Background: Two-component signal transduction pathways allow bacteria to
sense and respond to the environment. Typically such pathways comprise a sensor
histidine kinase and a response regulator. Phosphorylation of the response regulator
commonly results in its activation, allowing the protein to bind to target promoter
elements to regula... read morete transcription. Several mechanisms are used to prevent
inappropriate phosphorylation of the response regulator, thereby ensuring a specific
response. In Bacillus subtilis, the DegS-DegU two-component system controls
transcription of target genes in a manner dependent on the level of the
phosphorylated response regulator, DegU. Previous work has tentatively indicated that
DegU, and DegU H12L, a DegU variant which displays enhanced stability of the
phosphoryl moiety, can be phosphorylated in the absence of the kinase, DegS.
Cairns, Lynne, Jessica E. Martyn, Keith Bromley, and Nicola R.
Stanley-Wall. "An alternate route to phosphorylating DegU of Bacillus subtilis using
acetyl phosphate." BMC Microbiology 15, no. 1 (12, 2015):