Malaria Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Drug Development and Cost-Effectiveness Strategies.
Kemmer, Michael R.
- Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Abstract: Malaria remains one of the most devastating – but preventable and treatable – diseases, particularly in children under five. Nowhere is its effect more widely felt than in Sub-Saharan Africa, where 85% and 90% of all malaria cases and deaths occur, respectively. According to ... read morerecent WHO estimates, there were roughly 660,000 deaths due to malaria in 2010, 85% of which occurred in children under the age of five. Africa has seen a modest reduction over-all in deaths in recent years, which has come at a price. Estimates placed the total global R&D funding around US$600m in 2009, with an estimated US$2.3b available for prevention control. However, that $2.3b figure is less than half of the $5.1b estimated to be required to ensure universal access, and the figure of $600m in fact demonstrates under-attention of the present and impending concerns regarding treatment-resistant forms of malaria. Acknowledging the impressive yet sub-optimal global financial attention that malaria receives, this paper, submitted on World Malaria Day (April 25), will address these four topics, in an effort to give a comprehensive evaluation of the state of malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: 1. A history of antimalarial drug medication, with an evaluation of the pros and cons regarding access and cost of current therapies. 2. A review of some creative solutions to overcoming intellectual-property rights and markets based incentives in a capitalistic economy that may not be naturally inclined to invest in antimalarial medications. 3. The status of global funding for the cause of eradicating malaria, with predictions and expectations for what is needed to sustain and elevate R&D funding over the next decade. 4. How well that funding is being spent, by reviewing studies on cost-effectiveness and outlining a summary of recommendations on how to best utilize the limited financial resources to make the most economical health impact.read less