Utilizing terror: On the adoption and refinement of skull cups in Tibetan Buddhism.

Fuentes, Ayesha.


  • Abstract: This thesis examines the changing role of the kapala, or skull cup, in the visual and material culture of Tantra. The transformation of the skull cup is related to the historical and religious conditions of its various ritual settings and applications in the region of northern India and Tibet. These cups are seen in depictions of terrifying or wrathful Tibetan Buddhist deities and associ... read more
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