XXVI.-The Building of St. Paul's.
|Approaching London, or pausing on the last hill-top to look back on its wide expanse, we feel that the graceful and majestic dome of is the centre of the City--the nucleus about which its masses congregate--the stately Queen, round which tower, monument, and spire stand ranked as attendant handmaidens. Whether we stand on on a summer evening, with the Abbey towers of showing their distinct outlines through pure air, while the distant city is veiled by the pall of smoke which the light breeze is inclining towards the ocean, while the stately dome ascends where the regions of definite form and dim amorphous haze fade into each other, its golden cross gleaming through a slumberous golden light-or whether from the heights of Hampstead, when in the silence of the dewy morning we could imagine nothing was awake but the sun and ourselves, we behold the mighty structure by the deceptive influence of the clear air and sidelong light projected into startling nearness-or whether from the hill of Greenwich we see the huge mass swathed in mist, now dim and scarce distinguishable, now lost to view and again re-appearing, dark and threatening, like some Highland mountain amid its congenial vapours--from every point of view, under every change of atmospheric influence, the dome of remains the prominent and characteristic feature of London, viewed from a distance. Nor does its power over the fascinated eye and imagination cease when we mingle with the spring-tide of human existence, hurried in incessant ebb and flow along the multitudinous and labyrinthine streets of the metropolis. Ever and anon we are aware of the mighty pile seen through|
|some street vista, or appearing over the house-tops as if close at hand. It is ever present, ever beautiful, ever imposing. No more perfect picture, in point of form, arrangement, or colour, can be imagined, than that which presents itself as we pass along , on a bracing autumn morning, while the sun is yet struggling through an embrowned haze, in the winding ascent of , crowned by this majestic dome. The Cathedral church combines all the elements of grandeur and beauty. Of colossal size, its summit mingles with the clouds, and at times appears to shift with the thin mists that float past it. The impression made by its graceful outline is heightened by the finish of all its parts, indicating a compactness of structure which gives promise of an eternally youthful appearance. Seated high in the centre of London, might well appear to a fantastic mood, of those talismanic structures, of which we read in Arabian tales--the seat of the magical influence which has drawn together and upholds the aggregation of stately structures, the heaped--up wealth to and from which the money business of the whole world is attracted and diverges as from its centre of circulation, and the concentrated spirit of human passion which thrills and quivers so intensely around it.|
Nor is it altogether a vain fancy that attributes an organic unity to London, of which may be considered the binding key-stone : the mind which projected a new city to be erected upon the ruins left by the Great Fire, made this the central point from which he extended his streets on all sides. Before the destruction of the old city he had pictured to himself a stately structure, something like the present, that might be erected on the site of old ; and when the fire had left London a , he traced his plan as a framework in which to set this jewel of his imagination. That plan was not adopted neither the new Cathedral of nor the new City of London are what Wren designed they should be; yet, though the pertinacity with which his contemporaries clung to their preconceived opinions, or defended their little properties, to a great extent baffled his project, still we can trace its lineaments imperfectly stamped upon the rebellious and obdurate material. What was done was done under his superintendence and control--not only , but most of the churches and halls in the City, were his work-and thus he was enabled to call into existence a sufficient number of the parts of the great whole he had contemplated to indicate an outline of his design, and impress something of a uniformity of character upon the new city. This circumstance confers an epic interest upon the rebuilding of London, of which is always the centre. And this consideration it is that has induced us to devote a whole paper to the
a story of great designs partially accomplished--of perseverance triumphing over intrigue, after a struggle of long years-
The point to be made good is our assertion that the idea of giving to a figure nearly resembling that which it now has, had occurred to Wren previous to the Great Fire of London, and that his plan for the rebuilding of the city, if it was not suggested by that idea, was intimately connected with it. of the principal objects which occupied the mind of Charles II. on his restoration seems to have been the repairing of , sadly dilapidated during the civil wars. A commission was accordingly issued for
| and the structure, of which Wren and Evelyn were appointed members. Wren, with the approbation of Evelyn, committed to writing an account of the condition in which he found the cathedral, and proposals for the necessary alterations, which, along with a number of explanatory drawings and designs, were laid before the King. In his memoir we find the germ of the present . He sets out with laying great stress upon the size of the building:-- |
He then proceeds to point out the defects of the original construction of the building, rendering mere patchwork repairs inadvisable, and the artistical faults of the pile.
After some further details he proceeds :--
He then enlarges upon the practical details of time, expense, and materials, of which only this striking passage need be quoted :--
In the memorial from which we quote it is easy to discern exquisite perception of the sublime and beautiful-greatness and boldness of conception-talent for the minutiae of practical detail--the power of raising himself to a great undertaking, and taking such precautions as might ensure its being carried on should he die before its completion-all expressed with the unconscious eloquence of earnest love for the task. It reveals the real artist--Mr. Carlyle might say, and with truth,
Evelyn felt the truth and justice of Wren's remarks, though most of the commissioners could not raise their minds beyond mere patching and plastering; argued, when it was pointed out to them that the main building receded outwards,
and stoutly maintained that the steeple might be repaired on its old foundation. This opposition prevented anything being done, until the Great Fire took the settlement of the question into its own hands, and placed Wren on a ground of vantage. Meanwhile he went on maturing his ideas. Trained a mathematician and curious observer of nature, he brought correct taste and minute inquiry into the whole practical bearings of any task he undertook-to the architectural pursuits into which accident, rather than his own free choice, seem to have led him. In he visited France, resided some months in Paris, inspected and studied the principal buildings of that metropolis, visited the places in the vicinity most worthy of attention, took particular notice of what was most remarkable in every branch of mechanics, and contracted intimacies with the most celebrated artists and men of letters. In a letter to his friend Dr. Bateman he says that the Louvre was for a while his daily object, where no less than a hands were constantly employed,
Almost every sentence of his letter is a picture characteristic at once of the object described and the describer:--
He adds, that he has seen many
By such studies, and by the conversation of his friend Evelyn, who had already published his and others of similar tastes and pursuits, Wren prepared himself for his busy after-life.
The Fire of London roused the indomitable spirits of Englishmen.
wrote Dr. Sprat, with the ruins of the metropolis smoking around him,
On the morning of the Evelyn made a painful pilgrimage through the ruins, clambering over heaps of smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where he was.
The fruit of this excursion was a plan for the restoration of the city.
he wrote to Sir Samuel Tuke, in ,
Wren was appointed Deputy Surveyor-General, and principal architect for rebuilding the whole city, having been previously appointed architect and of the commissioners for the restoration of . The intimate knowledge he obtained of the topography of the metropolis in the course of his official surveys, and the natural tendency of a mind which has projected a general plan for the erection of a city to execute minor details with a constant reference to it, put him in a condition to realize some portions of his design.
The leading features of Wren's plan are given in No. XXV., but we may here mention them more in detail, as stated by himself:--
There was to be a commodious quay on the whole bank of the river from Blackfriars to the Tower; a canal was to be cut at , with sluices at Holborn-bridge and at the mouth, and stores for coal on each side; the Halls of the chief companies were to be united into regular square annexed to ; the churches were to be designed
adorned with useful porticos and lofty ornamental towers, and steeples in the greater parishes; and all churchyards, gardens, and unnecessary vacuities, and all trades that use great fires or yield noisome smells, were to be placed out of the town. It is clear from this outline that the nucleus of Wren's plan for rebuilding London was that cathedral the capabilities of which he had so thoroughly studied and was so eagerly bent upon developing to the utmost. His plan being rejected, he was restricted to the realisation of his idea of an Anglo-episcopal cathedral, to dropping his halls and churches here and there in narrow spaces, obscured by the close proximity of tall houses, in the hope, perhaps, that a more civilised generation might deem it worth while to excavate them, and to introducing from time to time reforms in the line of streets, sewerage, and mode of constructing houses in the metropolis.
Some time, however, elapsed before he was allowed to set to work even upon the cathedral. On a particular survey by the architect and the rest of the commissioners, it was determined that part of the body of the old cathedral towards the west should, as being least damaged, be fitted up as a temporary choir, wherein the dean and prebends might have divine service until the of the whole (for that was still dreamed of), or a new cathedral should be built. A royal mandate was issued on the , for commencing these operations. The whole of that year and part of the next were consumed in clearing away the rubbish, and ascertaining the condition of the ruins. This examination established the correctness of Wren's judgment regarding the ineligibility of merely repairing the building. Dr. Sancroft wrote to him on the ,--
Some entries in the Diary of Pepys, rather later in the same year, convey an impressive though sufficiently grotesque picture of the state of the ruins, and enable us to conjecture the utter helplessness of the who obstructed Wren and fancied themselves adequate to the task of restoring :--
It was therefore natural enough on the part of Dr. Sancroft earnestly to require Wren's
in April, and to inform him in July that they could do nothing without him.
In consequence of the urgency of the commissioners, Wren made a report in which he demonstrated that it was impossible permanently to save the existing building. At the same time he stated in the. most emphatic language the difficulties in the way of a new erection :--
Nevertheless, with the hopefulness characteristic of great minds, he pointed out how the task might be begun. An order was issued in consequence of his report by the King in council, to take down the walls, clear the ground, and proceed precisely as recommended by Wren. Still the half-hearted and narrow-minded portion of the commissioners contrived to throw so many impediments in the way of the architect, that in , we find them still prating of repairing instead of rebuilding, and the site so encumbered with the old materials that it was impossible to proceed with the inspection of the ruins. A representation to this effect from Wren elicited an order for the removal and sale of the rubbish from the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop and Lord Mayor of London, in which, alluding to
is added. It was not, however, till that the intention of repairing the old edifice was finally abandoned, and the architect desired to make designs for an entirely new edifice worthy the greatness of the nation, and calculated to rival every edifice of the kind in Europe. Even then the difficulties and annoyances to which Wren was subjected rather changed their character than abated.
His original design for the cathedral (of which the elevation is subjoined) embodied the great principles expressed in his report on the old church. The length of aisle to which he objected was necessary perhaps for the processions and pageantry of the Romish ritual, but was uncalled for in the reformed cathedral service. He availed himself of this circumstance to give greater compactness and squareness to the church which was to be the basis and
|substructure of his dome. His judges, however, could not emancipate themselves from the notion that the form and arrangement of a cathedral to which they had all|
their lives been accustomed was the only proper and possible form for such a building. The Duke of York, too, insisted, Spence tells us on the authority of Mr. Harding, that side oratories should be added--the anecdotist suggests because he already meditated converting the fabric to the use of the Romish worship. He adds- |
The modification of the original design which has been erected--a cruciform Italian cathedral, closely resembling that of St. Peter at Rome--was accordingly resolved to be carried into execution; and letters patent were issued superseding the old commission for
the ancient cathedral church, authorising the commissioners to
and empowering them to
Sir Christopher now commenced his great work by making the necessary preliminary arrangements for the accomplishment of his design. He appointed officers and chief workmen, with their proper officers, subalterns, and departments, all in subordination and rendering their accounts to himself. Early in the year the workmen began to clear away the ruins of the ancient cathedral, preparatory to laying the new foundation. The pulling down of the old walls, which were in many places feet high and in thickness, was an
|arduous undertaking. At the men stood above, working them down with pickaxes, while labourers below moved away the materials that fell and dispersed them in heaps. The accumulation of rubbish by this means was so great as for a time to hinder them in forming the foundations; part, however, was in time removed to heighten or pave streets, or build the parochial churches. Before this was accomplished, however, Wren constructed scaffolds high enough to extend over the heaps in his way; and, dropping perpendiculars from lines drawn carefully upon the level plan of the scaffold, he set out his foundations. He worked on in this fashion, gaining every day more room, till he came to the middle tower that formerly carried the lofty spire. The workmen quailed before the dangerous task of mounting feet to cast down this ruin; and Wren's inventive genius immediately conceived the idea of attaining his end by the agency of gunpowder. He drove a hole feet square to the centre of the pier, deposited in it a deal box containing eighteen pounds of gunpowder; affixed to this a hollow cane containing a quick match, and, closing the mine, gave directions for its explosion. This small quantity of powder lifted up the whole angle of the tower, the great arches that rested upon it, and the adjoining arches of the aisles, with the masonry above. The walls cracked to the top, and were lifted visibly,--, about inches; then, suddenly subsiding again, they fell into a heap of ruins without scattering. It was half a minute before the heap opened in or places, and emitted smoke. The fall occasioned such a concussion that the inhabitants round about took it for the shock of an earthquake. The architect, confident in the accuracy of his calculations, awaited with perfect calmness the result of his experiment. His next officer, charged during his absence with the explosion of another mine, put in too much powder, and did not drive the hole deep enough; the consequence of which was that a fragment of stone was shot into the room of a private house where women were at work. Neither were injured; but the terror of the neighbours induced the commissioners to prevent any further use of gunpowder. The architect was thus forced to turn his thoughts to other methods of saving time, diminishing expense, and protecting men's lives and limbs. His most successful expedient was the adoption of the ancient battering-ram. He provided a strong mast of timber, about feet in length, and armed the bigger end with a great spike of iron, fortified with iron bars along the mast, secured by ferrules. This machine he suspended from places to ring with a strong tackle, on a triangle (such as were used to weigh heavy ordnance), and kept men beating with this instrument against the same part of the wall for a whole day. The workmen, not discerning any immediate effect, thought this mere waste of time; but Wren, who knew the internal motion thus communicated must be operating, encouraged them to persevere. On the day the wall began to tremble at the top, and fell in a few hours.|
The stone of the new cathedral was laid on the , by the architect. It was , before the choir was finished, as to the stone-work, and the scaffolds struck both without and within in that part. It was the , before divine service was performed at for the time since the Fire of . And it was not till the year , when Wren had attained the year of his age, that his son Christopher
| laid the highest stone of the lantern on the cupola, attended by the venerable architect himself, Mr. Strong, the master-mason to the cathedral, and the lodge of Freemasons, of whom, says his biographer, Elmes, |
years had elapsed since the burning of the ancient fane; since the laying of the stone of the new. reigns had terminated; a revolution had driven a family from the throne; a dynasty (that of Orange) had received the sceptre and become extinct; whilst the stately pile,
of the metropolis, was slowly growing up. The cause of this delay is not the least interesting part of our tale.
The royal mandate of the , which was Wren's warrant for laying the foundation stone, was in fact little more than a permission to carry his plan into effect if he could. In the place, proper materials were not easily procured, notwithstanding an order issued by the King in Council, in , to the. effect that
In the next place, money was not forthcoming in sufficient quantities. It is true that, in addition to the proportion of coal-duties allotted to the building of , King Charles graciously states in his commission-
but the value of a
from the merry monarch was very fluctuating and uncertain. The remaining provisions for raising funds were-authority given to the commissioners to ask and receive voluntary contributions from all subjects; an injunction to the judges of the Prerogative Court and others to set apart
of all commutations for penance towards the erection of ; and an inquisitorial power vested in the commissioners to inquire after any legacies and bequests for the benefit of the cathedral church that may have been fraudulently concealed. In the Bishop of London felt it necessary to publish a very earnest and urgent address, exhorting all classes of persons throughout the kingdom to extend their liberality towards the building; and among the receipts of year we find entered from Sir Christopher Wren, whose annual salary as architect was only But the greatest obstruction he experienced was occasioned by the prejudices and ill--will of a section of the commissioners. They pestered him by incessant attempts to force him to deviate from his own plan, and introduce alterations, the suggestion of crude ignorance. This annoyance began with his undertaking, and even survived its close. The alterations forced upon him by the Duke of York have already been noticed. In the commissioners transmitted to him a resolution importing
The venerable architect replied by a demonstration of the ignorance which dictated the proposal, prefacing his remarks thus:--
&c. He concludes with the emphatic declaration-
It would have been well had the thwarting he experienced been confined to this meddling coxcombry of tampering with his plans; but, irritated at his opposition to their interference, his persecutors had recourse to still meaner devices for annoying him. As early as we find their creatures set on to fly-blow his fame with accusations of undue delay in the payment of workmen; and in we find them throwing obstacles in the way of finishing the building, for the avowed purpose of keeping him out of , the amount of a moiety of his salary suspended by Act of Parliament till the completion of the building.
Notwithstanding these obstructions, Wren single-handed completed in the course of years from the laying of the foundation-stone; while was the work of more than architects, supported by the treasure of the Christian world, under the pontificates of successive Popes.
Nor was the work of an undistracted attention. In a manuscript book of the transactions of the privy council, in possession of Mr. Elmes when he wrote the Life of Wren, the architect's name occurs in almost every page. Petitions are constantly referred to the
in order that he may make personal inspection and report. At time we find him despatched to , to report whether the site of a projected brewhouse be sufficiently remote from town; and a few days after he is ordered to report on certain buildings erecting in the rear of contrary to proclamation. Nobody but Sir Christopher Wren could be found to make proper arrangements for the accommodation of
in Bow Church. To him was intrusted the task of designing and erecting a mausoleum for Charles I., and afterwards for Queen Mary. He was appointed by the Royal Society, in conjunction with Evelyn, to conduct the sale of College to Government. Upon him devolved the task of detecting and abating all nuisances, irregular buildings, defects in drainage, &c., that might prove prejudicial to public health or the beauty of the Court end of the town. These tasks imposed upon him much personal exertion and extensive and intricate calculations. In we find him engaged laying out a new road to Stepney, and in the new road from
| Corner to Kensington. The , the Monument, , , many of the Halls of the great companies, churches of the largest parishes in London, and out of the remaining parishes on a large scale, were rebuilt under the direction and from the designs of Wren, during the time that he was engaged upon . When an Act of Parliament was passed in the year of the reign of Queen Anne for the erection of additional churches in the cities of London and , Wren was appointed of the commissioners for carrying on the works.[n.13.1]
Previous to his undertaking this new office he submitted to his colleagues a report on the proper method of conducting such an important business, pointing out the most fitting situations for new churches, the best, materials to be used, the most proper dimensions, situation of the pulpit, and other necessary considerations. As we found the germ of the conception of his own St.i:Paul's Cathedral in his report to King Charles on the condition of the ancient structure, so we find embodied in this report to the commissioners a satisfactory exposition of his theory of ecclesiastical architecture. Wren, a man of equally balanced disposition and strong judgment, was born and had his early education in the family of a dignitary of the Church of England; his scientific and literary training and many distinctions he received at Oxford. He was emphatically a Protestant according to the views of the Church of England--an admirer of its subdued yet elegant stateliness of ritual. This feeling, co-operating with his fundamental principle, that in architecture use and ornament must always go hand in hand, produced his peculiar style of church-building, and must never be left out of view in attempting to estimate the character and success of that class of his works. The object with Wren was to ascertain the proper capacity and dimensions of a church. Owing to the populousness of London, |
Having determined the most eligible size of a church upon this principle, and hinted at the variations of form and proportion of which it was susceptible, he proceeds to the internal arrangement--the distribution of the area and the position of the pulpit:--
Upon the useful he superinduces his external ornament, taking care that there shall be no discordance between the :--
Wren had a just conception of what was required from the architect in our climate and state of society. The Grecian temple was a dark and narrow sanctuary, externally adorned. The Gothic cathedral was a vast field for the processions of a gorgeous ritual, in climates not always favourable to out-of-doors display. The public buildings of England are places for assemblies in which men can hear and understand each other, or for the display of works of art. If ever we are to have an English architecture worthy to rank alongside of English literature, English statesmanship, and English science, the use of our buildings must be made the consideration, and their external form must be made not incongruous with-immediately derivative from-that use. This truth Wren felt and made his guide on all occasions. His extensive scientific acquirements enabled him to give that firmness and solid consistency to his structures which alone is susceptible of receiving and retaining high finish and ornament. The outlines of his works (see the accompanying parallel) are, like all his conceptions, at once stately and graceful. If there be occasionally deficiency, or even faultiness, in his ornaments of detail, that is owing to his limited acquaintance with the architecture of different ages and nations, and not unfrequently to his work having been stunted by a scantiness of funds.
There is a curious question connected with the building of , regarding the origin of Freemasonry. Herder in of his fugitive pieces asserts (but without stating his authority) that Freemasonry (meaning thereby modern European Freemasonry--the Freemasonry of St. John, as it is called) had its origin during the erection of the cathedral, in a prolonged jest of Wren and some of his familiar associates. Herder's story is that, on the stated days on which Wren was accustomed to inspect the progress of the building he and his friends were accustomed to dine at a house in the neighbourhood; that a club was thus formed, which by degrees introduced a formula of initiation, and rules for the conduct of the members expressed in symbolical language, derived from the masonic profession. Similar jocular affectations of mystery are not uncommon: an interesting instance is mentioned by Gothe in his , in which he took a prominent part during his residence in Wetzlar. It seems rather corroborative of Herder's assertion, that, while the biographers of Wren mention the attendance of the lodge of Freemasons, of which he was the master, at the ceremony of placing the highest stone of the lantern, no mention is made of their attendance at the laying of the foundation-stone. It is also worth notice
| that every lodge in Great Britain (and we may add on the Continent) is an off-shoot from that lodge of which Sir Christopher was so long master, now generally known by the name of the Lodge of Antiquity. It is difficult too to conceive the tolerant spirit of masonry-its recognition of the personal worth of men irrespective of their opinions as their sole title to esteem, adopted by any body of men, while the inhabitants of Europe were growing into thinkers through the fever-fit of sectarianism. The age and nation in which Milton defended the liberty of the press, Taylor advocated the |
and Locke wrote in defence of toleration, are the in which we can well fancy an association imbued with that principle to originate. Lastly, there are several circumstances connected with Wren's general career, and with the building of in particular, which seem to be mirrored in masonry. We pronounce no decided opinion on Herder's assertion-leaving the history of masonry, as far as we are concerned, in a state of dubiety, which seems more congenial than clear knowledge to such a mysterious institution. Should any zealous mason grumble at our implied scepticism regarding the great antiquity claimed by his order, we would respectfully remark that Sir Christopher Wren is as respectable a founder as he has any chance of getting--that he
Wren[n.15.1] was a man well qualified for drawing around him an intellectual and social circle of acquaintances. His talents were of the highest order, and he had overlooked no branch of knowledge cultivated in his day. Evelyn, in his Diary, says-- , .
and in his
His Latin composition is elegant; his mathematical demonstrations original and perspicuous. In he solved the problem proposed by Pascal as a challenge to the scientific men of England; and proposed another in return, which was never answered. In his year he was employed by Sir Charles Scarborough, an eminent lecturer on anatomy, as his demonstrating assistant; and he assisted Willis in his dissections for a treatise on the brain, published in , for which he made the drawings. His anniversary address to the Royal Society, in , bears testimony to the comprehensive and varied range of his intellect, as also to his constant recurrence to observation as the fountain and corrector of theory. With the characteristic carelessness of true genius, he freely communicated the progress and results of his inquiries unchecked by any paltry anxiety to set his own mark upon them before he gave them currency. The earlier annals of the Royal Society bear record that many small men have plumed themselves upon inventions and discoveries which really were Wren's, but which he did not take the trouble to reclaim. His was a social disposition, and the workings of his intellect afforded of his means of promoting the enjoyment of society. It is a flattering testimony to his temper, that during his long life he seems never to have lost a friend. Steele, in his sketch of Wren, under the name of Nestor, in the Tatler, dwells with emphasis on his modesty :--
It was, however, no sickly
| modesty--the want of a proper consciousness of his own strength. The bitter tears he wept when forced to abandon his original design for , are a proof how truly he estimated its value. When told morning that a hurricane which occurred in the night had damaged all the steeples in London, he replied, with his quiet smile,-- |
There are passages in his Reports to the Commissioners, already quoted, conceived in the very spirit in which Milton announced his hope to compose something which future ages
An anecdote of Sir Dudley North, preserved by his brother Roger, conveys a distinct notion of Sir Christopher's conversation:--
His equanimity supported him when the intrigues of German adventurers deprived him of the post of surveyor-general after the death of Queen Anne.
observes- his son,
It is said-and it must be true--that the greatest enjoyment of his latter days was an occasional journey to London to feast his eyes upon . On of these occasions he was residing in . He had accustomed himself to take a nap after dinner, and on the , the servant who constantly attended him, thinking he slept longer than usual, went into his apartment and found him dead in his chair.
His mortal relics are deposited beneath the dome of , and his epitaph may be understood in a wider sense than even of that sublime interior: it embraces not merely the British metropolis, but every region where man is to be found who has benefited by the light which Wren, and his associates in philosophical inquiry, were so instrumental in kindling:--
[n.13.1] 1. St. Dunstan's in the East.-2. St. Magnus.-3. St. Benet, Gracechurch Street.-4. St. Edmund the King, Lombard Street.-5. St. Margaret Pattens.-6. Allhallows the Great.-7. St. Mary Abchurch.-8. St. Michael, Cornhill.-9. St. Lawrence, Jewry.-10. St. Benet Fink.-11. St. Bartholomew.-12. St. Michael, Queenhithe.-13. St. Michael Royal.-14. St. Antholin, Watling Street.-15. St. Stephen, Walbrook.- 16. St. Swithen, Cannon Street.-17. St. Mary-le-Bow.--18. Christ Church, Newgate Street.-19. St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey.-20. St. Mildred, Bread Street.--21. St. Augustin, Watling Street.-22. St. Mary Somerset.- 23. St. Martin, Ludgate.-24. St. Andrew by the Wardrobe.-25. St. Bride, Fleet Street. The scale is expressed by St. Paul's in the background.
[n.15.1] Born 1631; died 1723.
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|CHAPTER XXVI: The Building of St. Paul's|
|XXVII: The College of Physicians|
|CHAPTER XXVIII: The Priory and Church of St. Bartholomew|
|CHAPTER XXIX: The Priory and Church of St. Bartholomew (concluded from No. XXVIII)|
|CHAPTER XXX: The House of Commons. No. 1|
|CHAPTER XXXI: The House of Commons. No. 2|
|CHAPTER XXXII: Milton's London|
|CHAPTER XXXIII: The Charter House|
|CHAPTER XXXIV: St. John's Gate|
|CHAPTER XXXV: The Strand|
|CHAPTER XXXVI: The Strand (concluded from No. XXXV)|
|CHAPTER XXXVII: London Antiquaries|
|CHAPTER XXXVIII: The Tower. No. 1, The Progress of the Edifice|
|CHAPTER XXXIX: The Tower. No. 2, The Palace|
|CHAPTER XL: The Tower. No. 3, The Prison|
|CHAPTER XLI: The Tower. No. 4, The Arsenal and Fortress|
|CHAPTER XLII: The Tower. No. 5, The Armoury|
|CHAPTER XLIII: The old Royal Exchange and its Founder|
|CHAPTER XLIV: The Royal Exchange and the South-Sea House (concluded from No. XLIII)|
|CHAPTER XLV: Smithfield|
|CHAPTER XLVI: Christ's Hospital|
|CHAPTER XLVII: Some Features of London Life of Last Century|
|CHAPTER XLVIII: St. James's Palace|
|CHAPTER XLIX: Spitalfields|
|CHAPTER L: The Custom House|