if they were worthless, the right of the Dauphin could hardly be gainsaid. But the jealousy of Europe extended almost equally to either being made king, and as, just then, no one wanted war, the was secretly signed in October at The Hague, by which England and Holland (now always acting together, and often spoken of shortly as the Maritime Powers) agreed with France that the Electoral Prince was to be King of Spain and the Indies, and Lord of the Netherlands, while, by way of compensation for giving up her claims, France was to get Guipuscoa and Naples, and Austria the Milanese. The Spaniards were not so much as consulted, but when they heard of the treaty, they were very indignant at their great empire being cut into pieces by foreigners.|
In the Electoral Prince Joseph died, but the Powers still sought to avoid war, and a was signed in , by which Louis recognised the Archduke as King of Spain, and got the Milanese in addition to the cessions of the former treaty. This meant transferring the supremacy of Italy from the Hapsburgs to the Bourbons. Again news of the treaty leaked out, and the high-spirited Spaniards were more angry than ever. At last , worked upon by priests and women in the French pay, made a will giving the whole succession to the French claimant. Soon afterwards he died, and threw over the Partition Treaty, and basely accepted the Spanish heritage for his grandson, rejoicing that the Pyrenees existed no longer, and that the great ambition of his life was fulfilled. Thus all 's designs seemed frustrated.
11. A strong Tory reaction followed the Treaty of Ryswick; in the new Parliament which met in the
|regular Tories were joined by a noisy band of discontented Whigs that had long factiously opposed all 's most cherished plans.  This new party first showed its power by cutting down the army to 7000 men. and sending away 's trusted Dutch guards, believing that a standing army would prove, as in the cases of Cromwell and , fatal to liberty. The Tory Commons then plunged into a long and bitter fight with the Whig House of Lords. Complaining strongly, and not without reason, of 's lavish grants of Irish forfeited lands to his personal friends, the Commons passed in a Resumption Act, and forced the reluctant Lords to accept it, or leave the king penniless, by tacking it to a money bill which the Lords could not alter, but only accept or reject. dissolved Parliament in disgust. But he had, unwillingly, to dismiss his Whig ministers, and take a Tory cabinet under Rochester and .|
In February the new Parliament met. had now accepted the Spanish throne for his grandson, and had forced the Dutch to acknowledge King Philip by a threat of invasion. The Tory majority cared little for the European balance, and impeached , Orford, Halifax, and Portland for making the Second Partition Treaty without the consent of Parliament. But the Lords put difficulties in the Commons' way, and refused to give them the time they wanted for completing the impeachment. Like sulky children the Commons refused to appear, so the Lords declared acquitted.
12.  The Commons also passed the made necessary by the death of the little Duke of Gloucester, son of the Princess Anne, and by 's declining health. By it the Crown was settled, after , on Sophia, electress of Hanover, daughter of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, the daughter of , and her heirs, being Protestants. But in order to annoy , a series of constitutional safeguards were provided to come into operation with the succession to the throne under the Act. The king was not to leave England without the leave of Parliament. No minister, placeman, or pensioner of the Crown was to sit in the House of Commons. State business was to be transacted not in Cabinets such as the Whigs loved, but in the Privy Council. These three clauses, the first insulting to the Crown, the other two preventing the growth of the Cabinet system, were repealed under , when the present plan was brought in of making
|ministers seek re-election on their being put into place. No foreigner was to hold office or receive grants from the king. England was not to be entangled in war to protect a foreign king's foreign dominions. Judges were to have fixed salaries, to hold office during good behaviour, and only to be removeable by address of Lords and Commons.|
13.  The new Tories had now gone too far in persecuting their enemies, insulting the king, and in neglecting the honour and interests of England abroad. Yet the passing of the Act of Settlement by them shows how completely they had broken from the old Toryism with its theories of divine right. A strong reaction against them now broke out in the country. The grand jury of Kent petitioned the Commons to turn from profitless debating to grant supplies, and their example told in the country. The Kentish Petition was supplemented by the Legion Memorial, drawn up in vigorous language by the famous Whig pamphleteer Daniel . At last Louis roused English national feeling by visiting on his deathbed (), and promising him to uphold his son as the true English king. at once got rid of the Tory parliament and the Tory ministers, and the new elections sent up a Whig majority, eager for war against France. Parliament now attainted the pretended Prince of Wales, and drew up a new abjuration oath. Meanwhile was successfully building up a new Grand Alliance against the French. But his health, always weak, had now become deplorable, and the slight accident of a fall from his horse, which stumbled over a mole-hill, proved fatal. He died on 8th March , just in time to know that England and Europe had refused to put up tamely with a French king of Spain.
14.  was a thin, careworn, sickly-looking man, with a high forehead, great hooked nose, and bright gleaming Character of eyes. He suffered all through his life from asthma, and severe headaches, and was constantly threatened with consumption. He was silent, morose, with a cold, ungracious manner, and a touch of jealousy and peevishness. But he had an iron will and a dauntless courage, a strong sense of religion, and a great devotion to duty. He was at his worst in England, as he disliked the country and the people, and was always glad to get back to Holland. He spoke English badly, though fluently, and was careless of English party struggles. But he valued his position as English king because it helped him
|to carry out the great object of his life, the degradation of France. Few Englishmen liked him, though he had done a great work for their country. Beyond war and politics he had few interests, caring only to amuse himself with the rougher and more dangerous sorts of hunting. He was one of the greatest statesmen of the century, and a steadfast and careful though unlucky general. He is the only great man who has been king of England since|
 The New Ministry, 1689.
 The Convention Parliament and its work, 1689.
 The Revolution in Scotland, 1688-92.
 The Highland Revolt, 1689.
 Battle of Killiecrankie.
 The Massacre of Glencoe, 1692.
 The Revolution in Ireland, 1688-91.
 The Siege of Derry, 1689.
 The Battle of the Boyne, 1690.
 The Treaty of Limerick, 1691.
 The War against France, 1689-97.
 The Peace of Ryswick, 1697.
 Difficulties of William.
 Death of Mary, 1694.
 The first United Ministry, 1696.
 Finance and Trade, 1692-1702.
 Darien, 1695-99.
 The Spanish Partition Treates, 1698-1700.
 The Tory reaction, 1698-1701.
 Act of settlement, 1701.
 Whig reaction and European War, 1701-2.
 William III.