Tout, T. F. --Powell, F. York
1.  To restore order and maintain it was not easy, but the new king was well fitted for the task. He had great natural gifts, was of an energetic and persevering character, and an iron constitution, while he had set his heart on seeing his domains peaceful and prosperous. Directly he was crowned, December 19, , he published a charter, and began carrying out the articles of the Wallingford treaty. The Flemings were sent home to their workshops, or ordered to join their brethren in Wales, the royal farms were restocked, 's foolish grants of land and money annulled, and the great barons of both parties compelled to give up their castles. The rule of law began again; chose Robert, Earl of Leicester, for his Justiciar, and for Chancellor, appointed fresh judges for his royal court, and put forth a new order allowing disputed criminal cases or suits touching the ownership of land to be decided before a king's judge by inquest [inquiry] of twelve sworn neighbours, freeholders of the shire, instead of ordeal or wager of battle.
After defeating his brother Geoffrey's attack on Anjou, further secured his realm by making the King of Scots pay him homage at Chester, and give up the earldoms of Cumberland and , which he had received from the late king. In an attack on Wales he was less happy, for in a fight at Consilt Pass, the standard-bearer of England, Henry, Earl of Essex, threw down the royal banner and fled, whereon the English, supposing the king to be
|slain, turned to flight. However, Owen, the Welsh prince, knowing his foe's power, was glad to make peace. Henry of Essex was afterwards accused of treason, and defeated by Robert of Montfort in trial by battle, but was permitted to become a monk, forfeiting all his lands and goods, but saving his life.|
Wishing to bring about a lasting peace with the King of France, now sent his Chancellor in great state to France to arrange a marriage between his own little son Henry and ' baby daughter Margaret, and himself paid a friendly visit to Paris. But in , when he claimed Toulouse by right of his wife from Raymond of S. Giles, the French king opposed him and war began. By ' advice made his knights pay scutage [shield-money] instead of service-in-arms, and by this means hired foreign soldiers who would follow him as long as he could pay them, whereas the knights only owed him forty days' service, and the fyrd could not be ordered abroad. The King of Scots, the Prince of Wales, and Raymond, Earl of Barcelona, joined the English army, and laid siege to Toulouse; but when threw himself into the city, he was unwilling to fight against his suzerain [feudal lord], and though laughed at his scruples, raised the siege and withdrew his troops. Still the two kings did not become friends; for got leave from the Pope to marry the two children, and so, greatly to ' disgust, took possession of the Vexin, Margaret's dowry, long before the French king thought of losing it. However, in , the two princes met at Chateauroux to decide which Pope they would acknowledge; for after the death of Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspear, 's firm friend, the only Englishman who was ever Bishop of Rome) a deadly dispute had arisen between the cardinals, and two rival popes had been chosen. In spite of his friendship for the Emperor Frederick, who favoured Victor, agreed with to stand by .
2. In the English bishops, willing to please , chose his friend the Chancellor to fill the vacant see of Canterbury. was the son of a rich Norman merchant, Gilbert, sometime port-reeve of London, and his wife, Maud of Cæn, who had brought him up with great care, sending him to the hall of Richer of L'Aigle, his father's friend, to learn courtly behaviour, and to the office of the wealthy Osbern Eightpenny to be taught business. He was for a time at the University of Paris, and is said to have been a pupil of the famous lawyer Gratian at Bologna. Taken into the household
|of Archbishop Theobald, he had served him skilfully at home and abroad, and, in spite of jealous enemies, such as Roger of Pont l'Eveque, gained his high esteem. With his master he took part in the reforms of , in which year he was made Archdeacon of .  soon singled him out as a bold and able man, and besides giving him the chancery, promoted him to other posts of trust. As keeper of the Tower and castellan of Eye, he led 700 knights in the Toulouse war, where he did many deeds of arms, and overcame a French knight, Ingelram of Trie, in single combat. Several well-known stories witness to his close friendship with the king; his kindliness, and the open-handed hospitality, in which he surpassed all his predecessors, assured the favour of the people. is described as tall and spare, but strong-limbed, dark-haired, pale-cheeked, of pleasing countenance, blithe manners, and quick, frank speech, stammering a little when he was moved. In youth he had been known as a good chess-player, a bold rider, and keen sportsman. He was always a hater of liars and slanderers, and a kind friend to dumb beasts and all poor and helpless folk.|
looked to his new archbishop for aid in the plans he was now devising for bounding the powers of the Church courts and bettering the law, but made up his mind to serve the Church as singly and zealously as he had hitherto served the king, and at once gave up the Chancellorship, much to the king's displeasure. He then took measures against some courtiers who were, he believed, defrauding the see of , and at the Great Council of Woodstock in successfully withstood the king to the face, when he wished to turn the Dangeld shire-fees into a regular tax to be newly assessed, declaring that he would not suffer a penny to be paid off his or any other land. At the same time he entirely changed his mode of life, giving up all courtly amusements and worldly business, and spending all his time in the care of his diocese, the relief of the poor and sick, and his religious duties, fasting often, secretly scourging himself daily for penance, and wearing a haircloth next his skin, though he still dressed richly and kept grand state. In at a Great Council at Westminster, in consequence of a case in which a clergyman had committed a crime and, being claimed by the Church, escaped capital punishment, the king determined to put an end to this conflict of laws by which evil-doers might profit, and asked the bishops whether for the future they would be willing to
abide by the Old Customs of the realm, as settled in his grandfather's day. To this all agreed |
whereupon ordered his justiciar, Richard of Lucy, and his clerk, Jocelin of Balliol, to draw up a list of these Old Customs. Sixteen Constitutions or Articles were accordingly set before the bishops in a Great Council at Clarendon, January .
By these--1. Bishops were to be chosen by the king's consent, and must do him homage and attend his courts like other barons, save when capital offences were being dealt with.
2. All questions touching Church patronage, land held by lay service (rent or service-in-arms), contracts,capital offences committed by clergymen, and injuries done to the clergy by laymen were to be tried in the king's courts.
3. Lesser offences committed by clergymen against laymen or their fellow-clergy, and suits relating to land held by spiritual service (the performance of Church duties) were to be tried in the Church courts.
4. No layman was to be punished by the Church courts, and no clergyman might leave the realm or appeal to Rome without first getting the king's leave.
5. No serf might be ordained without his lord's leave. protested that these Constitutions attacked the liberties of the Church, which the king in his coronation oath had sworn to maintain, and was only persuaded to sign them by the prayer of his fellow-bishops. Directly he had signed them he repented, withdrew his signature, and sent to beg forgiveness of the Pope for having wronged the Church. His enemies took care to fan 's natural anger at his old friend's opposition, and another Council met at Northampton, 8th October , where the archbishop was accused of denying justice to John the Treasury-Marshal, found guilty, and heavily fined; and further ordered to account for 30,000 marks spent by him while Chancellor. In vain he proved that the Justiciar Richard had set him free of all claims when he laid down his office. The king would not stay the proceedings unless would agree to the Constitutions. Whereupon the archbishop came into the Council in full robes with the crosier in his hand, and refusing to allow Earl Robert to pass sentence against him, put himself and the Church under the keeping of God and the Pope. There were shouts of anger at his words. Earl Hamelin, the king's brother, and Randulf of Brok cried, and others tore up the rushes from the
|floor and flung them at him. Turning fiercely to the earl, he said, and passed out of the hall.|
Hopeless of aid from his fellow-bishops, who all sided with the king, he fled in disguise to Flanders that very night. Both parties appealed to , who was then at Sens. in his anger cruelly banished all ' friends and kinsmen, 400 in number; but the French king, who took up the archbishop's cause warmly, received them and gave them lodging and food in his domains. Knowing that the (to whose friend Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, the English king had just betrothed his daughter Margaret) was trying to gain King 's help for his new antipope Pascal [Victor's successor], was luke-warm in backing ' cause, though he could not honestly give it up, and let the case drag on. Meanwhile the English king strengthened himself by getting the hand of Constance, heiress of Richmond and Brittany, for his third son Geoffrey, and went on with his law reforms. Early in he issued the Assize of Clarendon, instructions for the judges going on circuit; for, copying the plan of his grandfather (who had sent his judges to the county courts to hear and decide revenue cases), he had ordered them to try all important cases, civil or criminal, in the shire courts, thus preventing the feudal lords from setting up private courts of justice of their own, apart from the royal authority, and curbing the sheriffs, who might have used their offices to advance their own power if not checked by the king's judges. This assize obliged all land-holders to attend the county courts, restored the old grand jury, fallen into disuse in 's days, and provided that all accused must clear themselves before the king's judges by the inquest of twelve sworn neighbours (our petty jury) or by wager of battle, or else leave the kingdom, even though they could clear themselves by ordeal, for it was now felt that the ordeal was merely a matter of chance.
In June, weary of the Pope's delay, reopened the quarrel by excommunicating the Justiciar Richard and others for upholding the Constitutions, and Randulf of Brok for taking a piece of Church land. They appealed to the Pope against this sentence, and threatened to banish the Cistercians because their brethren were sheltering the archbishop at Pontigny. He therefore moved to Sens
|(where his vestments may still be seen), and the King of France and many discontented nobles in Brittany, Poitou, and Guienne took up arms in his favour, the Earl of Flanders even threatening to invade England. But Alexander, whom Frederick had driven from Rome, feared King 's power, and did his best to reconcile him with . After many meetings, a kind of truce was patched up in , the king still refusing to give the archbishop the kiss of peace (the sign of friendship), and the archbishop still condemning the Constitutions.|
3. In determined to make his eldest son king in his lifetime, after the French fashion, that there might always be some one in England to see the laws enforced when he himself was obliged to be in his foreign dominions. Accordingly 's old foe Roger, now Archbishop of , hallowed the young Henry king at Westminster, January 14, , the old king serving as cupbearer at the coronation feast. , furious at this breach of his rights, for it was the privilege of the Archbishop of to crown all English kings, got the Pope's order to suspend Roger, and the Bishops of London and Salisbury, his abettors, from their offices, and King threatened war because his daughter had not been crowned with her husband. Hastening to France, Henry made friends with , and gave him leave to return to his see. The archbishop started at once, but found scant welcome in England after his seven years' exile, for most men held with the king, and looked on him as a traitor, save the poor, who remembered his charity. Roger laughed at his complaints, the young king, his former pupil, would not receive him and forbade him to leave his see, and those who had wasted his lands and goods refused to make good the damage.  At last, on Christmas Day, he read the sentence on Roger and the two bishops, and cast Randulf of Brok and his brother Robert out of the pale of the Church for insulting him by docking the tail of one of his packhorses. The bishops crossed the sea at once to complain to the king, who was keeping his Christmas at Bur. When heard of it he fell into one of those terrible rages to which he sometimes gave way.
Four of the king's knights, Reginald Fitz-Urse, William of Tracy, Hugh of Moreville, and Richard the Breton, hearing these words and the saying of Roger of ,
took ship at once for England. They passed the night of the 28th December at Saltwood Castle with Randulf of Brok, and next day rode on to with Hugh of Horsea, called the Evil Deacon, and twelve of Randulf's men. Making their way at once to the archbishop's chamber, they found him sitting on his bed talking to John of Salisbury his clerk, Edward Grim a young priest, and a few other friends. He recognised Reginald, William, and Hugh, who had once served under him, but waited for them to speak. said Reginald, " they cried, Then they bit their gloves, and defied the archbishop angrily, bidding his servants keep him in the precincts on peril of their heads, and left the room. cried John of Salisbury, Meanwhile the knights were arming themselves in the courtyard; when the frightened monks saw them by the apple-tree in their mail-shirts with drawn swords, they ran to the archbishop and begged him to fly to the cathedral, but he laughed at their fears--and would not stir till the vesper bell rang, when he walked to the minster. The knights now broke into the
|cloister, and reaching S. Bennetts chapel just after him, began hammering at the door, which the monks had barred behind them. said , Then he slipped back the bar himself, refusing to fly, and when the angry knights rushed in with cries of turned to meet them. Reginald caught hold of his mantle, but he tore the mantle from him with a bitter answer, refusing to leave They tried to drag him from the chapel, but he clung to the great pillar, and Edward Grim held him fast, till Tracy, who had thrown off his heavy mail-coat that he might move the easier, laid hands on him, when the archbishop grew angry and hurled him to the ground. With that Fitz-Urse shouted and smote off his coif with his sword, and Tracy leaped up and cut savagely at his bare head. The brave Grim dashed between them, caught the blade on his arm, and fell back badly wounded, but the point gashed ' brow, and the blood ran down his face. He never flinched, though he knew his hour was come, but bowed his head, and commended his cause and that of the Church to God, S. Denis, and the saints of the minster. Moreville drew back shocked, but Reginald struck him again, and Tracy felled him senseless to the pavement. Richard (whose master, Earl William, had parted from his wife) struck at him as he lay, crying, and the Evil Deacon brutally mangled the dead man's head. said Fitz-Urse, and shouting they rushed off to plunder the palace. The monks crept back in the dark and took up the corpse, doubting whether the archbishop had been justly slain or no, but when below his splendid robes they found the haircloth he always wore, and saw on his body the marks of the stripes of his daily penance, their doubts fled and they proclaimed him a martyr. The news horrified all that heard it, and 's grief for his hasty words was deep and true. He sent instant explanations to the Pope, and then fearing that his enemies might prevail with him, started on an expedition to Ireland, where he stayed till the Pope's legates came to|
|Normandy, when he cleared himself before them by oath at Avranches of all foreknowledge of the archbishop's death, promised to give up the Constitutions, and to stand by Alexander against the emperor. was canonized in ; a splendid shrine rose at in his honour, to which, through the fame of his miraculous power, crowds of pilgrims flocked from all parts for healing, and many churches were built in his honour.|
However, the results of the struggle were not unfavourable to the king; he had no further trouble with the Church, and the Constitutions held good in deed, though not in name, and it is likely that but for the murder, would have lived to see the defeat of his cause. But it must be held in mind that the archbishop had on his side the Church or Canon Law, which he had sworn to obey, and certainly the lay courts erred as much on the side of harshness and cruelty as those of the Church on that of foolish pity towards evil-doers. would doubtless have withstood an evil king as boldly as he resisted a good one, and in the reverence of centuries he has had his reward. One of his secretaries sums up the matter:
4.  About B.C. the Kelts, sons of Miledh [the Soldier] and Eremon [the Ploughman], first crossed into Erin [Iberians' land], and set up small kingdoms there by force of arms. Many legends of the struggle between the two races remain, and we know that the Iberian tribes early accepted the Keltic tongue, took Keltic chiefs to rule over them, and agreed to pay tribute to the Keltic Head-King; most of Leinster and Munster and part of Ulster remaining to them, while the rest of the island was held by the Kelts. Of the old Homeric heathen days of Ireland, with their gods, wizards, charioted heroes, and Amazonian ladies, we have the beautiful stories of and , the champion of the north, and the Warriors of the Red Branch and the hapless Sons of Visnach, and the later tales of the Fenians, Finn mac Coul and his hound Bran, Conn of the hundred fights, Diarmaid the courteous, Oscar the brave, and the aged bard Ossian, who outlived them all, and sang their glory and their fate.
Palladius, Pope Cælestine's archdeacon, was the first to preach the Gospel to the Irish, but they would not hear him. To , however, a Welshman who had been a slave among them in his youth, and went back in to teach them the New Faith, they listened gladly and became Christians. As the hymn tells-
Christianity worked less change in Ireland than in England. It did away, indeed, with many foul superstitions and cruelties, replaced the Druids' colleges by monastic families and schools, brought in such Roman civilization as had survived in the towns of West Britain (whence Patrick and most of his followers came), introducing the Latin alphabet, tongue, and learning; but it did little to unite the warring tribes, and could not check the feuds which kept them apart. The Irish Church always remained in form a missionary Church; in each tribe there arose a monastery round the cell of some saintly teacher who had gathered to him a body of disciples, as , for instance, did at Hy. An abbot, often of royal blood, ruled this minster, and under his orders a number of bishops and priests went forth to minister to the small churches of the different septs or clans which make up the tribe, or travelled to more distant lands, Helvetia, , or England, where their noble labours were, perhaps, more successful and famous than at home. But though these pious and learned Irish Churchmen had less influence over the daily life of their countrymen than our more ignorant and less ascetic parish clergy, they justly earned for their land the name of the Isle of Saints.
The soil, climate, and shape of Ireland, which made it a paradise for a pastoral people, were all unfavourable to agriculture or trade, and it was not easy for the tribes, had they wished it, to join under one strong central government,
|or for the farmers to improve their tillage, and take to settled village life as the English had done; so that the account given above of the Britons before the Romans came, may well serve for that of the Irish down to the beginning of the ninth century.|
About that time the Ostmen [men from the East, i.e. Norwegians], after many years of plundering, began to settle, Thorgils and his brother first, and after them Anlaf, Sihtric, and , the sons of , setting up colonies along the south and east coasts at Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford, and in the Isle of Man. The history of those little states is made up of wars with the native Irish, forays and trading voyages into Wales and England, and emigrations to the far northern islands Iceland and the Færeys. They were forced to acknowledge the overlordship of and Cnut, and of the Tribute, Head-King of Ireland, put a limit to their conquests by his victory at , Good Friday , in which he defeated Sigtryg Silk-beard, King of Dublin, and a host of Orkney wickings; but the house of was their firm ally. Upon the Irish, beyond the momentary union the dread of them brought about, and the introduction of new weapons and better shipping, the Ostmen's influence was slight; though, on the other hand, the Ostmen learned Christianity from the Irish, and gained the knowledge of many arts, such as music, harp-playing, new kinds and forms of poetry, the Roman alphabet, and the way of putting together and telling histories and legends in regular form.
5.  When first came to the throne he planned the conquest of Ireland, wishing to make his brother William king there, and got a bull from his friend Adrian (who claimed authority over all islands as part of the Papal domains) allowing him to subdue and rule it on condition of paying Rome-Scot, a penny a year for each house, and upholding the Irish Church. But, like and the two Williams, he let the matter drop, till in , Diarmaid, King of Leinster, who had carried off the wife of Tigernan O'Ruairc, Lord of Leitrim, and was flying from the vengeance of the High-King Roderick O'Connor, came to him for help to get back his kingdom, offering to do him homage in return. would not act himself, but let Diarmaid get what help he could from his barons. He was able to engage the aid of of Clare, Earl of Pembroke, and went back to Ireland to prepare for his coming. sent over before him
|his kinsmen Fitz-Gerald and Fitz-Stephen with a few troops in May , and they succeeded in taking Wexford from the Ostmen who had defied Diarmaid. The earl himself followed in August with 80 knights and 1000 Welsh archers, the king joined him, and they stormed another Ostman's town, Waterford, gallantly held by Rognwald and the two Sihtrics, and won back Leinster. Diarmaid now fulfilled his bargain and gave Eva his daughter to to wife, and promised him his kingdom when he died, which by Irish law he had no right to do. The allies then beset Dublin, ruled by the Ostman Earl Haskulf Rognwaldsson, and took it by surprise, Haskulf escaping to the Western Isles with his galleys. There he got help and came back with John the Mad, a Norwegian wicking, to try and recover the city, but they were both taken and slain. Roderick the high-king, now awakened to his danger and hoping to crush the strangers at one blow (for Diarmaid died at this moment and 's claim to his throne was resisted even in Leinster), laid siege to Dublin by land with a huge host, while Guthred, King of Man, blockaded the harbour with sixty war-ships. Provisions ran low in the town, but in their despair the English knights made a sudden and furious sally, throwing the undisciplined Irish into panic flight, whereupon Guthred, seeing his cause hopeless, sailed back to Man. A third attack by O'Ruairc and the men of Meath was easily met, and Waterford, lost for a moment, speedily retaken.|
All Leinster, great part of Desmond [South Munster] and Meath, and the Ostmen's coast towns had been won in a few months. King was alarmed at 's success, and fearing lest he should set up a rival kingdom in the new-won land, recalled him to England. He obeyed, crossed to Newnham, and there did homage to the king for Dublin and Leinster. then set out with 500 knights and thousands of archers in a fleet of 400 sail to visit his new domains. In a wattled palace near Dublin he received the homage of the Irish kings of Munster and lords of Kinsale, Oriel, and Ulster, and even compelled the high-king to agree to a truce (which in was changed to a peace at Windsor by the efforts of Lawrence O'Toole, the holy Archbishop of Dublin). The Irish clergy, under the Bishop of Lismore, the Pope's legate, met at and accepted the rule of the English king, who granted them freedom from all taxes, purveyance [duty of feeding the king's court], and were-gilds, and provided for their regular maintenance by tithes. Having caused a survey to
|be made of the conquered country, the English Pale or Border as it was called, confirmed Waterford and Wexford to Fitz-Gerald and Hervey his kinsmen, and made Marshal of Ireland, settling friends of his own beside them, Hugh of Lacy as Justiciar and Constable in Meath, and Theobald Walter, 's sister's son, as Butler in Ormond [North Munster]. He also set up Royal Courts in Dublin and established English law in the Pale. He then went back to Normandy, before he could build the line of castles he had planned along the border, to meet the Pope's messengers. He wished to make his favourite son, Earl , King of Ireland, and Pope Urban even sent him a crown of peacock's feathers for him; but the young man's foolish and insulting behaviour to the Irish chiefs, when he was governor there in , put an end to this plan.|
The conquest of Down in by John of Courcy, son-in-law of Guthred, King of Man, and the settlement of the Graces, MacMahons, De Burghs, and other Norman families, north, west, and south of the Pale, complete the story of the Settlement. For the next 150 years Irish history tells of little but cruel feuds between the native tribes, endless wars between them and the English settlers, and deadly struggles between these settlers themselves, one party headed by the Geraldines (Fitz-Gerald's kin) and the other by the Butlers, which the king's governors of the Pale were powerless to check or put down.
Earl 's tutor, Gerald of Barry, a Welsh priest, whose kinsmen Fitz-Gerald, Miles Cogan, and others were the heroes of the Conquest, has left a lively account of Ireland in his day, which explains the rapid success of the invasion. Besides the chiefs' guards, gallowglasses armed in Norwegian fashion, the Irish had only their armourless kernes, footmen, with darts, knives, stones, and wicker shields, or little iron bucklers, to oppose the mail-clad knights, disciplined Flemish men-at-arms, and skilful Welsh archers. Even the invaders' small numbers were in their favour when set against unwieldy crowds of untrained men, as Cortez and Pizarro found in like case. Only in the cities did they meet with able resistance, for there horsemanship was of no avail, and the Ostman, as well armed and trained as themselves, met broadsword and lance with his terrible war-axe, and only yielded when he could fight no longer. Nor could all the skill of himself, that cheery cool-headed leader with the fair womanly face, large bright eyes, and shrill voice, nor all the well-ordered bravery of his
|followers have ensured success, without the help of Diarmaid, the disunion and feuds of the Irish princes, and the neutrality of the Irish clergy, who believed that God had sent the strangers as a scourge upon the land because of the national sins of cruelty, treachery, and the slave-trade.|
Among the things which struck Gerald as peculiar to this hitherto-unknown land are the quaint Irish costumes,-the men's pleated saffron-dyed shirts, parti-coloured hoods, cloth breeches, cowskin brogues, and red mantles, and the women's long-sleeved sarks and huge cloaks; the little horses ridden without saddle or stirrups, and the fine cattle, the mainstay of life (for in Ireland feudalism was founded upon the giving and taking of stock, not land). He admires their wit, poetry, and harp-playing, wonders at their primitive law and curious old customs, notices their deep reverence for holy places and relics, blames the drunkenness and praises the piety of their clergy; and tells of the strong clan-feeling, fickleness, and turbulence of the axe-bearing Irish gentry,-characteristics which appear almost unchanged in the later accounts of the same people by in 's and Spenser in 's days.
6.  's worst foes were ever those of his own house-hold. His wife Eleanor did not live happily with him, and encouraged her headstrong and undutiful sons to defy their father. In the young king, chafing at being king only in name, for his father would not trust him to rule alone in Normandy or England, and sorely angered at the banishment of one of his favourites, went off secretly by night to S. Denis, and getting help of King , took up arms. The Earls of Flanders, Boulogne, and Blois, jealous of 's power in France, eagerly espoused his cause; his brothers, Geoffrey of Brittany and Richard of Poitou, joined him with their vassals; and many of the great nobles of England, especially those that still held lands in Normandy, disliking 's good law and longing for a king who would allow them to deal with their men as they liked, gladly rose in rebellion. , seeing the danger, at once hired 10,000 Brabanters, drove out of Normandy, and crushed the revolt in Brittany, defeating the rebels at Dol and capturing their ringleaders, Hugh, Earl of Chester, and Raoul of Fougeres. The young king now incited William the Lion, King of Scots, to attack England, promising him those northern counties, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, which his father had refused to give up to him. He accordingly invaded England
|with an army of Galloway men and Highlanders, who plundered the country most horribly, but were unable to take the border towns, in which the English barons held out stoutly till the Justiciar Lucy the loyal and the bold Constable Humfrey of Bohun could come to their aid. They managed to obtain a truce from King William, and hastened south to save England; for the Earl of Leicester and his warlike wife Pernel had landed at Orwell with 1500 Flemings, had been at once joined by the Earls of Norfolk and Derby, and had already taken . A sudden attack upon the invaders near Bury S. Edmunds threw them into disorder, the earl was taken, and the countess, who had ridden through Norfolk in armour like a knight, fell into a ditch in her flight, where she lost her rich rings and was almost drowned before her captors could rescue her. The country-folk, angry at the ravages of the Flemings, came out with their forks and flails and killed every foreigner they could lay hands on.|
England was, however, not yet safe. Roger of Mowbray with the Earls of Derby and Norfolk were still in the field, and the Earl of Leicester's castles garrisoned against the king. A second Flemish invasion was threatened, for young Henry and the Earl of Flanders were at Gravelines with a fleet waiting only for a fair wind. Earl David of Huntingdon, King William's brother, had marched to relieve Leicester with a proud company of Scottish knights, and the truce being over, the Scottish king himself was again besetting the northern towns. The of the northern shires, however, turned out against him, and the northern barons and gentry quitted themselves like men. Lucy had sent already for King , who having quelled the revolt in Poitou, was now able to sail for England. On the way to London he stopped at to do penance at Beket's tomb. Outside the town a procession of clergy met him, with whom, barefoot and barehead in his linen clothes, with only a horse-cloth over his shoulders, though it was raining heavily, he walked to the cathedral. There he was scourged by the monks as penance, and passed the night watching, fasting, and praying on the bare ground by the tomb. Next day he started for London, where he was warmly welcomed by the faithful citizens.
On the 13th July, Odinel of Umfraville, hearing that King William with sixty knights and a few Flemings had gone on before his host to Alnwick, proposed to of Glanville to fall upon him at once while he was unprepared. Under cover of a fog they rode unseen to the meadow where William was tilting with his knights, and raised their war-cry. The king put on his helmet, mounted his grey steed, and shouting to his friends,
charged the English barons. But the grey horse was thrust through with a lance, and fell, dragging its rider to the ground, so that he could not rise and was at once taken prisoner. Most of his knights were captured with him, but the Flemings were slain without quarter. When it was known that King William had been sent prisoner to , the leaderless Scots hastened home, and Earl David and the other rebels gave in one by one. So that in a few days the king was able to go back to Normandy, and drive his son from before Rouen, which he had closely beset. With this the rebellion ended. was very merciful, he forgave his undutiful sons, let the traitor earls go free, with the loss of their castles only, many of which he pulled down, and released the King of Scots by a treaty sworn at Falaise, , in which he promised to do homage for his kingdom, and make his clergy acknowledge the rule of the Archbishop of .
7.  was now able to take up the work which the death of and the revolt had hindered. Filling up the vacant sees and lay offices, he himself went round the country in to see that the Forest Law was carried out and evil-doers rightly punished, for many disbanded soldiers and convicts had taken to the woods. He also forbade the bearing of arms in England. In , by the Assize of Northampton, he
|ordered his judges to see that every man sworefealty to him, and made sterner punishments for robbers and outlaws. In he held a grand review of all his knights, barons, and earls at London. In he set a board of five judges to hear appeals from the Assizes, this new court was called King's Bench. Next year the great Justiciar, Richard of Lucy, became a monk in the monastery he had founded at Lesnes in honour of S. , and of Glanville took his place. Their faithful comrade against the rebels, Geoffrey, Bishop of , the king's base son, was made Chancellor soon after. In , too, the Assize of Arms was put forth, regulations for better ordering of the militia, which had done such good service in . Every freeman according to his degree was to furnish himself with arms and attend regular musters before the king's judges of assize-the knight or squire with helmet, mail-coat, shield, and lance; the yeoman with hauberk, iron headpiece, and lance; the burgess and artisan with wadded coat, headpiece, and lance --under penalty of losing their lives or limbs.|
8.  was now at the height of his power. He married his daughters Joan and Eleanor to the kings of Sicily and Castile, and acted as umpire for the latter and his uncle the King of Navarre. Henry the Lion, who had quarrelled with the emperor, took refuge at his court, and the young King of France, Philip, sought his friendship and alliance. But the folly of his sons brought fresh troubles: Earl had refused to do homage for Aquitaine to his jealous brother Henry, who listened to his friend , and in alliance with Geoffrey of Brittany attacked him fiercely.
started to succour , when the young king fell ill and died, begging his father's forgiveness, 11th June . He was rash, proud, and faithless, but his bravery, generosity, and handsome face had
won him many friends. In one of his Laments for him
was one of the last that held out against and Earl , and when his castle was stormed, he was taken and brought before the angry king.
Next year and Geoffrey quarrelled with , and the king with difficulty stopped this civil war. For a time, however, these disputes were stayed; for Heraklios, Patriarch of Jerusalem, came to England on behalf of the barons and knights and clergy of that kingdom, to offer the crown to as the only prince that could save them from . But in spite of the Patriarch's prayers, tears, and even curses, was too wise to leave his Western kingdom exposed to the attacks of the French king and the misbehaviour of his sons. In Earl Geoffrey again rebelled, but his death from a fall at a tournament in Paris, and the evil tidings from the East, restored peace between Philip and at Gisors, , where both kings and Earl took the Cross, and laid tithes on all men's goods for the equipment of their armies. For had overthrown the Christians at Tiberias, taking the king and the True Cross, and seized Ascalon and the Holy City itself, disasters which called for a fresh crusade.
However, before could take steps to fulfil his vow, Philip broke the peace, and Earl , jealous of his father's love for , suddenly went over to him with all his vassals. Fever-stricken and disheartened by his son's treachery, saw his birthplace, Le Mans, taken before his eyes, and was unable to save Tours. His luck had left him, and he made peace at Colombieres, July 4, , promising to make his heir, and to let his barons swear homage to him. As he gave the kiss of peace to his traitor son, he prayed God to let him live long enough to punish him; but when he found that , for whom he had suffered this dishonour, had been leagued against him, his heart broke, he threw himself on his bed, with his face to the wall, and groaned, Two days more he lingered, crying in his fever, and then, on the 7th July, died in the arms of his one faithful son, Geoffrey the Chancellor. now repented, but all he could do was to follow his father's body with bitter tears to its grave at Font-Evraud.
Eyewitnesses describe as of a ruddy weather- beaten countenance, round head, reddish hair, and fierce grey eyes; of middle height, strong limbed, deep chested, and somewhat stout of body in spite of his temperate fare and ceaseless exercise; for he rose at daybreak, passed most of his time on horseback, and when he came home in the evening, would tire out his courtiers by standing, for he would never sit down save at council or dinner. His ungloved hands were rough and scarred with work, his legs bowed with riding, and his voice harsh from shouting to his soldiers and his hounds. His subjects knew him as a wise and mighty king, merciful and careful of his people's rights, but bearing not the sword in vain, the father of the poor, the wayfarer, and the stranger, but we must look on him as the great lawyer who linked the free old English local moots to the strong central Royal Court by his plan of petty juries and judges of assize, a system which in substance is ours of to-day. We may be thankful also to the wise statesman who saved England from the barons' tyranny and the despotism of the Church, and made firm the foundations upon which his successors have reared the free Constitutions under which the English-speaking peoples are now living.
 Henry's wise measures at home and abroad, 1154-1164.
 The struggle with Thomas, 1164-1170.
 The death of Archbishop Thomas, Dec. 1170.
 Henry II. of Anjou and Ireland
 Ireland B.C. 550-AD. 1169.
 Conquest of Ireland, 1169-1171.
 The great rebellion of 1174
 Henry's reforms, 1174-1183.
 Henry's last days and death, 1183-1189.
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|BOOK I: THE OLD ENGLISH.|
CHAPTER I: Britain and the Britons
CHAPTER II: The Romans in Britain.
CHAPTER III:The English Conquest and Settlement
CHAPTER IV:The English become Christian. Overlordship of Northumberland and Marchland Kings. 597
CHAPTER V: The West Saxon Kings and the Danes
CHAPTER VI:The English Emperor-Kings.
CHAPTER VII: The Danish Kings of England
CHAPTER VIII: The Great Earls. Edward the Confessor and Harold II
|BOOK II.THE NORMAN KINGS|
|BOOK III: HENRY II'S CONSTITUTION AND POLICY.|
|BOOK IV: ENGLISH KINGS OF IMPERIAL POLICY|
|BOOK V: THE STRUGGLES OF YORK AND LANCASTER AT HOME AND ABROAD|
CHAPTER I: Henry IV of Bolingbroke 1399-1413
CHAPTER II: Henry V of Monmouth 1413-1422
CHAPTER III: Henry VI of Windsor 1422-1461 and 1471
CHAPTER IV: Edward IV of Rouen 1461-1483
CHAPTER V: Edward V of Westminster 1483 and Richard III 1483
CHAPTER VI: Henry VII 1485-1509
CHAPTER VII: England in the Fifteenth Century