Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne, taken from original sources, Volume II

Ashton, John








RELIGIOUS life in Anne's time was not active-at least in the Church of England. Even the dignitaries of the Church, with very few exceptions, were men of no mark, nor were there any among the inferior clergy who could be called to the higher estate, and so help to leaven and wake up the Episcopate. For the Church was asleep, and with the exception of the Sacheverell episode-when the name of the Church was dragged in to serve party purposes--nothing was heard of it. There were priests in the livings then as now, and they duly baptized, married, preached to, and buried their flock ; but there was little vitality in their ministrations, little or no zeal or earnestness as to the spiritual state of those committed to their charge, and very little of practical teaching, in the way of setting before them a higher social standard for them to imitate. The Church services had no life in them ; with the exception of the cathedrals the services were read, and the soul-depressing parson and clerk duet had its usual effect of deadening the religious sensibilities of the so-called worshippers. Why! Addison seems to think that dear old Sir Roger was acting in a most praiseworthy manner in dragooning all his tenants to church, otherwise he confesses they would not have come; but what spiritual good this


compulsory attendance did them he does not hint at- probably never thought of: 'My Friend Sir Roger being a good Churchman, has beautified the Inside of his Church with several texts of his own chusing: he has likewise given a handsome Pulpit Cloth, and railed in the Communion Table at his own expence. He has often told me, that at his coming to his Estate he found (his Parishioners) very irregular; and that in order to make them kneel and join in the Responses, he gave every one of them a Hassock and a Common Prayer Book: and at the same time employed an itinerant Singing Master, who goes about the Country for that Purpose, to instruct them rightly in the Tunes of the Psalms; upon which they now very much value themselves, and indeed out-do most of the Country Churches that I have ever heard.

'As Sir Roger is Landlord to the whole Congregation, he keeps them in very good Order, and will suffer no Body to sleep in it besides himself; for if by chance he has been surprized into a short Nap at Sermon, upon recovering out of it he stands up and looks about him, and if he sees any Body else nodding, either wakes them himself, or sends his Servant to them. . . . As soon as the Sermon is finished, no Body presumes to stir till Sir Roger is gone out of the Church. The Knight walks down from his Seat in the Chancel between a Double Row of his Tenants, that stand bowing to him, on each Side; and every now and then enquires how such an one's Wife, or Mother, or Son, or Father do, whom he does not see at Church; which is understood as a secret reprimand to the Person that is absent.' [1] 

He then contrasts this parish with a neighbouring one where the squire and parson are at variance-where all the tenants are Atheists and Tithe Stealers. Of course Addison's account is somewhat biassed by his own proclivities; but we may take the tone of Church feeling throughout the country to have been exemplified by the state of Sir Roger's parish before the rather fussy, and certainly eccentric, knight entered upon his high-handed course of compulsory attendance.

How Sunday was spent in London let Misson say: 'The English of all Sects, but particularly the Presbyterians, make


profession of being very strict Observers of the Sabbath Day.

'I believe their Doctrine upon this Head does not differ from ours, but most assuredly our Scruples are much less great than theirs. This appears upon a hundred Occasions; but I have observ'd it particularly in the printed Confessions of Persons that are hang'd; Sabbath breaking is the Crime the poor Wretches always begin with. If they kill'd Father and Mother, they would not mention that Article, till after having profess'd how often they had broke the Sabbath. One of the good English Customs on the Sabbath Day, is to feast as nobly as possible, and especially not to forget the Pudding. It is a common Practice, even among People of good Substance, to have a huge piece of Roast Beef on Sundays, of which they stuff till they can swallow no more, and eat the rest cold, without any other Victuals, the other Six Days of the Week.'

Another quotation from Addison shows at all events his feeling as to the state of the Church at that time: 'After some short Pause, the old Knight turning about his Head twice or thrice, to take a Survey of this great Metropolis, bid me observe how thick the City was set with Churches, and that there was scarce a single Steeple on this side Temple Bar. A most Heathenish Sight ! says Sir Roger: There is no Religion at this End of the Town. The Fifty new Churches will very much mend the Prospect; but Church-work is slow-- Churchwork is slow.' [2] 

There is no doubt but that the Clergy as a body were but little thought of. Of course there were good and pious men then as now, but there is no disguising the fact that the majority showed an indifference to the spiritual well-being of the people, which could not fail to react upon themselves, and foster a feeling bordering upon contempt. Although those were not the days of deep thought, or scientific speculation, there was a great deal of freethought in existence; and although Atheists were professed to be looked upon, as they are now, as moral lepers, yet still there they were.

Perhaps one of the most curious symptoms of the times


was the exceeding popularity of Dr. John Eachard's satire, 'The Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy and Religion enquired into,' which, in , had reached its eleventh edition. But the butt of all the satirists was the domestic chaplain. He was a member of the household of every person of position, yet he had no social status. Here is a contemporary account, [3]  meant as a considerate warning to a friend, putting before him a chaplain's social position:-

Some think themselves exalted to the Sky,

If they light in some Noble Family:

Diet, an Horse, and thirty pounds a year,

Besides th' advantage of his Lordship's ear,

The Credit of the business and the State,

Are things that in a Youngster's Sense sound great.

Little the unexperienc'd Wretch does know,

What slavery he oft must undergo:

Who, though in Silken Scarf and Cassock drest,

Wears but a gayer Livery at best.

When Dinner calls, the Implement must wait

With holy words to consecrate the Meat,

But hold it for a Favour seldom known,

If he be deigned the Honour to sit down.

Soon as the Tarts appear; Sir Crape, withdraw,

Those Dainties are not for a spiritual Maw.

Observe your distance; and be sure to stand

Hard by the Cistern with your Cap in hand:

There for diversion you may pick your Teeth,

Till the kind Voider comes for your Relief.

For meer Board-wages such their Freedom sell,

Slaves to an Hour, and Vassals to a Bell:

And if th' enjoyment of one day be stole,

They are but Pris'ners out upon Parole:

Always the marks of Slavery remain,

And they, tho loose, still drag about the Chain.

And where's the mighty Prospect after all,

A Chaplainship serv'd up, and seven years Thrall ?

The menial thing perhaps for a Reward,

Is to some slender Benefice preferr'd,

With this Proviso bound, that he must wed

My Lady's antiquated Waiting Maid,

In Dressing only skill'd, and Marmalade.

Let others who such meannesses can brook,

Strike Countenance to every Great Man's Look:

Let those that have a mind, turn slaves to eat,

And live contented by another's Plate:

I rate my Freedom higher, nor will I

For Food, and Raiment truck my Liberty.

And Gay, too, in his Trivia (book 2) says:--

Cheese, that the Table's closing Rites denies,

And bids me with th' unwilling Chaplain rise.

Addison, commenting on this custom, and the chaplain's status generally, remarks,[4]  ' In this case I know not which to censure, the Patron or the Chaplain, the insolence of power or the abjectness of dependence. For my own part, I have often blushed to see a gentleman, whom I know to have much more wit and learning than myself, and who was bred up with me at the University upon the same foot of a Liberal Education, treated in such an ignominious manner, and sunk beneath those of his own rank, by reason of that Character, which ought to bring him honour.'

Again, in the Guardian (No. 163) his position is described: 'I have, with much ado, maintained my post hitherto at the dessert, and every day eat tart in the face of my patron; but how long I shall be invested with this privilege, I do not know. For the servants, who do not see me supported as I was in my old lord's time, begin to brush very familiarly by me, and thrust aside my chair when they set the sweetmeats on the table.'

A curious confirmation of one of Oldham's statements is found in a little brochure of the early part of Anne's reign, [5]  'I turn away my Footman for aspiring to my Woman, her I marry to my Lord's high Chaplain, and give her six Changes of my old cast off Cloaths for her Dowry.'

Royalty, even, was not exempt from this failing of snubbing the chaplains. Swift writes,[6]  'I never dined with the chaplains till to day; but my friend Gastrel and the Dean of Rochester had often invited me, and I happened to be disengaged; it is the worst provided table at Court. We ate on pewter.'



The clergy, when they appeared in public, wore always both cassock and gown; with the wig, of course, which was sometimes carried to excess, when it brought down the ridicule of the satirist, as in the following [7]  'humble petition of Elizabeth Slender, Spinster, Sheweth

'That on the twentieth of this instant December, her friend, Rebecca Hive, walking in the Strand, saw a gentleman before us in a gown, whose periwig was so long, and so much powdered, that your petitioner took notice of it, and said "she wondered that lawyer would so spoil a new gown with powder." To which it was answered, " that he was no lawyer, but a clergyman." Upon a wager of a pot of Coffee we over took him, and your petitioner was soon convinced she had lost.

' Your petitioner, therefore, desires your worship to cite the clergyman before you, and to settle and adjust the length of canonical Periwigs, and the quantity of powder to be made use of in them,' etc.

The vestments, when officiating, were simple, consisting of a cassock and full surplice-the black gown being used for preaching.


The accompanying illustrations of a bishop and a prebendary are taken from the prints of Queen Anne's coronation-the bishop wears chimere and rochet, whilst the prebendary has his hood, and, as it was a festival, he wears what seems to be meant for a cope.

The church furniture was not very extravagant, as is exemplified by the following advertisement: 'Lost the 20th of August at Night, out of St. Bennets, Grace Church viz, a purple Velvet Cushion, with purple and gold Tassels; The Covering of 2 Cushions very old of the same. The Vallins for the Pulpit of purple Velvet with purple and gold Fringe; A Cover for the Communion Table of purple Velvet very old. S.B.G. Embroider'd on it; A large Damask Table


Cloath, and 2 Damask Napkins mark'd S.B.G.L.E. 2 large pewter Plates, mark'd S.B.G. 2 Surplices. 1 old, the other New, mark'd S.B.G.L.E. A Clark's Gown of black Callimanca with Loops, and faced with black Velvet.' The reward offered for this lot was three guineas.

Benefices were then trafficked in. 'The next Advowson or Presentation to a Church of about 200£. per annum, four score and ten Miles from London, is to be dispos'd of, on very reasonable Terms, to any Clergy man of a good Character for Learning and Morals. The present Incumbent upwards of 60 Years of Age.' Simony was, however, punishable, for

we read in Luttrell, July 4, , 'The late bishop of St. Davids, who some time since was deprived of that bishoprick on account of Simony, being arrested for 1,000£ costs of suit, is removed from the bailiff's house to Newgate.'

There were a few black sheep among the clergy. The London Gazette for Nov. 3/6, , has an advertisement commencing, 'Where as one William Sale was some Years since Convicted in the Ecclesiastical Court at Canterbury, of having forged Holy Orders for himself, and for his own Father,' etc., and it goes on to cite him to appear before the Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Bishop of Rochester, and produce his true orders, if he had any--or, if not, he would be prosecuted.



And in the London Gazette for March 18/22, , the clergy are warned against one 'Abraham Gill (aged upwards of 30 years, middle statur'd, some gray Hairs, wearing sometimes a light Wig, sometimes a darker, sanguine Complexion, bold and Confident in Conversation, strong Voice, a North Country Pronunciation, writing a Clerk like Hand, as having been some time employ'd under an Attorney. Travelling the Country with a Woman and 3 or 4 Children, sometime since forged Letters of Orders, under the Hand and Episcopal Seal of the Lord Bishop of Chester,' etc.

Swift, too, writes, [8]  'I walked here after nine, two miles, and I found a parson drunk, fighting with a seaman, and Patrick and I were so wise as to part them, but the seaman followed him to Chelsea, cursing at him, and the parson slipped into a house, and I know no more. It mortified me to see a man in my coat so overtaken.'

It would be impossible to write of the Church of England in Anne's reign without mentioning Dr. Sacheverell,whose two famous sermons brought about his impeachment and sentence to three years' suspension. In them he condemned Dissenters and those Churchmen who sympathised with them, lashing, with his oratory, the high ones of the land-and Godolphin especially, as was believed, under the name of 'Volpone.' Then rose the war-cry of 'High Church and Sacheverell!' which even the Queen could not avoid: 'God bless the Queen. We hope your Majesty is for High Church and Sacheverell;' and presumably she was, for the very month his suspension expired she presented him with the valuable living of St. Andrew's, Holborn. High Churchism then meant intolerance, and Sacheverell was the puppet pulled by wires held by others.

There is a curious contemporary skit which is worth reproducing, for two reasons-first, as showing the style of literature then used in party warfare; and second, because it gives an approximate illustration of the Hockley in the Hole combatants mounted on the stage. In fact, the whole thing is a travesty on the bombastic challenges of those doughty heroes.

[9]  or A Tryal of Skill to be Fought at her Majesty's Bear Garden, on Monday next, between a Jeroboam Tory and a Jerusalem Whig, with their two Seconds.

When Gospel Trumpeter surrounded By long Ear'd Rout, to Battle Sounded And Pulpit, Drum Ecclesiastick Was beat with Fist instead of a Stick Then did Sir Knight--

Prophetically sung by the learned Hudibras.


'I, Jehu Hotspur, known by the name of the High Church Champion, Defender of the Cause, against all Schismatical and Rebellious Saints whatever; Do Invite you Balthaser Turncoat, (of the Race of the Seditious; Betrayers of their Country, and Revel to their lawful sovereign; Prolocutor and Contester for the Shameful and detested Cause of Moderation; a Lukewarm Christian, and a False Brother of the Ch___h; Dissenting from, and Prevaricating with,


the Original Ordinances thereof) to meet and Fight me at the seven several sorts of weapons following, viz.:

Sword & Cloak

Schism & Hypocrisy





Regicide and


So putting Trust in the Justice of my Quarrel, expect to find you at the Time and Place appointed, as you will answer the Contrary at your Peril.

'I BALTHASAR TURNCOAT, Chief Orator and Champion for the upright and blessed Principles of Moderation; a True Blue Church Man, and Jerusalem Whig; Receiving open Defiance from the said Jehu Hotspur avow'd Champion and Maintainer of the High Church Jacobite Cause (Sprung from the Loins of Jeroboam the Son of Nebat, who caused Israel to Sin; a Race so wickedly malicious that they would have us all cut off, Root and Branch; unless we fall down and worship the Calves of Dan and Bethel, whereby the Seed of Amalek may come to be restor'd) Will not fail, God Willing, to meet the Bold and Daring Inviter at the Time and Place appointed, and Oppose him at the several Weapons following, viz.:

Sword & Warming pan

Non Resistance

Passive Obedience

Superstition --BALTHASAR

Jacobitism TURNCOAT

Tyranny and


Desiring a Clear Stage, and from him no Favour. 'N.B. Whoever brings this Ticket, will be admitted on the Day of Tryal.

'London. Printed in the Year -price 1d.'



Should anyone care to see to what depth the Church of England had sunk, as far as care of the fabric of the churches went, let him read 'Miscellany Accounts of the Diocese of Carlisle, &c., -4,' by Wm. Nicholson, late Bishop of Carlisle: London, Geo. Bell & Sons, .

The two most notable events in the reign, in connection with the Church, were the foundation of Queen Anne's Bounty, and the building of fifty new churches. In the times of the Crusades, a tax of first-fruits and tenths had been imposed for the purposes of prosecuting the Holy Wars, and it had never been taken off. Henry VIII., of course, seized upon it as his own royal perquisite, and so it continued. Charles II. found it handy to provide for his seraglio; and probably, had it not been for the very strenuous exertions of Bishop Burnet with both William and Mary, and afterwards with Anne, it might never have reverted to the Church.

As it was, Queen Anne surrendered it in a most graceful manner, making it her birthday present to the nation in . Her birthday (Feb. 6) fell that year on a Sunday, but she kept it on the Monday, and on that day sent a message to her faithful Commons that it was her desire to make a grant of her whole revenue derived from the first-fruits, and tenths, for the benefit of the poorer clergy. The Commons lost no time in passing a Bill in acquiescence with the royal wish, even broadening its basis-enabling other persons to make grants for the same purpose. This latter addition encountered some opposition in the Lords, but eventually became law.

The clergy were naturally grateful, and on Feb. 15 the clergy of both Provinces waited on her Majesty, with addresses of thanks for her kindness; and the lower house of Convocation for the Province of Canterbury returned their thanks to the Commons for their readiness in complying with the Queen's desire. On April 3 of the same year the Queen gave her royal assent to the Act. That it was needed is evidenced by the fact that the Commissioners found there were 5,597 livings under 50£. per annum, which were capable of augmentation. The increase of the income of the poorer


clergy was its first intention: now the scheme has widened, and grants towards building parsonage-houses, etc., are made. Still, Queen Anne's name remains attached to it in grateful remembrance.

It was estimated that it would bring in an income of 6,000£. per annum. How the fund is now administered may be learned from the following extract from the Globe of Feb. 15, . 'In Convocation of York yesterday a Committee was appointed to report upon the constitution and management of Queen Anne's Bounty. It was stated that the income of the Bounty is 15,000£., and that the cost of management is between 7,000£. and 8,000£.' [10]  Comment on this is superfluous.

London was growing bigger, but with the extension of house-building there was no commensurate increase of church accommodation; so the Upper House of Convocation presented an address to the Queen upon the subject, and the Lower House petitioned the House of Commons. The outcome' of this was, that the Queen sent a message to the latter, calling their attention to the state of spiritual destitution, and recommending them to further 'so good and pious a work.' The Commons dutifully replied that, although they had an expensive war on hand, and heavy burdens to bear besides, yet they would be happy to do their part, and consequently the session of saw the royal assent given to an Act for building fifty new churches within the Bills of Mortality, to meet the expense of which was assigned the duty on coals, which had defrayed the expenses of building St. Paul's. Convocation returned thanks, and the fifty churches were eventually built.

The tone of the Church at that time was essentially Protestant. And no wonder. William the Deliverer was warm in men's memory; and men, fearing a repetition of Roman supremacy, as in the times of the second James, unreasoningly went in the opposite direction, probably without


much absolutely religious feeling prompting them. More possibly it was

'The Church God Bless,

The Queen no less,

And all that do Profess

The same Religion with Queen Bess.

But I'll warrant now, if we had a Bonfire in the Street, and such a Whig as Tom Double shou'd pass by, he wou'd refuse this Health, and then I shou'd break his Head.' [11] 

Queen Bess was the Madonna of the Protestants, and 'her glorious Memory' was a watchword of the party. Nov. 17, the anniversary of her accession to the throne, was celebrated in the same manner as Nov. 5 used to be, until police control interfered with it. One Nov. 17 in Queen Anne's reign, that of , was rendered historically famous by the steps the Government took in the suppression of this carnival. A contemporary account [12]  is as follows: 'Nov. 20. Upon information, That the Effigies of the Devil, the Pope and his Attendants were to be carry'd in Procession, and, according to Custom, burnt on Saturday last, the 17th Inst. being the Anniversary of Queen ELIZABETH'S Accession to the Crown, of ever Pious and most Glorious Memory, the Government apprehending that the same might occasion Tumults in this Populous City, thought fit to prevent it. Accordingly, on Friday last, about Twelve a Clock at Night, some of Her Majesty's Messengers, sustain'd by a Detachment of Grenadiers of the Foot Guards, with their Officer, were order'd to go to an Empty House in Angel Court, , which being broke Open, they found in it the Effigies of the Devil, that of the POPE on his Right hand, and that of a Young Gentleman in a Blue Cloth Coat, with Tinsel Lace, and a Hat with a White Feather, made of Cut Paper, seated under a large Canopy; as also the Figures of Four Cardinals, Four Jesuits, and Four Franciscan Fryars, and a large Cross about Eighteen Foot High; all which, being put on several Carts were, about Two a Clock in the Morning, carry'd to the Cock Pit, and there lodg'd in a Room between the


Council Chamber, and the Right Honourable the Earl of Dartmouth's Secretary's Office. Moreover, on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday the Trained Bands of London and Westminster were under Arms; so that there was no Pope Burnt, tho' we hear of one that was Drown'd. It may, perhaps, appear strange that a Popular Rejoycing so grateful to this PROTESTANT City, which was never attempted to be quash'd but in K. James the Second's Reign, should, at this Juncture, be interrupted: But, to be sure, those who did it had very good Reasons for their Management.'

Swift, of course, gives Stella all the gossip about it, and says the Whigs laid out about a thousand pounds upon the proposed show. 'They did it by Contribution. Garth gave five guineas; Dr. Garth I mean, if ever you heard of him.' Swift afterwards went to see the effigies, and his report very much modifies his previous account: 'The fifteen images that I saw were not worth forty pounds, so I stretched a little when I said a thousand. The Devil is not like lord treasurer; they were all your odd antick masks, bought in Common Shops.'

The last of them is told in a paragraph of the Post Boy, July 1/3, : 'Yesterday, were disrobed at the Cockpit the Effigies of the Devil, the Person who has pretended to disturb the Settlement of the Protestant Succession of the House of Hanover, the Pope, Cardinals &c. Our Enemies being now disarm'd, we will venture to say, that there will soon be a General Cessation of Arms.'

Protestant throats yelled out-

O ! Queen Bess, Queen Bess, Queen Bess,

Who sav'd us all from Popish Thrall?

O ! Queen Bess, Queen Bess, Queen

Bessand bigoted, and intolerant Protestant legislators did their little utmost to oppress their Roman Catholic fellow-subjects, even in Ireland: ' Her Majestie, in council, has approved of several Irish acts sent over hither, which are to be return'd, to passe into laws; among them is that for preventing the further growth of popery in that Kingdom, by which all the estates of Roman catholicks there after their death, shall be equally divided among all their children, unless the eldest


turns protestant within a year after the father's decease, and if so, to enjoy the whole; likewise by this bill all the Romish clergy, who are now tolerated there, are to be registered, and when they die, to be succeeded by protestants.' [13] 

Edinburgh, 14 Mar. . Sir James Stuart, Her Majesty's Advocate, having represented to the Council, that there were several Popish Vestments, Trinkets, and others seized; And that they were given to his Lordship, and in his Custody. The Lords of her Majesty's Privy-Council do hereby appoint and ordain the Vestments, Crucifixes and Trinkets, to be burnt at the Cross of Edinburgh to-morrow, being the 15th Instant, betwixt the hours of ten and twelve in the Fore noon. And appoints and ordains the Magistrates of Edinburgh to see the same effectually done: And appoints and ordains the Chalice, Patine, and such other of the said Trinkets, as are in Silver or Gold, to be melted down and delivered to the present Kirk Treasurer of Edinburgh, for the use of the poor thereof.' [14] 

This order was duly carried out; 'An Inventor whereof follows, Imprimis An Chalice and Patine for the Ilastic (?). Item Four Crucifixes. Item Two Surplices. Item Three Colliers. Item Four pair of Beeds, or Chapelets, with some Relicks of Saints. Item, Several Pictures, with Indulgencies and Pardons; and particularly one with this Indulgence following: viz. the Archbishop of Mechline has granted Indulgence of forty days to those who shall bow their Knee before this Image once a day, considering devoutly the infinite Charity of Jesus Christ, who has suffered for us the Bitter Death of the Cross: And if any will perform this Devotion oftner, he shall so oft have new Indulgence for five days more extracted.'

'Information being given of several priests lurking about this Citty, the messengers the close of last week seized near Red Lyon Square 3 of them, viz, Gifford, Martin, and Matthews; the last is committed to Newgate, but the others were admitted to bail, each in £ , and 2 sureties in


£ apiece.' [15] 



On April 4, , the Privy Council sent a circular to the Archbishop of Canterbury, which he in his turn sent round to the bishops, and they to their clergy, stating that her Majesty being acquainted 'with several Instances of the very great Boldness and Presumption of the Romish Priests and Papists in this Kingdom,' directed them 'to Require the Clergy in their several Dioceses to take an Exact and Particular Account of the Number of the Papists and Reputed Papists in every Parish with their Qualities, Estates and Places of Abode, and to return the same to their respective Diocesans, who are to return the same to your Grace, in Order to be laid before Her Majesty.'

This inquisitorial circular was followed on April 11, , by 'A PROCLAMATION For the Putting in Execution the Laws in Force against such Persons as have or shall Endeavour to Pervert her Majesties Subjects to the Popish Religion,' and it recites that the Acts to be put in force were one of the 23 Eliz., 'An Act to Retain the Queen's Majesties Subjects in their due Obedience,' and one of the 3 Jas. I. 'An Act for the Discovering and Repressing of Popish Recusants.'

This seems to have been ineffectual, or the nation must have had another attack of Protestant fever, for on March 2, , in a proclamation offering 100£. for the apprehension of some Sacheverell rioters, there are clauses, 'And we do strictly charge and command all Papists, who shall be above the Age of Sixteen Years, that they do, according to the Statutes in that behalf made, repair to their respective Places of Abode, and do not thence remove or pass above the Distance of five Miles- And that all such Papists and Persons reputed so to be (except Merchants, Traders, settled House holders, and other Persons excepted in the Statutes made in this behalf) do, on or before the eighth day of this Instant March, depart out of our said Cities and Suburbs of London and Westminster, and from all Places distant ten Miles from the Same.'

On March 15, , another proclamation was issued for all Papists to remove from the cities of London and West-


minster, and, even at the very close of Anne's reign, we read [16]  :

' At the Assizes held at Chelmsford in the County of Essex, a Bill of Indictment was found against Hanmer, formerly mention'd in this Paper, for that he, being a Popish Priest, did say Mass according to the Custom of the Romish Church in that Country; to which Indictment he pleaded not Guilty, and gave Suretys to try the same at the next Assizes.'


Misson gives a formidable list of religious sects then in existence, to which, of course, owing to the vastly superior wisdom and knowledge of this nineteenth century, we have enormously added and improved upon. He says that there were, in his time, in England, 'Antinomians, Hederingtonians, Theaurian Joanites, Seekers, Waiters, Brownists, Reevists, Baronists, Wilkinsonians, Familists, Ranters, Muggletonians, &c., &c. All these, and nothing at all, are just one and the same thing: Christianity is overwhelm'd with Sects enough already, without our studying to multiply them chimerically .... Besides the Religion which serves God in the Church of England, and which is the reigning Religion in England, there are several Sorts of Sectaries; the Presbyterians are the Chief and most numerous .... The Independents were a Branch of Presbytery, but they are now united again. Arminianism (if the Propositions of Arminius ought to give the odious name of a Sect) is spread every where. Here and there also you meet with a Millennarian; but I know there is a particular Society, tho' it makes but little Noise, of People, who tho' they go by the Name of Sabbatharians,[17]  make Profession of expecting the Reign of a Thousand Years without participating in the other Opinions, which are ascrib'd to the ancient Millenarians. These Sabbatharians are so call'd,


because they will not remove the Day of Rest from Saturday to Sunday. They leave off Work betimes on Friday Evening, and are very rigid Observers of their Sabbath.... England hath also Anabaptists of Several sorts .... Within these few Weeks there is sprung up a new Sect of People, that say they are Mystical Theologists, and that take the name of Philadephians,' etc.

This is very far from being an exhaustive list of the sects then in existence, and it is not worth while wasting time in hunting up the names and history of any more.

John Wesley was born in Anne's reign, and Matthew Henry died in it, whilst Calamy lived during the whole of it;

but the most prominent nonconformist in London was Daniel Burgess, whose Theatre, or meeting-house, in Carey Street was gutted by the Sacheverell mob, and had to be repaired at the expense of Government. Of this meeting-house Brown says: 'For as it is not properly call'd the House of God, but Mr. Burgess's, so Mr. Burgess, not God, is there worshipped. Prayer and Praise is the proper Worship of God, but here they meet to hear Daniel lay about him, with his merry Stories and Theatrical Actions, which is at least an Amusement they think worth their while.'

And this is one of Daniel's 'merry Stories.' Preaching one day on 'the Robe of Righteousness,' he said: 'If any of


you would have a good and cheap suit, you will go to Monmouth Street; if you want a suit for life, you will go to the Court of Chancery; but, if you wish for a suit that will last to eternity, you must go to the Lord Jesus Christ, and put on his Robe of Righteousness.'

Swift speaks of him in Tatler 66. 'There is my friend and merry Companion Daniel. He knows a great deal better than he speaks, and can form a proper discourse as well as any orthodox neighbour.' And this, probably, is a true estimate of his character. Anyhow, he drew, and his meetinghouse was the most popular in London.


There was an insane dislike to Quakers in Queen Anne's reign, and I have not met with one kindly or sympathetic remark about them in all my varied reading of these times. On the contrary, they were represented as thoroughpaced hypocrites, cheats, liars, immoral livers. The generic term applied to a Quaker was Aminadab (why?), and Aminadab was everything that was sly and repulsive. We, who know the quiet, simple folk, whose sect is fast dying out, because they have obtained all the points they strove for, can never for an instant imagine that their forefathers were the sly hypocrites they were painted. Nor were they only lampooned


verbally--a Quaker could not be drawn without being caricatured into an unctuous rogue; their very plainness of apparel, the men's plain hats and absence of wigs, and the women wearing the old country steeple-crowned hat and simply made gowns, were made the vehicles of sarcasm; the poverty of their meeting-houses was typified by their preaching and sitting on tubs.

Still, all writers have their dab of dirt to throw at them, and to show how universal it was, a few examples may be given. Swift: [18]  'My friend Penn came there, Will Penn the Quaker, at the head of his brethren, to thank the Duke for his kindness to their people in Ireland. To see a dozen scoundrels with their hats on, and the Duke complimenting with his off, was a good sight enough.' Misson: 'The Quakers are great Fanaticks; there seems to be something laudable in them; to outward Appearance they are mild, simple in all respects, sober, modest, peaceable, nay, and they have the Reputation of being honest; and they often are so. But you must have a Care of being Bit by this Appearance, which very often is only outward;' and afterwards, talking of females preaching, 'the Moment Mrs. Doctor spies a Ribbon, the Spirit moves her, and she falls into one of her Fits; up she gets on the Bottom of some Tub, with her pinch'd up Cap, and her screw'd up Countenance; she Sighs, she Groans, she Snorts through the Nose, and then out she bursts into such a Jargon as no mortal Man can make Head or Tale of.' Mrs. Centlivre, in the 'Beau's Duel': 'I carried her to wait on a Relation of ours that has a Parrot, and whilst I was discoursing about some private Business, she converted the Bird, and now it talks of nothing but the Light of the Spirit, and the Inward Man.' Brown: 'They would be thought the only People of God; tho' their Chief Motive to that impudent Ambition, is, that they may claim the Right of Pillaging and Cheating all the World besides, as AEgyptians. They won't swear, because they may chance to pay for that; but they will lie Confoundedly, because they may chance to get by that.' Ward gives an account of a visit to a Quakers' tavern, which was 'intended chiefly for Watering the Lambs of Grace,


and not to succour the Evil off-spring of a Reprobate Generation ;' and he says that 'when they were desirous to Elevate their Lethargick Spirits with the circulation of a Bumper, one fills it, and offers the prevailing Temptation to his left Hand Companion, in these Words, saying, Friend, does the Spirit move thee to receive the good Creature thus plentifully ? The other replies, Yea, Do thou take and enjoy the Fruits of thy own Labour, and by the help of Grace I will drink another as full. Thus did the liquorish Saints quaff it about merrily, after their precise Canting manner.' Even the Tatler (262) has an advertisement, 'Drop'd on Sunday last, a small Roll of Paper, in which was inclos'd the Draught of a Quaker holding forth in a Tub, &c.' These examples are quite sufficient to show the universal dislike of this harmless sect, which could only have been induced by the thorough contrast of their homely attire, and plain speech, with the ornate dress and exaggerated verbiage then in vogue.

Penn, indeed, was welcome at Court, and lived at Kensington, and afterwards at Knightsbridge, till . He lived all through Anne's reign, not dying till .


[1] Spectator, 112.

[2] Spectator, 383.

[3] 'A SATYR Address'd to a Friend that is about to leave the University, and come abroad in the World,' by Mr. John Oldham, ed. 1703.

[4] Tatler, 255.

[5] The English Lady's Catechism.

[6] Journal to Stella, Oct. 6. 1711.

[7] Tatler, 370.

[8] Journal to Stella, May 5, 1711.

[9] Banks; Coll., Brit. Mus.,1890 e 'The combatants are Bishop (then Dr.) Hoadly and Dr. Sacheverell-the Seconds, Drs. Burgess and Harris.'

[10] This statement was afterwards modified in the Globe of June 21, 1882. 'The Report of the auditor, Mr. Charles Garlant, states that the cost of administration of the bounty fund is approximately 17s. 6d. per cent. on the receipts and payments generally, and £ 2. 10s. per cent. if items on capital account are altogether excluded.'

[11] The Weekly Comedy, Jan. 2, 1708.

[12] The Protestant Post Boy, Nov. 17/20, 1711.

[13] Luttrell, Jan. 25, 1705.

[14] Flying Post, Feb. 17/20, 1705.

[15] Luttrell, Sept. 26, 1704.

[16] The Flying Post, July 17/20, 1714.

[17] 'The Common people call them Seventh Day Men.'

[18] Journal to Stella, Jan. 15, 1712.