Osteoarthritis modeling using a 3D in vitro osteochondral scaffold.
Patel, Atur Avni.
- Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of joint disease, affecting millions of people in the US. It is estimated that 80% of the population will have radiographic osteoarthritis by the age of 65, and of those 60% will develop symptoms. Currently, most models for this common, yet complex disease have focused on animal studies. Such models involve inducing osteoarthritis in animals and studying t... read moreheir joints for physical and biochemical changes. Some in vitro models have also been constructed. These models, however, involve using either limited, 2D monolayer cultures or simply extracting animal joints. None of the currently available models give the control, reproducibility, and physiological equivalence necessary for a successful model. The animal models lack control, are expensive, and have limited availability. The current in-vitro models are not much better. They are either physiologically irrelevant (2D models) or suffer from the same problems as animal models. The field is in need of a cheap model that can satisfy all of the necessary requirements. With a realistic and robust model, osteoarthritis research can be greatly accelerated and the lives of millions of people can be improved. This study was conducted to provide a novel model system that will significantly improve the predictive power and realism of osteoarthritis models. The proposed system involves a 3D, in vitro, bone-cartilage coculture that can reasonably depict native joint structure. Osteoarthritis can then be induced and studied in a highly controllable, precise, and realistic way. In this study, a potential in-vitro osteoarthritis model was successfully implemented and tested. The model consisted of a novel osteoblast scaffold embedded with chondrocyte alginate beads. Osteoarthritis was induced with the cytokines, IL-1? and TNF-?, which have been shown to play a significant role in osteoarthritis development. Testing concluded that the proposed model with some suggested modifications has potential in simulating osteoarthritis. However, further testing and design modifications are necessary before any conclusive statements can be made regarding the success of this model.read less