Alex de Waal African Union High-Level Implementation Panel Papers, 1986 -- 2013


Title: Alex de Waal African Union High-Level Implementation Panel Papers
Dates: 1986 -- 2013
Creator: de Waal, Alexander
Call Number: MS201
Size: 2.4 Cubic Feet, 4206 Digital Object(s)
Language(s): English Arabic French  
Permanent URL:
    Digital Collections and Archives, Tufts University


This collection contains reports, agendas, draft and final agreements, press releases, memorandums, negotiation strategies, and personal reflections of Alex de Waal during his time as an expert advisor to the African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur and the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel for Sudan from 2005 to 2012. Many documents were created to inform chief negotiators and other interested parties about the changing political situations in Sudan and Darfur in order to provide recommendations for their efforts.


This collection is organized into three series: Darfur mediation records; African Union High-Level Implementation Panel records; and Prospect for Peace briefings.


Biographical / Historical

Alexander de Waal (1963- ) was born in Cambridge, United Kingdom in 1963. He received his D.Phil in 1988 in social anthropology at Nuffield College, Oxford after completing his thesis on the 1984-1985 Darfur famine in Sudan. He is the Executive Director of the World Peace Foundation and teaches courses at The Fletcher School. An activist and scholar, his work focuses on Sudan and the Horn of Africa, humanitarian crisis and response, human rights, HIV/AIDS governance in Africa, and conflict and peacebuilding.

In 1990 Alex de Waal joined the Africa division of Human Rights Watch. He resigned in December 1992 in protest for Human Rights Watch's support for the American military involvement in Somalia. He was the first chairman of the Mines Advisory Group at the beginning of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. In 1993 he set up African Rights, a human rights organization that documented human rights abuses. In 1999 he set up and served as the director for Justice Africa, which focused on developing policies to respond to human rights crises, notably in Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan.

From 1997 to 2001, he focused on avenues to peaceful resolution of Second Sudanese Civil War. In 2001, he returned to his work on health in Africa, writing on the intersection of HIV/AIDS, poverty and drought. As the Sudanese conflict worsened in 2004, he returned to his doctoral thesis topic of Darfur.

Following a fellowship with the Global Equity Initiative at Harvard (2004-06), de Waal was the program director at the Social Science Research Council on HIV/AIDS and Social Transformation, and led projects on conflict and humanitarian crisis in Africa (2006-09).

From November 2005 to May 2006, de Waal was an advisor to the African Union mediation team for Darfur. Following the signing of the 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement, he was an informal advisor to the African Union and the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation process from June 2006 to March 2009. He also advised Abdul Mohammed, head of political affairs for UNAMID. He was an advisor to the African Union Panel on Darfur (March 2009-October 2009) He was a full-time advisor to the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel from January 2010 to June 2011. Beginning in July 2011 he was a part-time adviser to the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel.

His published books include, Famine that kills: Darfur Sudan (1989), Famine crimes: politics and the disaster relief industry in Africa (1997), Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa (2004), Darfur: A Short History of a Long War (2005), AIDS and power: why there is no political crisis—yet (2006), and War in Darfur and the search for peace (2007).

Access and Use

Access Restrictions

This collection contains some restricted material. Restrictions related to specific material are noted in the Detailed Contents List in each series.

Use Restrictions

Some material in this collection may be protected by copyright and other rights. Please see "Reproductions and Use" on the Digital Collections and Archives website for more information about reproductions and permission to publish. Any intellectual property rights that the donor possesses have been retained by the donor during his lifetime. Requests for reproduction must be referred to the donor.

Collection History

Processing Notes

This collection was processed during the summer of 2013 by Elspeth Macdonald, Margaret Tiernan, Jasmine Bhatia, Massaab al-Aloosy, and Devika de Puy Kamp, Fletcher students and supervised by Erin Faulder, Archivist for Digital Collections. Whenever possible, the material is described in its original order. Due to the nature of born-digital materials, original order was perceived to be alphabetical by folder name and chronological within each folder. Titles were taken from the original document when they existed. Every effort was made to represent the original file structure within the description. Where necessary, some file structures were collapsed for descriptive simplicity. The original file path and file name is recorded within each item's record.

In January-February 2015, Tim Walsh (DCA Archives and Research Assistant) generated checksums for all digital objects in this collection; performed QA work on digital object metadata; and created PDF/A preservation copies of 3,421 word processing files, Powerpoint files, and other textual objects in the collection. Two files, MS201.003.00033.doc and MS201.002.00811.docx, were found to be corrupted. No preservation copies of these objects were made.

During migration to a new Fedora database in May 2018, two files were found to be exact duplicates: MS201.002.01601 was an exact duplicate of MS201.002.01600, and MS201.002.01613 was an exact duplicate of MS201.002.01612. These files were removed from the finding aid by Collections Management Archivist Adrienne Pruitt and deleted from the database.

This collection is processed.

Custodial History

This collection was transferred from Alex to the World Peace Foundation. The DCA copied the files from the World Peace Foundation's network drive to our facilities for archival management.

This collection was part of a series of collections the World Peace Foundation collected as part of their grant "Documentation, Research and Writing on the African Union High Level Implementation Panel for Sudan" funded by the United States Institute of Peace.

Subjects and Genre Terms
  • Faculty research
  • African Union
  • Sudan
  • Social justice
  • Foreign affairs
  • Social justice
Related Material
  • MS205. Dave Mozersky African Union High-Level Implementation Panel papers. DCA.
  • MS206. Laura James African Union High-Level Implementation Panel papers. DCA.
  • MS207. Neha Erasmus African Union High-Level Implementation Panel papers. DCA.

Series Description

  1. Darfur mediation records, 1986 -- 2013

    This series contains memorandums, negotiation strategies, agendas, draft and final agreements, meeting notes, press releases, and personal reflections of Alex de Waal during his time as an advisor to the Darfur Peace Agreement (2006) mediation, implementation process and the African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur. The bulk of these documents are from 2005 to 2010. Many documents were written to inform chief negotiators and other interested parties about the changing situation in Sudan and Darfur in order to provide recommendations to guide their efforts.

    Additional material relating to Darfur and the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel can be found in series two.

    1. 1.1. Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on the Conflict in Darfur-Sudan mediation records, 2002 -- 2007

      This sub-series contains draft agreements, final agreements, negotiation strategies, concept notes, correspondence, memorandums, agendas, personal reflections, and analyses and assessments of the situation in Darfur relating to the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on the Conflict in Darfur-Sudan. These documents are primarily from 2004-2006. These documents were created primarily after de Waal became an adviser to the African Union (AU) mediation team in November 2005. They were used to help the mediation team prepare for negotiations between the Government of Sudan (GoS), the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and their factions represented at the peace talks. Some of the issues being negotiated were wealth sharing, power sharing, and security arrangements.

      Following a series of attacks in Darfur, the GoS and the SLM/A held the first peace talk mediated by President Déby of Chad in August 2003. From August 2003 to May 2004 peace talks were convened four times. In June 2004, the AU deployed the peacekeeping mission in Darfur (African Union Mission in Sudan). In July 2004 the peace talks were reconvened under the title of the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on the Conflict in Darfur. They were co-mediated by the Chadian government and the AU. From July 2004 to May 2006 there were a total of seven rounds of Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on the Conflict in Darfur. Some of these talks resulted in signed protocols to govern future negotiation efforts. In November 2005, de Waal became an adviser to the AU mediation team in advance of the seventh round of peace talks.

      The seventh round of the peace talks lasted from November 2005 to May 2006. The negotiations were held in Abuja, Nigeria. It was co-mediated by the AU and the Chadian government until the latter's resignation in April 2006. The GoS, JEM, and two factions of SLM/A, one led by Abdel Wahid Al Nur and the other led by Mini Minawi, were present for these negotiations. Negotiations were first held in the Chida hotel before being moved to the Capitol hotel in Abuja.

      On May 5, 2006, the GoS and the SLM/A-Minawi faction signed the Darfur Peace Agreement (also known as the Abuja Agreement). The JEM and SLM/A-Abdel Wahid faction did not sign. In May and June of 2006, de Waal and Sam Ibok, head of the AU mediation team, remained in Abuja to try and convince Abdel Wahid to sign the DPA. This last chance effort was unsuccessful.

    2. 1.2. Implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement records, 2006 -- 2009

      This sub-series contains summary reports, situational analyses, meeting notes and minutes, correspondence, and memorandums relating to the 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) and subsequent implementation attempts of the DPA from 2006-2009. Implementation efforts included the Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum and the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Consultation (DDDC). The DDDC was an opportunity for Darfurians to talk about the DPA and understand its contents. Included are a series of articles in which de Waal explains the DPA and his perspective of the mediation process.

    3. 1.3. Post-Darfur Peace Agreement mediation records, 2005 -- 2009

      This sub-series contains memorandums, proposals, reports, issue papers, strategic plans, assessments, and correspondence relating to efforts to revitalize the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) and begin additional peace talk efforts from 2007 to 2009. During this time, de Waal was an informal adviser to the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue Consultation, the African Union mediation team, and Abdul Mohammed head of political affairs for United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).

    4. 1.4. African Union Panel on Darfur records, 2005 -- 2009

      This sub-series contains communiqués, briefings, press releases, memorandums, meeting notes, work plans, and reports relating to the efforts of the African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur (AUPD). The documents are high-level summaries of the AUPD's work. They do not contain responses received at public hearings or collected during interviews.

    5. 1.5. Negotiations models, 2005 -- 2007

      This sub-series contains data and analyses used to model potential prospects for reaching agreements during several peace-negotiating periods from 2005 to 2006.

    6. 1.6. UNAMID documents, 2004 -- 2009

      This sub-series contains memorandums, reports, situation analyses, draft agreements, and strategy documents relating to the United Nations-African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) from 2008 to 2009. Most documents seek to advise UNAMID on the changing political situation in order to guide their efforts.

    7. 1.7. Supporting Darfur documents, 1986 -- 2010

      This sub-series contains reference documents material that relates to Darfur peace efforts.

    8. 1.8. Sudan peace negotiation documents , 1994 -- 2013

      Documents related to the peace negotiations in Southern Sudan, 2011, including ceasefire and peace agreements, speeches, and declarations.

  2. African Union High-Level Implementation Panel records, 1999 -- 2012

    This series contains proposals, draft agreements, final agreements, reports, situation briefings, memorandums, talking points, personal reflections, press statements, and correspondence relating to de Waal's work with the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel on Sudan (AUHIP) from 2009 to 2012. These documents cluster around topics associated with the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Darfur Peace Agreement as well as other outstanding issues relating to peace efforts. They include the resolution of the Abyei Area (MS201.002.00001), Darfur mediation efforts leading to the Doha agreement (2011) (MS201.002.00320), the Political Parties Summit in 2010 (MS201.002.02120), April 2010 general elections in Sudan (MS201.002.00634), efforts leading to the Southern Sudan referendum in January 2011 (MS201.002.02324) and post-referendum implementation and security. In addition, there are records relating to specific transitional areas such as South Kordofon State and Blue Nile State, and other issues AUHIP worked on as part of their mandate.

    Due to the complexity of the mediation process, it is difficult to assign a chronology to the arrangement. In some cases, negotiations build on one another and have discreet periods. Leading up to and following the Southern Sudan referendum in January 2011, there were a series of talks to mediate issues following the South Sudan referendum. Records relating to the these talks (in loose chronological order) are MS201.002.02238, Post Referendum Issues; MS201.002.01402, Final Status; and MS201.002.00687, Facilitation.

  3. Prospects for Peace briefings, 1999 -- 2010

    This series contains briefing papers written by Alex de Waal describing the political situations in Sudan, Darfur, and Chad and analyzing how those situations might affect the peace mediation efforts. Initially begun in 1999 as a briefing for individuals at the United Nations Department of Political Affairs, by 2004 they circulated among a larger group of people. In 2005 and 2006 the circulation of the briefing papers became more restricted. Some of the briefings were later disseminated as blog posts on the Justice Africa website ( Some documents may be labeled as "Confidential" or "For internal use only" but they are no longer restricted. Several documents are drafts. Additional Prospect for Peace briefings are in series two.

View Online Materials

Some of the materials from this collection are available online. Not all materials have necessarily been digitized.