Token+constraint systems for tangible interaction with digital information.

Ullmer, Brygg.

Ishii, Hiroshi.

Jacob, Robert J. K.


  • We identify and present a major interaction approach for tangible user interfaces based upon systems of tokens and constraints. In these interfaces, tokens are discrete physical objects which represent digital information. Constraints are confining regions that are mapped to digital operations. These are frequently embodied as structures that mechanically channel how tokens can be manipulated, ... read more
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  • Ullmer, Brygg, Hiroshi Ishii, and Robert J.K. Jacob. "Token+constraint systems for tangible interaction with digital information." ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 12 no. 1 (March 2005): 81-118. doi: 10.1145/1057237.1057242.
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