The Effect of Chronic Psychological Stress on the Blood Chemistry of European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris).

Awerman, Jessica.


  • We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21 day CSP (CSP1), a 60 day recovery (R1), a second 14 day CSP (CSP2), and a second 30 day recovery (R2). Body weight decreased approximately 5% during CSP1, ... read more
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