Abstract: The tissue destruction in periodontal diseases appears to result from a complex interplay between the pathogenic bacteria and the host's immune and inflammatory responses. Numerous cytokines that play key roles in the pathophysiology of periodontitis can be identified and measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). In the last 20 years, the Th1/Th2 paradigm has represented a useful fram... read moreework for the investigation of the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Many studies have supported the hypothesis that the balance of the cytokines regulated by the Th1 or Th2 response would determine if an inflamed gingival lesion would remain stable or would progress. Our goals are to provide additional information on the profile of Th1/Th2 responses in periodontal disease, by comparing the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in GCF, and to investigate the presence of novel cytokines, interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), in periodontal tissues. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, clinical data and GCF samples were collected from sites with different clinical characteristics (healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis sites) from periodontally healthy (n= 14), plaque-induced gingivitis (n=17) and chronic periodontitis (n=11) subjects. GCF samples were analyzed for the presence and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-33, and TSLP using a multiplex bead immunoassay (Luminex). Results Inflamed sites in both plaque-induced gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients showed statistically significantly higher volume of GCF compared to non-inflamed sites in all categories of patients. IFN-gamma could be detected in about 50% of the GCF samples, especially in inflamed sites in patients with plaque-induced gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. A very low number of the GCF samples showed detectable levels for IL-4 and TSPL (4% and 3% of samples, respectively), while IL-33 was below the curve of detection for all samples collected. Conclusions Within the limitations of the current study, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection, amount or concentration of IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-33 and TSLP in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to patients with plaque-induced gingivitis and periodontally healthy subjects. Moreover, the present data could not support the presence of IL-33 and TSLP in periodontal tissues, due to lack of detection of IL-33 and TSLP in GCF samples.
Thesis (M.S.)--Tufts University, 2012.
Submitted to the Dept. of Periodontology.
Advisors: Terrence Griffin, and Theoharis Theoharides.
Committee: Flavia Teles, Emilio Arguello, and Matthew Finkelman.