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Abstract: This study of the anti-Ahmadi movement charts a history of the
exclusion of lower middle class Punjabi Muslims from the structures of the colonial and
postcolonial states. Kept out by the state elite, they were able to manipulate the
structures of the state to carve out new channels of power. Relying on these channels,
which included recourse to the popular and the transnational, ... read moreanti-Ahmadi activists were
able to shape the very state that excluded them. In 1974, they successfully pressured the
Bhutto government to pass the Second Amendment to Pakistan's constitution, denying the
Ahmadi community legal standing as Muslims. That this excluded section of society
ultimately forced the state to effect another exclusion--that of the Ahmadi community--is
the tragic paradox at the center of this work.
Thesis (M.A.)--Tufts University, 2012.
Submitted to the Dept. of History.
Advisors: Ayesha Jalal, and Kris Manjapra.
Keywords: History, and South Asian studies.read less