Effects of Electronic Cigarette Vapor and Cigarette Smoke on Gingival Fibroblasts in Wound Healing
Abstract: Background: The use of electronic cigarettes has dramatically increased recently, especially among teenagers where it has overtaken traditional cigarettes in popularity. While it is considered a safer alternative and also a smoking cessation device, its biological effects on oral tissues are not well characterized. Aim: To test whether E-cigarette vapor is less harmful than cigarette smo... read moreke on gingival fibroblasts in an in vitro wound-healing model. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were cultured in cell culture medium. E-cigarette vapor extract (ECV) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) were prepared by drawing E-cigarette vapor or cigarette smoke through a flask containing culture medium. Gingival fibroblasts were exposed to culture media conditioned with 0.5-8% ECV or CSE. Fibroblast proliferation, attachment and migration were assessed in vitro between the two conditions and compared to control cells (grown in growth media). Results: Fibroblast proliferation was inhibited by both ECV and CSE. The dose-response curve of ECV was shifted to the left compared to that of CSE, indicating that ECV inhibits gingival fibroblast proliferation more effectively than CSE. The difference in the dose response curve between ECV compared to CSE was statistically significant (p= 0.02). Fibroblast attachment to the culture dish was inhibited more effectively by CSE than ECV (p<0.001) at both 1% and 4% concentrations tested compared to control. At 4%, ECV had affected HGF attachment negatively and it was statistically significant when compared to control. ECV had diminished effect on fibroblast migration in an in vitro wound assay when compared to CSE. At 4% concentration CSE had significantly more inhibiting effect on wound closure compared to control and ECV (p=0.02) Conclusion: Both ECV and CSE affect gingival fibroblast behavior in vitro. ECV's inhibitory action on fibroblast proliferation is greater than that of CSE. Fibroblast attachment is inhibited by both extracts but CSE has significantly more negative effect than ECV. HGF migration was minimally affected by ECV when compared to CSE. These data do not support the notion that ECV is safer than CSE with regards to oral wound healing.
Thesis (M.S.)--Tufts University, 2017.
Submitted to the Dept. of Periodontology.
Advisor: Robert Gyurko.
Committee: Bjorn Steffensen, Driss Zoukhri, and Tannaz Shapurian.
Keywords: Dentistry, and Cellular biology.read less