Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne, taken from original sources, Volume II

Ashton, John


CHAPTER XXXIX: The Army and Navy


CHAPTER XXXIX: The Army and Navy




'COLONEL SOUTHWELL has sold his regiment for £. to Colonel Hansam of the guards ;' [1]  and doubtless the latter made money by the transaction, for it seems to have been the practice then for the colonel to sell the smaller commissions in his regiment. Hear what Brown says on the subject: [2]  'We observ'd there a Colonel and his Agent, upon whom a pretty brisk Youth of about Seventeen attended at three or four Yards distance in the Rear, and made his Honours upon every occasion, we happen'd to place ourselves very near, and immediately express'd himself as follows: "This young Gentleman has a Particular Regard to your Honour, and a desire to learn the Art of War under so experienc'd an Officer; 'tis true, he can't boast of any Antiquity of Blood or Service in the Army, to recommend him to so considerable a Post, as that of Ensign to your Honour. But, Sir, he has deposited a Hundred Guineas in the hands of Sir Francis Child, which, I presume, will plead his Merit very weightily; besides an Acknowledgement to your humble Servant." The Favour was granted, and the young Beau dismiss'd to his satisfaction.'

This is not an exaggeration; the thing was openly talked about, and even advertised. 'This is to give Notice, That


Whosoever has a Mind to treat about the purchasing Commissions in the Army, either in old Regiments, or others, let them apply themselves to Mr. Pyne at his Coffee House under Scotland Yard Gate, near Whitehall, and they will be further inform'd about it.'

This advertisement seems to have aroused the authorities, for in the Gazette of Oct. 23/25, , is the following official notice: 'Whereas a scandalous Advertisement has been twice published in the Post Boy, giving Notice, That whoever has a mind to treat about the Purchasing Commissions in the Army, either in the old Regiments or others, might apply to Mr. Pyne, at his Coffee house under Scotland Yard Gate near Whitehall, and they should be further inform'd about it; which being directly contrary to Her Majesty's express Will and pleasure, sometime declar'd and signify'd, as well at home, as to all her Generals abroad, against the Sale of Commissions upon any account whatsoever; it is thought fit to give this publick Notice, to prevent any abuses or Impositions that might happen therefrom; and whoever shall discover to Her Majesty's Secretary at War, at his Office in Whitehall, the Authors of the said Advertisement, shall have due Protection and Encouragement.'

A colonel clothed his regiment too, and there must have been money made out of that: and a military conversation recorded by Brown throws much light on the manners of the army at that time. 'We had pass'd the Horse Guards and enter'd the oderiferous Park of St. James's, we found it a High Change on the Parade, Red Coats and Laced Hats spread everywhere. . . Here is decided the Price of Commissions, which are openly bought and sold, as if a lawful Merchandize . . . Here you may hear all this General's Miscarriages fully accounted for; that General's success magnify'd and describ'd; that Colonel damn'd for being put over this Captain's Head; that Agent curs'd for tricking the Regiment out of their Pay, or by raising such Contributions with the Colonel's Connivance, that Estates are now got at this end of the Town, as well as by Stock Jobbing in the City. Here honest Pain, and Potter, and divers others of that fraternity, take their mid-day's Perambulation, to Agree with


Spendthrift Officers, for advancing their Money at 30 per Cent.'

The pay of all ranks in the army was always in arrear and hard to be got at, so these agents had a fine time of it.

Lord Hardy. Were you at the Agent's ?

Trim. Yes.

Lord Hardy. Well, and how ?

Trim. Why, Sir, for your Arrears, you may have Eleven Shillings in

the Pound; but he'll not touch your Growing Subsistence, under Three

Shillings in the Pound Interest; besides which, You must let his Clerk

Jonathan Item, Swear the Peace against you to keep you from Duelling,

or insure your life, which you may do for Eight per cent. On these

terms He'll Oblige you; which he would not do for any Body else in

the Regiment, but he has a Friendship for you.

Lord Hardy. Oh, I'm his Humble Servant; But he must have his

own terms, we can't Starve, nor must my Fellows want. The Funeral.

Was an officer killed in action, his wife would be entitled to a pension-but it seems to have been somewhat problematical whether it would be available. 'One must Sneak to the Government, for a Pension of twenty Shillings a Week to Subsist half a Score Children, and hammer out the rest with Washing and Starching.' [4] 

The 'Officer and Gentleman' hardly went together; the rough life of the camp told, and almost all contemporary writers agree in painting him as a swaggering, dicing bully. Farquhar's description [5]  will serve for all:-

Silvia. I'm call'd Captain, Sir, by all the Coffee men, Drawers, and

Groom porters in London; for I wear a Red Coat, a Sword, a Hat

bien trousse, a Martial Twist in my Cravat, a fierce Knot in my Perriwig,

a Cane upon my Button, Picquet in my Head, and Dice in my pocket.

Scale. Your Name: pray Sir.

Silvia. Capt. Pinch: I cock my Hat with a Pinch, I take Snuff with

a Pinch, pay my women with a Pinch, In short I can do anything at a

Pinch, but fight and fill my Belly.

In Bickerstaff's 'Lottery for the London Ladies,' another class of officer is spoken of. 'Young spruce Beauish non fighting Officers, often to be seen at Man's Coffee House, Loaded with more Gold Lace than ever was worn by a


thriving Hostess upon her Red Petticoat, all Ladies Sons of a fine Barbary Shape, Dance admirably, Sing charmingly, speak French fluently, and are the Darlings of their Mothers; have large Pay for little Service, are kept at home by the Interest of their Friends, to oblige the Ladies, and hate the thought of going on Board Ships, because their nice Noses are unable to endure the smell of Tar, or the stink of Belg Water; besides they are as much afraid of dawbing their Cloaths as they are of ventering their Carcases.'

Who can this be ? 'The first Gentleman I happen'd to cast my Eyes upon, was my old Friend and Fellow Collegian Bartholomew Cringe. I wonder'd who in the Devil's Name had equipt him with a Wig large enough to load a Camel . . . His Sword in length resembled a Footman's, who asserts the Reputation of his Mistriss, which, for divers good Causes and Reasons, he is very nearly Concern'd in. His Coat was as blue as the Sky; and his Hat boldly erected its Sable Penthouse, to play with greater vivacity the ruddy Complexion of its Owner. . . . Says he, Dear friend Tom, you're surpriz'd to find your old Friend in this Place and Habit. I wear this Dress and Garniture as the Emblems of my Militant Capacity. I have the Honour to perform the Duties of my Office under the Protection of that worthy Gentleman Lieutenant General -- in Quality of Chaplain to his Regiment.' [6] 

Even their commissions were the subject of traffic. 'If any Gentleman that is Chaplain to a Regiment is willing to dispose of his Commission, he is desired to acquaint therewith the Master of the Tilt Yard Coffee House near Whitehall.'

What were the rank and file of this period ? Hear a contemporary opinion. [7]  'A Foot Soldier is commonly a Man, who for the sake of wearing a Sword, and the Honour of being term'd a Gentleman, is coax'd from a Handicraft Trade, whereby he might Live comfortably, to bear Arms for his King and Country, whereby he has the hopes of nothing but to Live Starvingly. His Lodging is as near Heaven as his Quarters can raise him; and his Soul generally is as near Hell as a Profligate Life can sink him. To speak without


Swearing, he thinks a Scandal to his Post; and makes many a Meal upon Tobacco, which keeps the inside of his Carcase as Nasty as his Shirt. He's a Champion for the Church, because he Fights for Religion, tho' he never hears Prayers except they be Read upon a Drum Head. He often leads a Sober Life against his Will; but he never can pass by a Brandy shop with 2d. in his Pocket, for he as Naturally loves Strong Waters as a Turk loves Coffee. . . . He is a Man of Undaunted Courage; and dreads no Enemies so much as he does the Wooden Horse, which makes him hate to be mounted; and rather chuses to be a Foot Soldier. He's a Man, that when upon guard, always keeps his word, and obeys his Officer as Indians do the Devil, not thro' Love but Fear; . . . When once he has been in a Battle it's a hard matter to get him out of it; for where ever he comes he's always talking of the Action, in which he was posted in the greatest danger; and seems to know more of the matter than the General. Scars, tho' got in Drunken Quarrels, he makes Badges of his Bravery; and tells you they were Wounds receiv'd in some Engagement, tho' perhaps given him for his Sawciness. He's one that loves Fighting no more than other Men; tho' perhaps a dozen of Drink and an affront, will make him draw his Sword; yet a Pint, and a good Word, will make him put it up again. Let him be in never so many Campaigns in Flanders he contracts but few Habits of a Dutchman, for you shall oftener see him with his Fingers in his Neck than his Hands in his Pockets. He has the Pleasure once a Week, when he receives his Subsistence, of boasting he has Money in his Breeches; and for all he is a Soldier owes no Man a Groat, which is likely enough to be true, because no Body will trust him. Hunger and Lousiness are the two Distempers that Afflict him ; and Idleness and Scratching the two Medicines that Palliate his Miseries. If he spends Twenty years in Wars, and lives to be Forty, perhaps he may get a Halbert; and if he Survives Three Score, an Hospital. The best end he can expect to make, is to Die in the Bed of Honour; and the greatest Living Marks of his Bravery, to recommend him at once to the World's Praise and Pity, are Crippled Limbs, with which I shall leave him to beg a better Lively Hood.'


To a Coblers Aul, or Butcher's Knife,

Or Porter's Knot, commend me;

But from a Souldier's Lazy Life,

Good Heaven pray defend me.

Here, then, we have an unvarnished description of the soldier of the period, his virtues, his vices, his destitution, his uncleanliness; but the authorities could not afford to be too particular in those days, and, besides, the men did not get their
pay regularly. True, they were promised that' if any Able bodied Men are willing to serve Her MAjesty in the Train of Artillery abroad, let them report to Captain Silver, Master Gunner of England, at his House in St. Jame's Park, they shall enter into present Pay of Seven Shillings a Week, and be further encouraged and advanced as they shall deserve'.

Did they get this pay regularly? I fear not always. Ward speaks of 'that unfortunate Wretch, who in time of War hazards his Life for Six pence a day, and that perhaps


ne'er paid him ;' and there is an ominous advertisement,1 'The Paymaster General of Her Majesty's Guards, Garrisons &c. in Great Britain, has given Notice, That Money is issued for the Subsistance of the Troops and Regiments under his Care, to the 24th instant, inclusive.' If it were the usual practice to have the money in hand, there would have been no necessity for advertising it in this case. Discipline seems to have been rather lax just then, for in the Gazette, Oct. I I / 14, , there is a notice: ' Her Majesty is pleased to order, that all the Officers of the Regiments of Harvey, Peppar, Harrison, Wade, Bowles, Dormer, and Windress, do forthwith repair to the Castle of Dublin, and there receive such Orders as shall be given them by the Lords Justices of that Kingdom, upon pain of being checked of their Pay.' The uniforms in the army were plain and serviceable; the most picturesque being that of the Grenadiers, who, Evelyn says, were first introduced in . Some idea of the food given to the soldiers in garrison, may be gained by perusal of the following contract for rations.2 'The Most Honourable the Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain having receiv'd Her Majesty's Pleasure, That a Contract shall be made for Victualling Her Majesty's Garrisons at Minorca, to consist of about Men, and at Gibraltar, to consist of about Men, according to the Proportions underwritten for each Man for Seven Days, viz.

7 Pound of Bread, or (when desir'd by the Commanders in Chief) a pint of Wheat instead of a Pound of Bread.

'2 Pound and half of Beef

' 1 Pound of Pork

'4 Pints of Pease

'3 Pints of Oatmeal

'6 Ounces of Butter

'8 Ounces of Cheese...'

Not a too liberal dietary for a soldier.

How did they recruit for the army ? for, during the long war which lasted nearly the whole of Anne's reign, men had to be furnished to fill the cruel gaps made by slaughter, wounds, and disease. First of all, a recruiting officer, with 1 Post Boy, Oct. 7/9, . 2 Gazette, Sept. 23/27, .


his sergeant and drummer, would be quartered in some country town, and 'beat up for recruits.' Of a recruiting officer we get some notion in Spectator 132, and in Farquhar's play. Let Sergeant Kite himself tell us the qualifications for a recruiting sergeant. 'So that if your Worship pleases to cast up the whole Sum, viz. Canting, Lying, Impudence, Pimping, Bullying, Swearing, Drinking, and a Halbard, you will find the Sum Total amount to a Recruiting Sergeant.' The Queen's shilling once being taken, or even sworn to have been taken, and attestation made, there was no help for the recruit, unless he was bought out. In these means seem to have failed, for men could not be got in sufficient quantities without the inducement of a bounty. 'This is to give Notice, That his Grace the Duke of Schombergh is raising a Regiment of Dragoons for Her Majesty's Service; all such Persons who shall have a mind to List themselves therein, may repair either to his Grace's in Pall Mall, or to Mr. Brerewood in Norfolk Street, in the Strand, near Temple Bar, Agent to the same, where such Persons as have been formerly in the Army and are still fit for Dragoons, shall receive 40.s. in hand for Levy Money, besides all fitting Accoutrements, and such as have not been already in the Service shall have 30.s. and Accoutrements.' In an Act was passed (4 & 5 Anne, cap. 21) 'For the better recruiting Her Majesty's Army and Marines,' which gave the power to justices, assisted by their subordinates, 'to raise and levy such Able bodied Men as have not any lawful Calling or Imployment or visible Means for their Maintenance and Lively hood to serve as Soldiers.' A volunteer was to have a bounty of 40s. given him, and 'shall not be liable to be taken out of Her Majesty's Service by any Process other than for some Criminal Matter.' This shows to what straits they were reduced for men, and the following exemplifies the class of recruits that were then going into the army: 'Smith, who some time was half hanged and cut down, having accused about 350 pickpockets, housebreakers, &c. who gott to be soldiers in the guards, the better to hide their roguery, were last week 1 See page 215.


upon mustering the regiments drawn out, and immediately shipt off for Catalonia; and about 60 Women, who lay under condemnation for such Crimes, were likewise sent away to follow the Camp.' The Act of either fell partially in abeyance, or did not fulfil its requirements, for in the Gazette of Jan. 26/29, -8, is a proclamation by the Queen calling attention to it, and promising, for the better carrying of it out, and 'for the greater Incouragement of all Parish Officers to perform the Duty injoin'd them by that Act, That such Parish Officers, for every Person they should bring before the Magistrate, who should be Impressed should Receive the Sum of Twenty Shillings; and that every Volunteer, for his better Incouragement to come into our Service, and List himself according to the Intention of the said Act, should Receive the sum of Four Pounds, and also that such Volunteer should be Discharg'd after Three Years Service, if he deserved it.' This was the outcome of a fresh Act (7 Anne, cap. 2). Of course these men deserted in shoals, but that they had always done, from the first year of the Queen's reign. The reward offered, by their officers, for their apprehension generally ranged from one to two guineas, and occasionally they were entreated to return, of their own free will, when they would be forgiven. Once only can I find that a severe example was ever made of them, and that was in . '6 Dec. This day a Soldier of Colonel Gorsuck's Company, was Shot in Hide Park for Desertion.' Probably they ran the gauntlet, as did that soldier in : 'Yesterday a Soldier ran the Gantlet (as he well deserved) in St. James's Park, for speaking some reflecting words on his late Majesty, and is to run twice more.' In the last year of Anne's reign there were some wicked drummers, whose story is told very graphically in the Post Boy, Feb. 11/13, . 'John Needham, Constable and Beadle of the Ward of Farringdon within, warding at Ludgate the Sixth Instant, (the Queen's Birth Day) by Order of the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen; was sent for to the Crown Tavern on Ludgate Hill, to make a Gentleman Easy, who 1 Luttrell, March 12, . THE ARMY AND NAVY.


was in Drink. The Constable having made him and the rest Friends, the Gentleman would have him to the Queen's Arms Tavern, a little below, where they drank a Glass of Wine together: But the Constable hearing some Drums beat, ran into the Street, with his long Staff in his Hand, and the Gentleman with him, who saw a very great Tumult of disorderly Persons arm'd with huge Clubs, and several with Cleavers &c., and innumerable Lights, and Streamers. Among the rest came Three of H-- M--'s Drummers beating their Drums; whereupon the Gentleman ran up to the Drum Head, and ask'd, Who they were for? They said, The House of Hanover. He repli'd G-- D-- you, what before the Queen is dead? Drummers, I'll give you Sixpence, beat a Point of War for Queen ANNE, here by the Constable. But the Constable said, No, let them go into the Tavern, and beat out of the Crowd, and they shall have Money and Wine too. So he made way for them with his Staff, and they went into the Tavern, where they beat and drank till the Tumult was gone by. After which, the Constable had them up to Ludgate, and from thence to the Compter. The next Evening, about Four a Clock, he carry'd them before Sir William Withers, who demanded their Names, and those of their Colonels, which are as follows, Thomas Hawes under Colonel P--tt; Charles Bannister under Colonel E--ll; and William Taylor under Brigadier F--s belonging to the F-- R-- of G--'s. And after Sir William Withers had examin'd them, and the said Constable, and another Constable (whose Hat the Rioters beat off, because he did not pull it off to them, tho' he was on his Duty with his long Staff in his Hand) he was of Opinion their Crime would amount to High Treason, and was so much the blacker, because they were the Q - 's own S ts, and therefore Committed them to Newgate.' In cases, however, of civil commotion, the train bands were generally called out. These citizen soldiers were ever the laughing-stock of the wits of their day, and Steele cannot help having his joke upon them. ' The Chief Citizens, like the noble Italians, hire Mercenaries to carry arms in their Stead; and you shall have a fellow of desperate fortune, for 1 Tater, No. 28.


the gain of one half Crown, go through all the dangers of Tothill Fields, or the Artillery Ground, clap his right jaw within two inches of the touch-hole of a Musquet, fire it off, and huzza, with as little concern as he tears a pullet.' He laughs, too, at the officers, and at their method of promotion. 'But the point of honour justly gives way to that of gain; and, by long and wise regulation, the richest is the bravest man. I have known a Captain rise to a Colonel in two days by the fall of stocks; and a Major, my good friend, near the Monument, ascended to that honour by the fall of the price of Spirits, and the rising of right Nantz.' And a great part of Tatler 41 is taken up by a laughing criticism on 'An Exercise of Arms,' which took place on June 29, , and was supposed to represent the putting down of a revolt. The sister service had no easy task under Anne, but were always hard at work, either at fighting, or convoying, or transport work, besides being always cruising about and snapping up prizes; and there were some good commanders in those days, whose names have descended to ours. What Englishman can forget the names of Benbow, Rooke, and Cloudesley Shovel? They were not always successful--as in the case of the first-named old sea-dog. On August 19, , he sighted the enemy's squadron, under Du Casse; on the 20th he engaged-but not till the 24th did he come to close quarters. His ship, the Breda, was then able to close with the sternmost French ship, which he himself boarded three times, and was twice wounded. He afterwards had his right leg shattered by a chain shot, and was carried below, but would insist on being carried on deck, where he remained the rest of the action. He disabled his opponent, but her consorts came to her relief, when four cowardly captains of his basely deserted him, in spite of his signals; so he had to give up the pursuit, and proceeded with his squadron to Jamaica, where he died Nov. 4. On Oct. 12, , Sir George Rooke burnt the French and Spanish shipping in Vigo, and sacked the town. This, besides the damage done to the foreign navies, was notorious for the enormous quantity of booty taken, both in specie, snuff, and THE ARMY AND NAVY.


other goods. What the specie amounted to is not now known, but it was not so much as was expected, for by far the larger portion had been landed and sent into the interior of the country. Still it furnished a very handsome prize money for all concerned, although, as is usual in such cases, it was long before it was realised. A special coinage was made from this specie, and Ruding gives specimens of five-, two-, and one-guinea and half-guinea piecesand silver crowns, half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences of this type. Some had the date , others , but in every case the word VIGO was under the Queen's bust. Luttrell gives a little anecdote about it. '20 Mar. 'I703. This week £ of new mill'd money coyned out of the plate taken at Vigo was brought from the Tower to sir Christopher Musgrave's office in the exchequer, and lock't up for her majestie's use, haveing the word Vigo under the queen's effigie.' It is not within the province of this book to go into details of the victories of the British navy in this reign, but we must not forget that Sir George Rooke won us, in , the rock of Gibraltar. The damage done to the French shipping during the long war must have been almost incalculable, not a daily paper or report from the sea-ports being without mention of some prizes


Yet the service was not a popular one, at least with seamen, the way the navy was generally manned, by impress, being quite sufficient to make Jack fight shy of it. We hear of this impressing in the very first year of the reign. 'The Post Letters say there are 6 Press Ketches at Falmouth, which have pressed a considerable number of Men for her Majesty's Service.' 'Irish Letters of the 26th past say, they continue to beat up for Soldiers at Dublin, where abundance list themselves, and that some Press-Ketches in that Harbour have pressed 400 Seamen within a few Days, and that a great many are voluntarily come in.' 2 But though pressed, Jack was hard to hold, if he got a chance to get away. 'Hull, 1 March. Last week a Lieutenant came hither with a Press Gang, and had so good Success, that he soon Glean'd up a considerable number; but having no Vessel to put them on board, he turn'd them into an upper Room in the Town Gaol, and on Saturday they broke out through the top of the House and Escap'd.' 3 All means were tried to get men, and a bribe was held out by the Act 1 Anne, cap. 19, which provided for the discharge of every male prisoner for debt under £ 20, and who had been in prison for six months, who should enlist either in the army or navy, and the same was afterwards tried by 4 & 5 Anne, cap. 6. This serves to show the condition of the poor debtors, who were thus invited to ameliorate their position, by exchanging it for the 'Inferno' of a man-of-war of that period. Still we read early in : 'There is great impressing of Seamen for Her Majesties Service, she being resolved to have the Navy early at sea.' The bounty system was tried, and on Dec. 14, , the Queen issued a proclamation, offering two months' pay to every sailor volunteering, and one month's to every landsman. This proclamation also vowed vengeance against deserters, ordered officers of press gangs to press no old men, boys, or infirm persons, and promised them 'Twenty Shillings for each Seaman, and Sixpence per Man for each Mile he shall be brought, if under 1Flying Post, April 2/4, . 2 Ibid. April 4/7, . 3 Daily Courant, March 4, . THE ARMY and NAVY.


twenty Miles, and Ten Shillings for each Seaman that shall be brought above Twenty Miles, over and above the said Twenty Shillings.' This arbitrary system of impressing was so cruel, that one feels heartily glad to find that it is possible there might be another side to the question, and that a man might be punished for it. 'Yesterday one Philpot was by the court of Queen's Bench fined 10 Nobles, and to stand in the pillory on Tower Hill, for wrongfully pressing one Gill, and taking 4 Guineas for his discharge.'1 One man seems to have had the courage to speak against it, and I regret I have been unable to get his pamphlet. 'Just Published. The Old and True Way of Manning the Fleet, Or how to Retrieve the Glory of the English Arms by Sea, as it is done by Land; and to have Seamen always in readiness, without Pressing. In a Letter from an old Parliament Sea Commander, to a Member of the present House of Commons, desiring his Advice on that Subject. Printed in the Year .' The pay was not so bad, £ 4 a month 2 but the service was unpopular-the officers were rough and foul-mouthed, whose creed was,' I hate the French, love a handsome Woman and a Bowl of Punch' 3-so the men deserted whenever they could. It was no use issuing proclamations offering a reward of twenty shillings for every such deserter delivered up on board ship; they kept their pay back, and tried to allure them from the joys of freedom and the shore by bidding them repair on board their ships to receive their pay due six months back, still keeping six months in hand. Jack was proof against such blandishments: so the authorities tried another plan-the magnanimous-and promised to forgive the deserters, if only they would come back; anything to get the dear fellows on board, all would be forgotten and forgiven, and joy and peace should reign henceforth. 'All such Seamen that are made run, for not repairing to their Duty, shall have their R's taken off, and be continued in Wages from the times they have been absent, provided they do forthwith repair on board.' As this is the only instance I can meet with of this bait being held out, one rather suspects Luttrell, July 14, . 2 Ibid. Oct. 31, . 3 The Basset Table. VOL. II. P


Jack was not quite such a fool as they imagined him, and, once free, had no wish to get into the trap again. Brown 1 gives a description of the Admiralty in his time: 'By this time we were come to the Admiralty Office, the outside invited us in, and here we found only a Company of Tarrs, walking to and fro with their Hands in their Pockets, as on the Quarter Deck aboard; in one Room there was a company of Lieutenants, some had serv'd twenty Years without being rais'd, because they either knew not how to Bribe in the right Place, or were so tenacious of what they had so hardly purchas'd, that their only hopes were now Half Pay or Superannuation. In another place were Seamen's Wives with Petitions, and pressing Deputy B--, who was as surly to them, as a true Whigg in Office; but tho' he demanded no Fee, he could be mollified by a little Fellow feeling, that like a Sop to Cerberus, let Petitions and Men pass too; Then you fall in betwixt Scylla and Charybdis, the Clerks on one Side, and Sea Captains on the other; where Cowards that have lost one Ship, easily get another; and Men of Valour, without Interest, wait in vain for Preferment, from those who dispose of what they do not understand; for here the Land determines of the Main, and he that never see the North Foreland, disposes of things, as if he knew all the Creeks and Bays, Shelves, Sands, and Nations of the Universe.' From contemporary descriptions Jack's nature has not much altered since Anne's time. Ward thus sums him up: ' I could not but reflect on the unhappy Lives of these Salt Water kind of Vagabonds, who are never at Home but when they're at Sea, and always are wandering when they're at Home; and never contented but when they're on Shore; They're never at ease till they've receiv'd their Pay, and then never satisfied till they have spent it; And when their Pockets are empty, they are just as much respected by their Landladies (who cheat them of one half, if they spend the other) as a Father is by his Son-in-Law, who has Beggar'd himself to give him a good Portion with his Daughter.' In the mercantile marine, there was a large trade done 1 A Talk round London and Westminster. THE ARMY AND NAVY.


with India and China. Dampier fitted out his third semipiratical expedition, Alexander Selkirk was discovered and brought home, and Captain Edward Cooke circumnavigated the globe. The map published in his book is a very fair sample of hydrography. 'New Zealand, Dimens Land, and New Holland' are just indicated in their proper positions, but New Guinea is represented as being joined to the north of Australia, and California is shown as an island. 1 A Voyage to the South Sea and round the World perform'd in the Years , , , and , etc.


[1] Luttrell, June 12, 1708.

[2] A Walk round London and Westminster.

[4] Tunbridge Walks.

[5] The Recruiting Officer.

[6] A Walk round London and Westminster.

[7] The London Spy.