Ernest L. Hartmann Papers, 1900 -- 2014


Title: Ernest L. Hartmann Papers
Dates: 1900 -- 2014
Creator: Hartmann, Ernest L.
Call Number: MS211
Size: 103.2 Cubic Feet, 6 Digital Object(s), 2 Web sites
Language(s): English German French Italian  
Permanent URL:
    Digital Collections and Archives, Tufts University


This collection consists of approximately 96 boxes of documents, over 100 photographs, 65 books and 129 journals, 6 digital objects, and 129 audiotapes. The collection documents the professional and personal lives of Ernest Hartmann, a preeminent sleep and dream researcher, and his parents Dr. Heinz and Dr. Dora Hartmann. Material largely dates from 1900-2013; Hartmann's working life from 1958-2013 represents the bulk of the material. The collection includes: personal and professional correspondence; research material and research data; publications, reprints, and manuscripts; audiotapes; meeting minutes and memoranda; photographs; and official and administrative paperwork.

Ernest Hartmann's papers document his more than fifty years of academic research into sleep and dreaming and the evolution of the professional organizations and journals to which he contributed. The papers relate to his research into tryptophan, adolescent mental illness, long-term effects of various drugs, vulnerability to schizophrenia, the effects of 9/11, the implications of different sleep styles and dream types, alcohol and bruxism (tooth grinding), and the development of his Boundary Questionnaire, among others. They also document his participation in numerous conferences and meetings, academic, professional, and volunteer positions; extensive correspondence with friends, romantic partners, and colleagues; poetry and interdisciplinary writings on subjects like immortality, advertising, and abortion; major life events including his marriages, children, divorces, and home sales; ephemera from his education and travels; and photographs.

In addition to Ernest Hartmann's papers, the collection contains material related to the lives and careers of Heinz and Dora Hartmann, both physicians and psychoanalysts who studied under and worked with Sigmund Freud. This material includes old family papers, manuscripts, and a selection of historical professional books (largely in German) and Austrian psychoanalytic journals. The journals – Imago, Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse, Allgemeine Ärtzliche Zeitschrift für Psychotherapie, and Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie – date mostly from the 1930s.


This collection was organized preliminarily into nine series during rehousing; final series arrangement will be decided during future processing. Material related to Heinz and Dora Hartmann is separated out into Series 2; however their correspondence and photographs are also to be found in other series, e.g. Series I, VI, and VIII. Series I: Personal papers consists mainly of correspondence, photographs, ephemera, official documents and certifications, and personal writings, arranged in three parts: alphabetically filed ephemera, official documents, photographs, and personal and professional correspondence; personal correspondence; and personal dream logs. Series II: Heinz and Dora Hartmann and family papers consists of their personal and professional correspondence, manuscripts and publications, notes, artwork, legal documents, minutes, and memoranda, arranged in rough chronological order. Series III: Professional correspondence and professional associations consists of minutes, brochures, papers, journals, and correspondence and is grouped into three rough categories: professional correspondence, Association for the Study of Dreaming (ASD) materials, and other professional organization materials. Series IV: Scientific publications and drafts contains drafts, prints, and reprints of articles with associated correspondence and data and is arranged in chronological order. Series V: Research data and materials contains research, datasets, study subject files, grant materials, correspondence, and PhD dissertations. Material in this series is arranged roughly by study, and studies are arranged in rough chronological order. Series VI: Early 20th century Austrian and German psychoanalytic literature and other books contains journals and books of Heinz, Dora, and Ludo Moritz Hartmann (Heinz Hartmann's father) dating mostly from the 1920s to 1930s. The series has been arranged chronologically within journal title but otherwise is not arranged. Series VII: Employment files contains official documents and certifications, awards, booklets, and photographs and is not arranged. Series VIII: Unsorted boxes contains ephemera, official documents and certifications, research, data, publications and manuscripts, photographs, and correspondence and is not arranged. Series IX: Audio tapes contains audiotapes in albums and is not arranged.


Biographical / Historical

Ernest (Ernst) Louis Hartmann was born in Vienna, Austria, on February 25, 1934. He was the elder of two sons born to Dora Karplus Hartmann and Heinz Hartmann; their younger son, Lawrence (Lorenz) Hartmann, also went on to become a distinguished psychiatrist.

Heinz Hartmann was a prominent psychoanalyst, a favorite student and collaborator of Sigmund Freud. Dora Karplus Hartmann was a pediatrician, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and mountaineer. The family emigrated from Austria in 1938 due to the rise of Nazism, first to France and Switzerland, then to New York City in 1941. There, Ernest Hartmann attended the Fieldston School, the University of Chicago (from which he graduated in 1952 after only one year of study), and Yale University School of Medicine, where he received his M.D. in 1958. His career at Tufts Medical School began as assistant clinical professor of psychiatry, 1964-1966, then assistant professor of psychiatry, 1966-1969, until Hartmann became a full professor in 1975, one of only three full professors at the School of Medicine at the time. He held the position until he retired from Tufts in 2013.

During a 55-year career as a researcher into sleep and dreams, he published more than 350 articles and 9 books and gave innumerable presentations and talks across the globe. He was the former president of the International Association for the Study of Dreams and the first editor-in-chief of its journal, Dreaming, which he helped launch. He held multiple high-level positions concurrent with his duties at Tufts, directing the Sleep and Dream Laboratory at the Boston State Hospital from 1964-1980, the Sleep Laboratory at the West-Ros-Park Mental Health Center, and the Sleep Disorders Center at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, for instance. He served as a lieutenant commander in the US Public Health Service from 1962-1964. Hartmann's interests were varied. He published as a poet and wrote articles on abortion and the effects of advertising.

Hartmann married twice, first from 1961-1974 to Barbara Snow Hengst, and again to Eva Neumann from 1995-1999. Both marriages ended in divorce. He had two children from his first marriage, Jonathan and Katherine Hartmann. He died on August 7, 2013, in Truro, MA.

Access and Use

Access Restrictions

This collection contains some restricted material. Restrictions related to specific material are listed in the detailed contents list. This collection may require review before it is available for use. Please contact DCA for further details.

Use Restrictions

Some material in this collection may be protected by copyright and other rights. Please see "Reproductions and Use" on the Digital Collections and Archives website for more information about reproductions and permission to publish. Any intellectual property rights that the donor possesses have been transferred to Tufts University.

Collection History

Processing Notes

Pre-Processing As a first step we created box-level context labels to record contextual (i.e. original filing cabinet/drawer or box as well as additional notes and connections) and content information. These context labels are taped on front of each rehoused box. Given the complexity of the Hartmann collection as well as storage issues, the collection was only pre-processed and shipped offsite for future processing. Material was sorted into rough series and rehoused but the collection remains largely unprocessed and is need of refined arrangement and processing. (Please see specific series for more detailed information regarding arrangement and rehousing.) A collection assessment plan (CAP# MS211-01) was created which gives an overview of the project. In addition, all labels created by Susanne and Tim as well as the original filing cabinet drawer labels were collected at the end of the project. Hartmann had taped his own diagram to file cabinet 2 that showed which cabinet or cabinets held which material. This diagram, the CAP, and all other labels can be found in the MS211 collection documentation folder.

Contents The 19 filing cabinets contained a wide range of materials, from research and data, to personal files and professional correspondence, reprints of Hartmann's and others publications, unpublished material, and professional involvement. The 23 boxes transferred to Tufts contained material that Susanne and Tim rehoused at the Hartmann home, either from drawers in filing cabinets that were not shipped to DCA, or from material sitting in loose piles on top of filing cabinets and in piles around the house. Box labels indicate where material was sitting and upon which cabinet in case these piles might turn out to be related to materials filed in the cabinets. Contents include issues of early Austrian psychoanalytic journals, books, audio tapes containing interviews and talks, family papers from Heinz and Dora Hartmann, and loose research material and data. After looking at the material, we created temporary series that appear to reflect the contents. Please see specific series for more detailed information regarding arrangement and rehousing. Hartmann had created a diagram for a few filing cabinets (taped to file cabinet 2) that showed which cabinet or cabinets was supposed to hold material relating to a specific research or professional area [which we found partially correct when material was rehoused]. This diagram can be found in the collection documentation folder with the collected drawer, box, and file cabinet labels.

Weeding The following large groups of files were weeded from the collection: Original Location: File cabinet 2, drawer 2. Currently rehoused in MS211.003.013. Duplicate copies of IASD's journal, Dreaming, which Hartmann co-founded. While the journal is available in e-journal databases, we decided to keep one of each issue because of Hartmann's integral position in founding the journal. Original Location: File cabinet 10 drawer 2. Currently rehoused in MS211.005.057 Reprints of work by Hartmann and other researchers related to his Vulnerability to Schizophrenia study were weeded as they can be found elsewhere. We kept all correspondence, unpublished articles, or articles written by Hartmann. Articles by Hartmann will need to be checked to make sure they are available elsewhere before being weeded. Relevant material was moved to the Vulnerability to Schizophrenia boxes (MS211.005.057). Be careful when processing in that unpublished articles and theses found elsewhere might possibly related also to this study. A blank ledger book partially damaged by rust found beneath bottom drawer and was weeded. Original Location: File cabinet 2, drawers 3 and 4. Currently in MS211.008.089 Drawers 3 and 4 contained article reprints of journal articles and unpublished articles (sometimes including correspondence) as well as books by other researchers and student theses. We weeded published material and kept unpublished materials and related correspondence, as well as articles written by Hartmann. There may be a link between these materials and ASD and its journal but as part of pre-processing we could not determine this. Additionally, the note "D-Psi" was written on some of the articles. Psi is a term that refers to atypical information processes including telepathy and other forms of extrasensory perception; D- Psi refers to dreaming, i.e psychic dreaming. It seems Hartmann was aware of the literature and potentially may have investigated this area. Original Location: File cabinet 5, drawers 1 and 2. Currently rehoused in MS211.005.061 and MS211.005.062. Blank duplicates of different psychological tests that did not seem linked to a specific study were weeded [originally located in drawers were labeled "Psychological Tests and Sleep Studies A-M" and "Psychological Tests and Sleep Studies N-Z."]

Mold and Water Damage Water-damaged and moldy material was found throughout the collection, though only small amounts of material were affected. Affected material was photocopied and many of the originals discarded. We noted on folders where photocopies had been made from originals and the originals destroyed. Original folder titles, contents, and folder order were preserved. Material listed below accounts for materials affected by mold.

Original Box 19 (currently rehoused in MS211.008.081 and MS211.008.082) and File cabinet 8, drawer 4, currently rehoused in MS211.005.034). From box 19, mold-affected family artifacts were placed in archival sleeves and kept. This included materials such as Dora Hartmann's mother's marriage certificate and salvageable photographs. Some photographs where sufficiently damaged by water and mold that images could either no longer be discerned or they were unable to pulled apart and the decision was made to destroy them. After assessing the damaged material, two folders of the original material was kept. This includes Ernest Hartmann's poetry and a mix of correspondence and essays. Of particular note are letters of Dora and Heinz Hartmann to Ernest and his brother. These folders were placed at the end of box MS211.008.083. The material has lost all original order but researchers interested in seeing the original documents should be directed to these folders.

Filing cabinet 8, drawer 4 affected material were patient files from Long and Short Sleepers study. Those affected were photocopied and originals destroyed.

Pharmaceuticals Pharmaceuticals (what we assume to be Tryptophan and perhaps a placebo) were found in patient files in the Tryptophan research folders. Additional pharmaceuticals including bottles of tryptophan, Dexedrine, lysergic acid diethylamide, Levedrine, dextroamphetamine sulfate, and atropine sulfate injection were also found in the filing cabinets. These drugs were de-accessioned and disposed of through controlled substance disposal as there was not sufficient research value and not a secure enough location to keep them. An inventory of the pharmaceuticals found in the collection is located in the collection documentation folder.

Digital Material Digital material was stabilized by migrating it from the original media. One disk (MS211.005.059 folder title "Stickgold") could not be stabilized as the disk was corrupted. The disk was left in its location in hopes that in the future it can be migrated. In addition a 5¼ floppy was found and migrated.

This collection is minimally processed.

Subjects and Genre Terms

Series Description

  1. Personal papers, 1900 -- 2014

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series can be divided roughly into four areas: alphabetical files, correspondence, dream logs, and oversized materials. The material spans Ernest Hartmann's lifetime, from family photographs to correspondence and clippings from the years just before his death.

    Alphabetical files contain professional certifications, ephemera, charts, publications, reports, syllabi, patient records, address books, sketchbooks, personal writing and diaries, correspondence, stationery, material from Eva Neumann (his second wife), official documents, and administrative paperwork.

    Correspondence from 1986-1992 was kept in folders by year and has been filed chronologically. Included in these files are personal notes, business letters, cards, and some correspondence addressed to Eva Neumann (Hartmann).

    Hartmann's personal dream logs, kept from 1984-1995, were in folders by year and have been filed chronologically.

    Oversized material consists of family photographs depicting Heinz and Dora Hartmann from their middle years to their old age and Ernest and Lawrence Hartmann as children, large unsigned watercolors, and four banners from the 1985 reunion of Massachusetts Mental Health Center psychiatric residents that Hartmann organized and attended. The material has been kept onsite in the green barcodes in box MS211.001.004. (This oversize box also contains other material from Series 2: Heinz and Dora Hartmann papers and Series 5: Research and data.)

  2. Heinz and Dora Hartmann and family papers, 1900 -- 1958

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed material which will need to be expanded with future processing. This series contains the couple and family's correspondence, manuscripts, notes, publications, artwork, legal documents, and professional organization correspondence, minutes, as well as memoranda of Heinz and Dora Hartmann, ranging from 1849-1974.

    The bulk of the documents are Heinz Hartmann's correspondence (1936-1957) relating to the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA). IPA-related material covers such areas as the Freud Centenary Celebrations, engagement with national psychoanalytic societies, and his work on behalf of IPA during the "French Schism," in which members of the Psychoanalytic Society of Paris (Jaques Lacan, Daniel Lagache, Favez-Boutonier, Dolto, and Revershon-Jouve) split to form the French Psychoanalytic Society on June 16th, 1953.

    Professional correspondence might also include work with the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute in which Heinz and Dora were both active members. Also included are birthday cards and poems made by Ernest and Lawrence for their mother Dora Hartmann, the Hartmann's immigration documents, and other legal documents. These materials are mostly in German as well as English, and in French.

  3. Professional correspondence and professional associations, 1963 -- 2013

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed material and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series includes minutes of professional meetings, brochures, papers, journals, and correspondence ranging from 1967-2013. Within this series are three distinct groupings according to the way Ernest Hartmann arranged this material: (1) professional correspondence, (2) Association for the Study of Dreaming (ASD) material, and (3) involvement in other professional associations and conferences.

    (1) The professional correspondence (1967-2012) includes letters from colleagues and researchers, professional organizations, publishers, and the public.

    (2) ASD materials (1987-2013) include correspondence, meeting minutes, reports, conference materials, and newsletters. The bulk of the material is from 1987-1998.

    (3) Other professional organizations with which Ernest Hartmann was involved and are represented in this collection include the Associated Professional Sleep Society (APSS), Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute (BPSI), World Knowledge Dialogue (WKD), International Society for Tryptophan Research (ISTRY), and the American Society of Neuropsychotherapy (ACNP). Material relating to these organizations includes correspondence, meeting notes, and conference papers. Personal letters and cards may be included.

    This series contains material in English, some material is in French and German.

  4. Scientific publications and drafts, 1958 -- 2003

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series covers the period from 1958-2003 and contains research articles and drafts of Ernest Hartmann's articles, books, and encyclopedia entries.

    Hartmann began publishing early in his career, building on his own research on sleep and dreams and collaborating with scientists all over the world. Articles based on Hartmann's study data as well as data from other researchers' studies.

    Hartmann had two websites to showcase his academic works: and href=" [accessed on August 5 2014). Each website contains links to downloadable documents such as his Boundary Questionnaire and recent talks and papers. There is extensive overlap between the materials on each site. The sites were crawled using ArchiveIt on August 5, 2014, and have not yet been made available. They are also available through the Internet Archive.

  5. Research data and materials, 1900 -- 2014

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series contains research data, qualitative and quantitative datasets, human subject files, grant materials, study-related correspondence, and unpublished study material, spanning the length of Ernest Hartmann's long research career. Currently some dissertations are interfiled with studies, reflecting the order in which they were found; these may need to be moved or weeded. Patient test score sheets in box MS211.005.034 were found to be moldy; the material was photocopied and the originals were destroyed.

    Major research projects included in this series are as follows: Vulnerability to Schizophrenia; Nightmares; Contextualizing Images; studies related to tryptophan and other drugs effects; Boundary Questionnaire; Long and Short Sleepers; Alcohol and Bruxism (tooth-grinding); and 9/11 study. An attempt was made to keep together material related to major studies; box labels note the titles of major studies.

    Hartmann's research into the effects of the amino acid tryptophan lasted from 1966 to 1991, when it was banned for a time in the U.S., and the amount of associated material is correspondingly large. Hartmann was a major proponent of using tryptophan as a drug to treat insomnia and other sleep disorders without unpleasant side effects. During the 1980s Hartmann worked with the Thompson Medical Company on clinical trials for FDA approval of a tryptophan-based drug. Government publications on FDA drug approval dating from 1966-1980 and research publications on the effects of tryptophan have been weeded from these files.

    The material on Vulnerability to Schizophrenia spans the years 1982-1987. Hartmann's early research into adolescents in mental institutions led him to consider that certain personality traits and reactions to stress could predict later incidence of schizophrenia. He initially used the records of adolescent patients at the MMHC, then data gathered by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the 1940s/50s in their studies on juvenile delinquency and data from adolescents treated at what was then called the Judge Baker Guidance Center. A letter Hartmann wrote explaining the course of his research and the dates during which each research project was active has been copied and placed at the start of the Vulnerability to Schizophrenia material in box MS211.005.054 as well as in the collection documentation folder.

    Hartmann's interest in the relationship between sleep characteristics and personality traits led to a deeper investigation of the link between nightmares and temperament. Material related to nightmare studies dates from 1976-1986, though Hartmann continued writing on nightmares for years afterward. This series contains data, subject files, scoresheets, and correspondence related to his 1984 book The Nightmare: The Psychology and Biology of Terrifying Dreams.

    Hartmann' research material on 'boundaries' spans from 1985-2000. The Boundary Questionnaire (BQ), one of Hartmann's most well-known creations, derived from his research on the personalities of nightmare sufferers. The BQ was a personality questionnaire that measured the subject's "thick" or "thin" boundaries. Hartmann's research led eventually to the 1992 publication of a book, Boundaries in the Mind: A New Psychology of Personality. This series contains data from his boundary research as well as drafts of and correspondence related to his book.

    Five floppy disks found in this series have been digitized (see note below). The physical location of the disks at the time of rehousing have been flagged, i.e. markers and separations sheets have been added to the physical files.

    Disks found in MS211.005.063:

    Disks found in MS211.005.068:

    Oversized materials relating to the Boundary Questionnaire studies are housed in MS211.005.070, and related hand-drawn charts originally packed in Box 14 have been rehoused in MS211.005.004.

    Temporary processing note: Blank copies of forms and tests were weeded. Published articles found among research materials were weeded when discovered; unpublished research by other researchers was kept with the original study or subject area.

  6. Early 20th century Austrian and German psychoanalytic literature and other books, 1913 -- 1940

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series includes early Austrian and German psychoanalytic journals (Imago, Allgemeine rtzliche Zeitschrift fr Psychotherapie, Zentralblatt fr Psychotherapie, and Internationale Zeitschrift fr Psychoanalyse) and books from 1902 to the 1950's originally owned by members of the Hartmann family. Some of the journals have small notations on the covers or on specific articles. Journals are entirely in German and contain work by prominent psychoanalysts, including Freud, Heinz Hartmann and possibly Dora Hartmann. The books range from psychoanalytic texts, education, and social science, and literature and are primarily in German but one is in French.

  7. Employment files, 1980 -- 2009

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series contains the various professional and work-related documents of Ernest L. Hartmann. These materials include CV's, medical licenses and certifications, contracts, insurance documents, lease agreements, awards, booklets, and some photos ranging from 1980-2009. This series also contains his professional headshots from 1980 to 1990 and several iterations of his professional curriculum vitae. Intermixed in this series is correspondence on research projects and personal projects.

    Hartmann, as a prescribing psychiatrist, was required to maintain various certifications and licenses. The bulk of the material is related to renewal of his provider status with various insurance companies and renewal of medical malpractice insurance and certifications.

  8. Unsorted boxes, 1900 -- 2014

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series consists of material that was too varied to be assigned to a single series during rehousing. Material was kept together as found, contextual labels were kept (e.g. where materials were found in Ernest Hartmann's house or filing cabinets) where available. Future processing will involve assigning material into various series or determining the relationship of the materials in their existing order.

    Contents include ephemera, official documents and certifications, research, data, publications and manuscripts, photographs, and personal and professional correspondence. Future processers should be careful not to attempt to separate professional from personal correspondence, as many professional colleagues were also family friends and because this is how Ernest Hartmann filed his correspondence for the overwhelming part (keeping professional and personal correspondence together).

    Extensive personal and family material exists in Series 8: Unsorted boxes. MS211.008.080 contains writings by Eva Neumann and files related to her and Hartmann's 1999 divorce. MS211.008.082 contains stationery and personal correspondence. MS211.008.083 contains Hartmann's creative writing, official documents from Heinz and Dora Hartmann's families, and paperwork relating to their deaths. MS211.008.087 contains personal correspondence and photos from a 1985 reunion.

    Two CDs found in this series have been digitized. The physical location of the disks at the time of rehousing have been flagged, i.e. markers and separations sheets have been added to the physical files.

    Disks in MS211.008.078:

  9. Audio tapes, 1977 -- 1983

    This is a temporary description based on unprocessed materials and will need to be expanded with future processing. This series contains eleven audio cassette albums (129 tapes) ranging from 1977-1983; the contents of the tapes range from talks given by Hartmann to interviews and nightmare research, Thematic Appreciation Tests (TATs), Rorschach tests, and dream reports. Each album holds twelve cassette tapes except for one double album containing twenty-four tapes. Four of the albums are missing items. Some of the albums contain indexes of the materials and most of the tapes are labeled with the subject and frequently a rough date.

  10. Digital files, 1993 -- 2007
  11. Websites, 2014

    A collection of 2 websites crawled by DCA to document the presence of Ernest Hartmann on the web. The websites in this series were crawled on a one-time basis.