London Labour and the London Poor, extra volume

Mayhew, Henry
1851

Introduction.

Introduction.

Henry Mayhew

I enter upon this part of my subject with a deep sense of the misery, the vice, the ignorance, and the want that encompass us on every side—I enter upon it after much grave attention to the subject, observing closely, reflecting patiently, and generalizing cautiously upon the phenomena and causes of the vice and crime of this city—I enter upon it after a thoughtful study of the habits and character of the "outcast" class generally—I enter upon it, moreover, not only as forming an integral and most important part of the task I have imposed upon myself, but from a wish to divest the public mind of certain "idols" of the platform and conventicle—"idols" peculiar to our own time, and unknown to the great Father of the inductive philosophy—and "idols," too, that appear to me greatly to obstruct a proper understanding of the subject. Further, I am led to believe that I can contribute some new facts concerning the physics and economy of vice and crime generally, that will not only make the solution of the social problem more easy to us, but, setting more plainly before us some of its latent causes, make us look with more pity and less anger on those who want the fortitude to resist their influence; and induce us, or at least the more earnest among us, to apply ourselves steadfastly to the removal or alleviation of those social evils that appear to create so large a proportion of the vice and crime that we seek by punishment to prevent.

Such are the ultimate objects of my present labours: the result of them is given to the world with an earnest desire to better the condition of the wretched social outcasts of whom I have now to treat, and to contribute, if possible, my mite of good towards the common weal.

But though such be my ultimate object, let me here confess that my immediate aim is the elimination of the truth; without this, of course, all other principles must be sheer sentimentality—sentiments being, to my mind, opinions engendered by the feelings rather than the judgment. The attainment of the truth, then, will be my primary aim; but by the truth, I wish it to be understood, I mean something more than the bare facts. Facts, according to my ideas, are merely the elements of truths, and not the truths themselves; of all matters there are none so utterly useless by themselves as your mere matters of fact. A fact, so long as it remains an isolated fact, is a dull, dead, uninformed thing; no object nor event by itself can possibly give us any knowledge, we must compare it with some other, even to distinguish it; and it is the distinctive quality thus developed that constitutes the essence of a thing—that is to say, the point by which we cognize and recognise it when again presented to us. A fact must be assimilated with, or discriminated from, some other fact or facts, in order to be raised to the dignity of a truth, and made to convey the least knowledge to the mind. To say, for instance, that in the year 1850 there were 26,813 criminal offenders in England and Wales, is merely to oppress the brain with the record of a fact that, per se, is so much mental lumber. This is the very mummery of statistics; of what rational good can such information by itself be to any person? who can tell whether the number of offenders in that year be large or small, unless they compare it with the number of some other year, or in some other country? but to do this will require another fact, and even then this second fact can give us but little real knowledge. It may teach us, perhaps, that the past year was more or less criminal than some other year, or that the people of this country, in that year, were more or less disposed to the infraction of the laws than some other people abroad; still, what will all this avail us? If the year which we select to contrast criminally with that of 1850 be not itself compared with other years, how are we to know whether the number of criminals appertaining to it be above or below the average? or, in other words, how can the one be made a measure of the other?

To give the least mental value to facts, therefore, we must generalize them, that is to say, we must contemplate them in connection with other facts, and so discover their agreements and differences, their antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. It is true we may frame erroneous and defective theories in so doing; we may believe things which are similar in appearance to be similar in their powers and properties also; we may distinguish between things having no real difference; we may mistake concomitant events for consequences; we may generalize with too few particulars, and hastily infer that to be common to all which is but the special attribute of a limited number; nevertheless, if theory may occasionally teach us wrongly, facts without theory or generalization cannot possibly teach us at all. What the process of digestion is to food, that of generalizing is to fact; for as it is by the assimilation of the substances we eat with the elements of our bodies that our limbs are enlarged and our whole frames strengthened, so is it by associating perception with perception in our brains that our intellect becomes at once expanded and invigorated. Contrary to the vulgar notion, theory, that is to say, theory in its true Baconian sense, is not opposed to fact, but consists rather of a large collection of facts; it is not true of this or that thing alone, but of all things belonging to the same class—in a word, it consists not of one fact but an infinity. The theory of gravitation, for instance, expresses not only what occurs when a stone falls to the earth, but when every other body does the same thing; it expresses, moreover, what takes place in the revolution of the moon round our planet, and in the revolution of our planet and of all the other planets round our sun, and of all other suns round the centre of the universe; in fine, it is true not of one thing merely, but of every material object in the entire range of creation.

There are, of course, two methods of dealing philosophically with every subject —deductively and inductively. We may either proceed from principles to facts, or recede from facts to principles. The one explains, the other investigates; the former applies known general rules to the comprehension of particular phenomena, and the latter classifies the particular phenomena, so that we may ultimately come to comprehend their unknown general rules. The deductive method is the mode of using knowledge, and the inductive method the mode of acquiring it.

In a subject like the crime and vice of the metropolis, and the country in general, of which so little is known — of which there are so many facts, but so little comprehension—it is evident that we must seek by induction, that is to say, by a careful classification of the known phenomena, to render the matter more intelligible; in fine, we must, in order to arrive at a comprehensive knowledge of its antecedents, consequences, and concomitants, contemplate as large a number of facts as possible in as many different relations as the statistical records of the country will admit of our doing.

With this brief preamble I will proceed to treat generally of the class that will not work, and then particularly of that portion of them termed prostitutes. But, first, who are those that will work, and who those that will not work? This is the primary point to be evolved.

Of the Workers and Non-Workers.THE essential quality of an animal is that it seeks its own living, whereas a vegetable has its living brought to it. An animal cannot stick its feet in the ground and suck up the inorganic elements of its body from the soil, nor drink in the organic elements from the atmosphere. The leaves of plants are not only their lungs but their stomachs. As they breathe they acquire food and strength, but as animals breathe they gradually waste away. The carbon which is secreted by the process of respiration in the vegetable is excreted by the very same process in the animal. Hence a fresh supply of carbonaceous matter must be sought after and obtained at frequent intervals, in order to repair the continual waste of animal life. But in the act of seeking for substances fitted to replace that which is lost in respiration, nerves must be excited and muscles moved; and recent discoveries have shown that such excitation and motion are attended with decomposition of the organs in which they occur. Muscular action gives rise to the destruction of muscular tissue, nervous action to a change in the nervous matter; and this destruction and decomposition necessarily involve a fresh supply of nitrogenous matter, in order that the loss may be repaired. Now a tree, being inactive, has little or no waste. All the food that it obtains goes to the invigoration of its frame; not one atom is destroyed in seeking more: but the essential condition of animal life is muscular action; the essential condition of muscular action is the destruction of muscular tissue; and the essential condition of the destruction of muscular tissue is a supply of food fitted for the reformation of it, or— death. It is impossible for an animal—like a vegetable—to stand still and not destroy. If the limbs are not moving, the heart is beating, the lungs playing, the bosom heaving. Hence an animal, in order to continue its existence, must obtain its subsistence either by its own exertions or by those of others—in a word, it must be autobious or allobious. The procuration of sustenance, then, is the necessary condition of animal life, and constitutes the sole apparent reason for the addition of the locomotive apparatus to the vegetative functions of sentient nature; but the faculties of comparison and volition have been further added to the animal nature of Man, in order to enable him, among other things, the better to gratify his wants—to give him such a mastery over the elements of material nature, that he may force the external world the more readily to contribute to his support. Hence the derangement of either one of those functions must degrade the human being—as regards his means of sustenance—to the level of the brute. If his intellect be impaired, and the faculty of perceiving "the fitness of things" be consequently lost to him—or, this being sound, if the power of moving his muscles in compliance with his will be deficient—then the individual becomes no longer capable, like his fellows, of continuing his existence by his own exertions. Hence, in every state, we have two extensive causes of allobiism, or living by the labour of others; the one intellectual, as in the case of lunatics and idiots, and the other physical, as in the case of the in- firm, the crippled, and the maimed—the old and the young. But a third, and a more extensive class, still remains to be particularized. The members of every community may be divided into the energetic and the an-ergetic; that is to say, into the hardworking and the non-working, the industrious and the indolent classes; the distinguishing characteristic of the anergetic being the extreme irksomeness of all labour to them, and their consequent indisposition to work for their subsistence. Now, in the circumstances above enumerated, we have three capital causes why, in every State, a certain portion of the community must derive their subsistence from the exertions of the rest; the first proceeds from some physical defect, as in the case of the old and the young, the super-annuated and the subannuated, the crippled and the maimed; the second from some intellectual defect, as in the case of lunatics and idiots; and the third from some moral defect, as in the case of the indolent, the vagrant, the professional mendicant, and the criminal. In all civilized countries, there will necessarily be a greater or less number of human parasites living on the sustenance of their fellows. The industrious must labour to support the lazy, and the sane to keep the insane, and the able-bodied to maintain the infirm. Still, to complete the social fabric, another class requires to be specified. As yet, regard has been paid only to those who must needs labour for their living, or who, in default of so doing, must prey on the proceeds of the industry of their more active or more stalwart brethren. There is, however, in all civilized society, a farther portion of the people distinct from either of those above mentioned, who, being already provided—no matter how—with a sufficient stock of sustenance, or what will exchange for such, have no occasion to toil for an additional supply. Hence all society would appear to arrange itself into four different classes:— I. THOSE THAT WILL WORK. II. THOSE THAT CANNOT WORK. III. THOSE THAT WILL NOT WORK. IV. THOSE THAT NEED NOT WORK. Under one or other section of this quadruple division, every member, not only of our community, but of every other civilized State, must necessarily be included; the rich, the poor, the industrious, the idle, the honest, the dishonest, the virtuous, and the vicious—each and all must be comprised therein. Let me now proceed specially to treat of each of these classes—to distribute under one or other of these four categories the diverse modes of living peculiar to the members of our own community, and so to enunciate, for the first time, the natural history, as it were, of the industry and idleness of Great Britain in the nineteenth century. It is no easy matter, however, to classify the different kinds of labour scientifically. To arrange the several varieties of work into "orders," and to group the manifold species of arts under a few comprehensive genera—so that the mind may grasp the whole at one effort—is a task of a most perplexing character. Moreover, the first attempt to bring any number of diverse phenomena within the rules of logical division is not only a matter of considerable difficulty, but one, unfortunately, that is generally unsuccessful. It is impossible, however, to proceed with the present inquiry without making some attempt at systematic arrangement; for of all scientific processes, the classification of the various phenomena, in connection with a given subject, is perhaps the most important; indeed, if we consider that the function of cognition is essentially discriminative, it is evident, that without distinguishing between one object and another, there can be no knowledge, nor, indeed, any perception. Even as the seizing of a particular difference causes the mind to apprehend the special character of an object, so does the discovery of the agreements and differences among the several phenomena of a subject enable the understanding to comprehend it. What the generalization of events is to the ascertainment of natural laws, the generalization of things is to the discovery of natural systems. But classification is no less dangerous than it is important to science; for in precisely the same proportion as a correct grouping of objects into genera and species, orders and varieties, expands and assists our understanding, so does any erroneous arrangement cripple and retard all true knowledge. The reduction of all external substances into four elements by the ancients—earth, air, fire, and water—perhaps did more to obstruct the progress of chemical science than even a prohibition of the study could have effected. But the branches of industry are so multifarious, the divisions of labour so minute and manifold, that it seems at first almost impossible to reduce them to any system. Moreover, the crude generalizations expressed in the names of the several arts, render the subject still more perplexing. Some kinds of workmen, for example, are called after the articles they make—as saddlers, hatters, boot-makers, dress-makers, breeches-makers, stay-makers, lace-makers, button-makers, glovers, cabinet-makers, artificial-flower-makers, ship-builders, organbuilders, boat-builders, nailers, pin-makers, basket-makers, pump-makers, clock and watch makers, wheel-wrights, ship-wrights, and so forth. Some operatives, on the other hand, take their names not from what they make, but from the kind of work they perform. Hence we have carvers, joiners, bricklayers, weavers, knitters, engravers, embroiderers, tanners, curriers, bleachers, thatchers, limeburners, glass-blowers, seamstresses, assayers, refiners, embossers, chasers, painters, paper-hangers, printers, book-binders, cabdrivers, fishermen, graziers, and so on. Other artizans, again, are styled after the materials upon which they work, such as tinmen, jewellers, lapidaries, goldsmiths, braziers, plumbers, pewterers, glaziers, &c. &c. And lastly, a few operatives are named after the tools they use; thus we have ploughmen, sawyers, and needlewomen. But these divisions, it is evident, are as unscientific as they are arbitrary; nor would it be possible, by adopting such a classification, to arrive at any practical result. Now, I had hoped to have derived some little assistance in my attempt to reduce the several varieties of work to system from the arrangement of the products of industry and art at "the Great Exhibition." I knew, however, that the point of classification had proved the great stumbling block to the French Industrial Exhibitions. In the Exposition of the Arts and Manufactures of France in 1806, for instance, M. Costaz adopted a topographical arrangement, according to the departments of the kingdom whence the specimens were sent. In 1819, again, finding the previous arrangement conveyed little or no knowledge, depending, as it did, on the mere local association of the places of manufacture, the same philosopher attempted to classify all arts into a sort of natural system, but the separate divisions amounted to thirty-nine, and were found to be confused and inconvenient. In 1827 M. Payon adopted a classification into five great divisions, arranging the arts according as they are chemical, mechanical, physical, economical, or "miscellaneous" in their nature. It was found, however, in practice, that two, or even three, of these characteristics often belonged to the same manufacture. In 1834 M. Dupin proposed a classification that was found to work better than any which preceded it. He viewed man as a locomotive animal, a clothed animal, a domiciled animal, &c., and thus tracing him through his various daily wants and employments, he arrived at a classification in which all arts are placed under nine headings, according as they contribute to the alimentary, sanitary, vestiary, domiciliary, locomotive, sensitive, intellectual, preparative, or social tendencies of man. In 1844 and 1849 attempts were made towards an eclectic combination of two or three of the above-mentioned systems, but it does not appear that the latter arrangements presented any marked advantages. Now, with all the experience of the French nation to guide us, I naturally expected that especial attention would be directed towards the point of classification with us, and that a technological system would be propounded, which would be found at least an improvement on the bungling systems of the French. It must be confessed, however, that no nation could possibly have stultified itself so egregiously as we have done in this respect. Never was there anything half so puerile as the classification of the works of industry in our own Exhibition! But this comes of the patronage of Princes; for we are told that at one of the earliest meetings at Buckingham Palace his Royal Highness propounded the system of classification according to which the works of industry were to be arranged. The published minutes of the meeting on the 30th of June, 1849, inform us— "His Royal Highness communicated his views regarding the formation of a Great Collection of Works of Industry and Art in London in 1851, for the purposes of exhibition, and of competition and encouragement. His Royal Highness considered that such a collection and exhibition should consist of the following divisions:— Raw Materials. Machinery and Mechanical Inventions. Manufactures. Sculpture and Plastic Art generally." Now, were it possible for monarchs to do with natural laws as with social ones, namely, to blow a trumpet and declaring "le roi le veut," to have their will pass into one of the statutes of creation, it might be advantageous to science that Princes should seek to lay down orders of arrangement and propound systems of classification. But seeing that Science is as pure a republic as Letters, and that there are no "Highnesses" in philosophy—for if there be any aristocracy at all in such matters, it is at least an aristocracy of intellect — it is rather an injury than a benefit that those who are high in authority should interfere in these affairs at all; since, from the very circumstances of their position it is utterly impossible for them to arrive at anything more than the merest surface knowledge on such subjects. The influence, too, that their mere "authority" has over men's minds is directly opposed to the perception of truth, preventing that free and independent exercise of the intellect from which alone all discovery and knowledge can proceed. Judging the quadruple arrangement of the Great Exhibition by the laws of logical division, we find that the three classes—Raw Materials, Machinery, and Manufactures— which refer more particularly to the Works of Industry, are neither distinct nor do they include the whole. What is a raw material, and what a manufacture? It is from the difficulty of distinguishing between these two conditions that leather is placed under Manufactures, and steel under Raw Materials—though surely steel is iron plus carbon, and leather skin plus tannin; so that, technologically considered, there is no difference between them. If by the term raw material is meant some natural product in its crude state, then it is evident that "Geological maps, plans, and sections; prussiate of potash, and other mixed chemical manufactures; sulphuric, muriatic, nitric, and other acids; medicinal tinctures, cod liver oil, dried fruits, fermented liquors and spirits, preserved meats, portable soups, glue, and the alloys" cannot possibly rank as raw materials, though one and all of these articles are to be found so "classified" at the Great Exhibition; but if the meaning of a "raw material" be extended to any product which constitutes the substance to be operated upon in an industrial art, then the answer is that leather, which is the material of shoes and harness, is no more a manufacture than steel, which is placed among the raw materials, because forming the constituent substance of cutlery and tools. So interlinked are the various arts and manufactures, that what is the product of one process of industry is the material of another—thus, yarn is the product of spinning, and the material of weaving, and in the same manner the cloth, which is the product of weaving, becomes the material of tailoring. But a still greater blunder than the nondistinction between products and materials lies in the confounding of processes with products. In an Industrial Exhibition to reserve no special place for the processes of industry is very much like the play of Hamlet with the part of Hamlet omitted; and yet it is evident that, in the quadruple arrangement before mentioned, those most important industrial operations which consist merely in arriving at the same result by simpler means—as, for instance, the hot blast in metallurgical operations—can find no distinct expression. The consequence is that methods of work are arranged under the same head as the work itself; and the "Executive" have been obliged to group under the first subdivision of Raw Materials the following inconsistent jumble:—Salt deposits; ventilation; safety lamps and other methods of lighting; methods of lowering and raising miners, and draining; methods of roasting, smelting, or otherwise reducing ores; while under the second subdivision of Raw Materials chemical and pharmaceutical processes and products are indiscriminately confounded. Another most important defect is the omission of all mention of those industrial processes which have no special or distinct products of their own, but which are rather engaged in adding to the beauty or durability of others; as, for instance, the bleaching of some textile fabrics, the embroidering of others, the dyeing and printing of others; the binding of books; the cutting of glass; the painting of china, &c. From the want of an express division for this large portion of our industrial arts, there is a jumbling and a bungling throughout the whole arrangement. Under the head of manufactures are grouped printing and bookbinding, the "dyeing of woollen, cotton, and linen goods," "embroidery, fancy, and industrial work," the cutting and engraving of glass; and, lastly, the art of "decoration generally," including "ornamental, coloured decoration," and the "imitations of woods, marbles, &c.,"—though surely these are one and all additions to manufactures rather than manufactures themselves. Indeed, a more extraordinary and unscientific hotch-potch than the entire arrangement has never been submitted to public criticism and public ridicule. Amid all this confusion and perplexity, then, how are we to proceed? Why, we must direct our attention to some more judicious and more experienced guide. In such matters, at least, as the Exposition of the Science of Labour, it is clear that we must "put not our trust in princes." That Prince Albert has conferred a great boon on the country in the establishment of the Great Exhibition (for it is due not only to his patronage but to his own per- sonal exertions), no unprejudiced mind can for a moment doubt; and that he has, ever since his first coming among us, filled a most delicate office in the State in a highly decorous and commendable manner, avoiding all political partizanship, and being ever ready to give the influence of his patronage, and, indeed, co-operation, to anything that appeared to promise an amelioration of the condition of the working classes of this country, I am most glad to have it in my power to bear witness; but that, because of this, we should pin our faith to a "hasty generalization" propounded by him, would be to render ourselves at once silly and servile. If, with the view of obtaining some more precise information concerning the several branches of industry, we turn our attention to the Government analysis of the different modes of employment among the people, we shall find that for all purposes of a scientific or definite character the Occupation Abstract of the Census of this country is comparatively useless. Previous to 1841, the sole attempt made at generalization was the division of the entire industrial community into three orders, viz.:— I. Those employed in Agriculture. 1. Agricultural Occupiers. a. Employing Labourers. b. Not employing Labourers. 2. Agricultural Labourers. II. Those employed in Manufactures. 1. Employed in Manufactures. 2. Employed in making Manufacturing Machinery. III. All other Classes. 1. Employed in Retail Trade or in Handicraft, as Masters or Workmen. 2. Capitalists, Bankers, Professional, and other educated men. 3. Labourers employed in labour not Agricultural—as Miners, Quarriers, Fishermen, Porters, &c. 4. Male Servants. 5. Other Males, 20 years of age. The defects of this arrangement must be self-evident to all who have paid the least attention to economical science. It offends against both the laws of logical division, the parts being neither distinct nor equal to the whole. In the first place, what is a manufacturer? and how is such an one to be distinguished from one employed in handicraft? How do the workers in metal, as the "tin manufacturers," "lead manufacturers," "iron manufacturers"—who are one and all classed under the head of manufacturers—differ, in an economical point of view, from the workers in wood, as the carpenters and joiners, the cabinetmakers, ship-builders, &c., who are all classed under the head of handicraftsmen? Again, according to the census of 1831, a brewer is placed among those employed in retail trade or in handicrafts, while a vinegar maker is ranked with the manufacturers. According to Mr. Babbage, manufacturing differs from mere making simply in the quantity produced—he being a manufacturer who makes a greater number of the same articles; manufacturing is thus simply production in a large way, in connection with the several handicrafts. Dr. Ure, however, appears to consider such articles manufactures as are produced by means of machinery, citing the word which originally signified production by hand (being the Latin equivalent for the Saxon handicraft) as an instance of those singular verbal corruptions by which terms come to stand for the very opposite to their literal meaning. But with all deference to the Doctor, for whose judgment I have the highest respect, Mr. Babbage's definition of a manufacturer, viz., as a producer on a large scale, appears to me the more correct; for it is in this sense that we speak of manufacturing chemists, boot and shoe manufacturers, ginger-beer manufacturers, and the like. The Occupation Abstract of the Census of 1841, though far more comprehensive than the one preceding it, is equally unsatisfactory and unphilosophical. In this document the several members of Society are thus classified:— I. Persons engaged in Commerce, Trade, and Manufacture. II. Agriculture. III. Labour, not Agricultural. IV. Army and Navy Merchant Seamen, Fishermen, and Watermen. V. Professions and other pursuits requiring education. VI. Government, Civil Service, and Municipal and Parochial Officers. VII. Domestic Servants. VIII. Persons of Independent Means. IX. Almspeople, Pensioners, Paupers, Lunatics, and Prisoners. X. Remainder of Population, including Women and Children. Here it will be seen that the defects arising from drawing distinctions where no real differences exist, are avoided, those engaged in handicrafts being included under the same head as those engaged in manufacture; but the equally grave error of confounding or grouping together occupations which are essentially diverse, is allowed to continue. Accordingly, the first division is made to include those who are engaged in trade and commerce as well as manufacture, though surely—the one belongs strictly to the distributing, and the other to the producing class—occupations which are not only essentially distinct, but of which it is absolutely necessary for a right understanding of the state of the country that we know the proportion that the one bears to the other. Again, the employers in both cases are confounded with the employed, so that, though the capitalists who supply the materials, and pay the wages for the several kinds of work are a distinct body of people from those who do the work, and a body, moreover, that it is of the highest possible importance, in an economical point of view, that we should be able to estimate numerically,— no attempt is made to discriminate the one from the other. Now these three classes, distributors, employers, and operatives, which in the Government returns of the people are jumbled together in one heterogeneous crowd, as if the distinctions between Capital, Labour, and Distribution had never been propounded, are precisely those concerning which the social inquirer desires the most minute information. The Irish census is differently arranged from that of Great Britain. There the several classes are grouped under the following heads:— I. Ministering to Food. 1. As Producers. 2. As Preparers. 3. As Distributors. II. Ministering to Clothing. 1. As Manufacturers of Materials. 2. As Handicraftsmen and Dealers. III. Ministering to Lodging, Furniture, Machinery, &c. IV. Ministering to Health. V. Ministering to Charity. VI. Ministering to Justice. VII. Ministering to Education. VIII. Ministering to Religion. IX. Various Arts and Employments, not included in the foregoing. X. Residue of Population, not having specified occupations, and including unemployed persons and women. This, however, is no improvement upon the English classification. There is the same want of discrimination, and the same dis- regard of the great "economical" divisions of society. Moreover, to show the extreme fallacy of such a classification, it is only necessary to make the following extract from the Report of the Commissioners for Great Britain:— We would willingly have given a classification of the occupations of the inhabitants of Great Britain into the various wants to which they respectively minister, but, in attempting this, we were stopped by the various anomalies and uncertainties to which such a classification seemed necessarily to lead, from the fact that many persons supply more than one want, though they can only be classed under one head. Thus to give but a single instance—the farmer and grazier may be deemed to minister quite as much to clothing by the fleece and hides as he does to food by the flesh of his sheep and cattle. He, therefore, who would seek to elaborate the natural history of the industry of the people of England, must direct his attention to some social philosopher, who has given the subject more consideration than either princes or Government officials can possibly be expected to devote to it. Among the whole body of economists, Mr. Stuart Mill appears to be the only man who has taken a comprehensive and enlightened view of the several functions of society. Following in the footsteps of M. Say, the French social philosopher, he first points out concerning the products of industry, that labour is not creative of objects but of utilities, and then proceeds to say:— Now the utilities produced by labour are of three kinds; they are— First, utilities fixed and embodied in outward objects; by labour employed in investing external material things with properties which render them serviceable to human beings. This is the common case, and requires no illustration. Secondly, utilities fixed and embodied in human beings; the labour being in this case employed in conferring on human beings qualities which render them serviceable to themselves and others. To this class belongs the labour of all concerned in education; not only schoolmasters, tutors, and professors, but governments, so far as they aim successfully at the improvement of the people; moralists and clergymen, as far as productive of benefit; the labour of physicians, as far as instrumental in preserving life and physical or mental efficiency; of the teachers of bodily exercises, and of the various trades, sciences, and arts, together with the labour of the learners in acquiring them, and all labour bestowed by any persons, throughout life, in improving the knowledge or cultivating the bodily and mental faculties of themselves or others. Thirdly, and lastly, utilities not fixed or embodied in any object, but consisting in a mere service rendered, a pleasure given, an inconvenience or pain averted, during a longer or a shorter time, but without leaving a permanent acquisition in the improved qualities of any person or thing; the labour here being employed in producing an utility directly, not (as in the two former cases) in fitting some other thing to afford an utility. Such, for example, is the labour of the musical performer, the actor, the public declaimer or reciter, and the showman. Some good may, no doubt, be produced beyond the moment, upon the feeling and disposition, or general state of enjoyment of the spectators; or instead of good there may be harm, but neither the one nor the other is the effect intended, is the result for which the exhibitor works and the spectator pays, but the immediate pleasure. Such, again, is the labour of the army and navy; they, at the best, prevent a country from being conquered, or from being injured or insulted, which is a service, but in all other respects leave the country neither improved nor deteriorated. Such, too, is the labour of the legislator, the judge, the officer of justice, and all other agents of Government, in their ordinary functions, apart from any influence they may exert on the improvement of the national mind. The service which they render is to maintain peace and security; these compose the utility which they produce. It may appear to some that carriers, and merchants or dealers, should be placed in this same class, since their labour does not add any properties to objects, but I reply that it does, it adds the property of being in the place where they are wanted, instead of being in some other place, which is a very useful property, and the utility it confers is embodied in the things themselves, which now actually are in the place where they are required for use, and in consequence of that increased utility could be sold at an increased price proportioned to the labour expended in conferring it. This labour, therefore, does not belong to the third class, but to the first. To the latter part of the above classification, I regret to say I cannot assent. Surely the property of being in the place where they are wanted, which carriers and distributors are said to confer on external objects, cannot be said to be fixed—if, in- deed, it be strictly embodied in the objects, since the very act of distribution consists in the alteration of this local relation, and transferring such objects to the possession of another. Is not the utility which the weaver fixes and embodies in a yard of cotton, a very different utility from that effected by the linendraper in handing the same yard of cotton over the counter in exchange for so much money? and in this particular act, it would be difficult to perceive what is fixed and embodied, seeing that it consists essentially in an exchange of commodities. Mr. Mill's mistake appears to consist in not discerning that there is another class of labour besides that employed in producing utilities directly, and that occupied in fitting other things to afford utilities: viz., that which is engaged in assisting those who are so occupied in fitting things to be useful. This class consists of such as are engaged in aiding the producers of permanent material utilities either before or during production, and such as are engaged in aiding them after production. Under the first division are comprised capitalists, or those who supply the materials and tools for the work, superintendents and managers, or those who direct the work, and labourers, or those who perform some minor office connected with the work, as in turning the large wheel for a turner, in carrying the bricks to a bricklayer, and the like; while in the second division, or those who are engaged in assisting producers after production, are included carriers, or those who remove the produce to the market, and dealers and shopmen, or those who obtain purchasers for it. Now it is evident that the function of all these classes is merely auxiliary to the labour of the producers. consisting principally of so many modes of economizing their time and labour. Whether the gains of some of these auxiliary classes are as disproportionately large, as the others are disproportionately small, this is not the place to inquire. My present duty is merely to record the fact of the existence of such classes, and to assign them their proper place in the social fabric, as at present constituted. Now, from the above it will appear, that there are four distinct classes of workers:— I. ENRICHERS, or those who are employed in producing utilities fixed and embodied in material things, that is to say, in producing exchangeable commodities or riches. II. AUXILIARIES, or those who are employed in aiding the production of exchangeable commodities. III. BENEFACTORS, or those who are employed in producing utilities fixed and embodied in human beings, that is to say, in conferring upon them some permanent good. IV. SERVITORS, or those who are employed in rendering some service, that is to say, in conferring some temporary good upon another. Class 1 is engaged in investing material objects with qualities which render them serviceable to others. Class 2 is engaged in aiding the operations of Class 1. Class 3 is engaged in conferring on human beings qualities which render them serviceable to themselves or others. Class 4 is engaged in giving a pleasure, averting a pain (during a longer or shorter period), or preventing an inconvenience, by performing some office for others that they would find irksome to do for themselves. Hence it appears that the operations of the first and third of the above classes, or the Enrichers and Benefactors of Society, tend to leave some permanent acquisition in the improved qualities of either persons or things,—whereas the operations of the second and fourth classes, or the Auxiliaries and Servitors, are limited merely to promoting either the labours or the pleasures of the other members of the community. Such, then, are the several classes of Workers; and here it should be stated that, I apply the title Worker to all those who do anything for their living, who perform any act whatsoever that is considered worthy of being paid for by others, without regard to the question whether such labourers tend to add to or decrease the aggregate wealth of the community. I consider all persone doing or giving something for the comforts they obtain, as selfsupporting individuals. Whether that something be really an equivalent for the emoluments they receive, it is not my vocation here to inquire. Suffice it some real or imaginary benefit is conferred upon society, or a particular individual, and what is thought a fair and proper reward is given in return for it. Hence I look upon soldiers, sailors, Government and parochial officers, capitalists, clergymen, lawyers, wives, &c., &c., as self-supporting —a certain amount of labour, or a certain desirable commodity, being given by each and all in exchange for other commodities, which are considered less desirable to the individuals parting with them, and more desirable to those receiving them. Nevertheless, it must be confessed that, economically speaking, the most important and directly valuable of all classes are those whom I have here denominated Enrichers. These consist not only of Producers, but of the Collectors and Extractors of Wealth, concerning whom a few words are necessary. There are three modes of obtaining the materials of our wealth—(1) by collecting, (2) by extracting, and (3) by producing them. The industrial processes concerned in the collection of the materials of wealth are of the rudest and most primitive kind— being pursued principally by such tribes as depend for their food, and raiment, and shelter, on the spontaneous productions of nature. The usual modes by which the collection is made is by gathering the vegetable produce (which is the simplest and most direct form of all industry), and when the produce is of an animal nature, by hunting, shooting, or fishing, according as the animal sought after inhabits the land, the air, or the water. In a more advanced state of society, where the erection of places of shelter has come to constitute one of the acts of life, the felling of trees will also form one of the modes by which the materials making up the wealth of the nation are collected. In Great Britain there appears to be fewer people connected with the mere collection of wealth than with any other general industrial process. The fishermen are not above 25,000, and the wood-cutters and woodmen not 5000; so that even with gamekeepers, and others engaged in the taking of game, we may safely say that there are about 30,000 out of 18,000,000, or only one-six hundredth of the entire population, engaged in this mode of industry—a fact which strongly indicates the artificial character of our society. The production of the materials of wealth, which indicates a far higher state of civilization, and which consists in the several agricultural and farming processes for increasing the natural stock of animal and vegetable food, employs upwards of one million; while those who are engaged in the extraction of our treasures from the earth, either by mining or quarrying, both of which processes—depending, as they do, upon a knowledge of some of the subtler natural powers — could only have been brought into operation in a highly advanced stage of the human intellect, number about a quarter of a million. Altogether, there appear to be about one mil- lion and a half of individuals engaged in the industrial processes connected with the collection, extraction, and production of the materials of wealth; those who are employed in operating upon these materials, in the fashioning of them into manufactures, making them up into commodities, as well as those engaged in the distribution of them—that is to say, the transport and sale of them when so fashioned or made up—appear to amount to another two millions and a half, so that the industrial classes of Great Britain, taken altogether, may be said to amount to four millions. For the more perfect comprehension, however, of the several classes of society, let me subjoin a table in round numbers, calculated from the census of 1841, and including among the first items both the employers as well as employed:— Engaged in Trade and Manufacture 3,000,000 " Agriculture . . . 1,500,000 " Mining, Quarrying, and Transit . . . 750,000 -------- Total Employers and Employed . 5,250,000 Domestic Servants . . . . 1,000,000 Independent persons . . . 500,000 Educated pursuits (including Professions and Fine Arts) . . . 200,000 Government Officers (including Army, Navy, Civil Service, and Parish Officers) . . . . 200,000 Alms-people (including Paupers, Prisoners, and Lunaties) . . 200,000 -------- 7,350,000 Residue of Population (including 3,500,000 wives and 7,500,000 children) . . . . . . 11,000,000 -------- 18,350,000 Now, of the 5,250,000 individuals engaged in Agriculture, Mining, Transit, Manufacture and Trade, it would appear that about one million and a quarter may be considered as employers; and, consequently, that the remaining four millions may be said to represent the numerical strength of the operatives of England and Scotland. Of these about one million, or a quarter of the whole, may be said to be engaged in producing the materials of wealth; and about a quarter of a million, or one-sixteenth of the entire number, in extracting from the soil the substances upon which many of the manufacturers have to operate. The artizans, or those who are engaged in the several handicrafts or manufactures operating upon the various materials of wealth thus obtained, are distinct from the workmen above-mentioned, belonging to what are called skilled labourers, whereas those who are employed in the collection, extraction, or growing of wealth, belong to the unskilled class. An artisan is an educated handicrafts- man, following a calling that requires an apprenticeship of greater or less duration in order to arrive at perfection in it; whereas a labourer's occupation needs no education whatever. Many years must be spent in practising before a man can acquire sufficient manual dexterity to make a pair of boots or a coat; dock labour or porter's work, however, needs neither teaching nor learning, for any man can carry a load or turn a wheel. The artisan, therefore, is literally a handicraftsman—one who by practice has acquired manual dexterity enough to perform a particular class of work, which is consequently called "skilled." The natural classification of artisans, or skilled labourers, appears to be according to the materials upon which they work, for this circumstance seems to constitute the peculiar quality of the art more than the tool used—indeed, it appears to be the principal cause of the modification of the implements in different handicrafts. The tools used to fashion, as well as the instruments and substances used to join the several materials operated upon in the manufactures and handicrafts, differ according as those materials are of different kinds. We do not, for instance, attempt to saw cloth into shape nor to cut bricks with shears; neither do we solder the soles to the upper leathers of our boots, nor nail together the seams of our shirts. And even in those crafts where the means of uniting the materials are similar, the artisan working upon one kind of substance is generally incapable of operating upon another. The tailor who stitches woollen materials together would make but a poor hand at sewing leather. The two substances are joined by the same means, but in a different manner, and with different instruments. So the turner, who has been accustomed to turn wood, is unable to fashion metals by the same method. The most natural mode of grouping the artisans into classes would appear to be according as they pursue some mechanical or chemical occupation. The former are literally mechanics or handicraftsmen —the latter chemical manufacturers. The handicraftsmen consist of (1) The workers in silk, wool, cotton, flax, and hemp—as weavers, spinners, knitters, carpet-makers, lace-makers, rope-makers, canvas-weavers, &c. (2) The workers in skin, gut, and feathers—as tanners, curriers, furriers, feather dressers, &c. (3) The makers up of silken, woollen, cotton, linen, hempen, and leathern materials—as tailors, milliners, shirtmakers, sail-makers, hatters, glove-makers, saddlers, and the like. (4) The workers in wood, as the carpenters, the cabinet-makers, &c. (5) The workers in cane, osier, reed, rush, and straw—as basket-makers, strawplait manufacturers, thatchers, and the like. (6) The workers in brick and stones —as bricklayers, masons, &c. (7) The workers in glass and earthenware—as potters, glass-blowers, glass-cutters, bottlemakers, glaziers, &c. (8) The workers in metals—as braziers, tinmen, plumbers, goldsmiths, pewterers, coppersmiths, ironfoun- ders, blacksmiths, whitesmiths, anchorsmiths, locksmiths, &c. (9) The workers in paper—as the paper-makers, cardboardmakers. (10) The chemical manufacturers —as powder-makers, white-lead-makers, alkali and acid manufacturers, lucifermatch--makers, blacking--makers, inkmakers, soap-boilers, tallow-chandlers, &c. (11) The workers at the superlative or extrinsic arts—that is to say, those which have no manufactures of their own, but which are engaged in adding to the utility or beauty of others—as printing bookbinding, painting, and decorating, gilding, burnishing, &c. The circumstances which govern the classification of trades are totally different from those regulating the division of work. In trade the convenience of the purchaser is mainly studied, the sale of such articles being associated as are usually required together. Hence the master coachmaker is frequently a harness manufacturer as well, for the purchaser of the one commodity generally stands in need of the other. The painter and house-decorator not only follows the trade of the glazier, but of the plumber, too; because these arts are one and all connected with the "doing up" of houses. For the same reason the builder combines the business of the plasterer with that of the bricklayer, and not unfrequently that of the carpenter and joiner in addition. In all of these businesses, however, a distinct set of workmen are required, according as the materials operated upon are different. We are now in a position to proceed with the arrangement of the several members of society into different classes, according to the principles of classification which have been here laid down. The difficulties of the task, however, should be continually borne in mind; for where so many have failed it cannot be expected that perfection can be arrived at by any one individual; and, slight as the labour of such a task may at the first glance appear to some, still the system here propounded has been the work and study of many months. Classification of the Workers and Non-Workers of Great Britain. THOSE WHO WILL WORK. I. ENRICHERS, as the Collectors, Extractors, or Producers of Exchangeable Commodities. II. AUXILIARIES, as the Promoters of Production, or the Distributors of the Produce. III. BENEFACTORS, or those who confer some permanent benefit, as Educators and Curators engaged in promoting the physical, intellectual, or spiritual wellbeing of the people. IV. SERVITORS, or those who render some temporary service, or pleasure, as Amusers, Protectors, and Servants. THOSE WHO CANNOT WORK. V. THOSE WHO ARE PROVIDED FOR BY SOME PUBLIC INSTITUTION, as the Inmates of workhouses, prisons, hospitals, asylums, almshouses, dormitories, and refuges. VI. THOSE WHO ARE UNPROVIDED FOR, and incapacitated for labour, either from want of power, from want of means, or from want of employment. THOSE WHO WILL NOT WORK. VII. VAGRANTS. VIII. PROFESSIONAL BEGGARS. IX. CHEATS. X. THIEVES. XI. PROSTITUTES. THOSE WHO NEED NOT WORK. XII. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME FROM RENT. XIII. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME FROM DIVIDENDS. XIV. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME FROM YEARLY STIPENDS. XV. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME FROM OBSOLETE OR NOMINAL OFFICES. XVI. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME FROM TRADES IN WHICH THEY DO NOT APPEAR. XVII. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR INCOME BY FAVOUR FROM OTHERS. XVIII. THOSE WHO DERIVE THEIR SUPPORT FROM THE HEAD OF THE FAMILY.

Those Who Will Work. I. Enrichers, or those engaged in the collection, extraction, or production of exchangeable commodities. A. COLLECTORS. 1. Fishermen. 2. Woodmen. 3. Sand and Clay-collectors. 4. Copperas, Cement-stones, and other finders. B. EXTRACTORS. 1. Miners. a. Coal. b. Salt. c. Iron, Lead, Tin, Copper, Zinc, Manganese. 2. Quarryers. a. Slate. b. Stone. C. GrowERS. 1. Farmers. a. Capitalist Farmers. i. Yeomen, or Proprietary Farmers. ii. Tenant Farmers. b. Peasant Farmers. i. Peasant Proprietors; as the Cumberland "Statesmen." ii. "Metayers," or labourers paying the landlord a certain portion of the produce as rent for the use of the land. iii. "Cottiers," or labouring Tenant Farmers. 2. Graziers. 3. Gardeners, Nurserymen, Florists. D. MAKERS OR ARTIFICERS. 1. Mechanics. a. Workers in Silk, Wool, Worsted, Hair, Cotton, Flax, Hemp, Coir. b. Workers in Skin, Gut, and Feathers. c. Workers in Woollen, Silken, Cotton, Linen, and Leathern Materials. d. Workers in Wood, Ivory, Bone, Horn, and Shell. e. Workers in Osier, Cane, Reed, Rush, and Straw. f. Workers in Stone and Brick. g. Workers in Glass and Earthenware. h. Workers in Metal. i. Workers in Paper. 2. Chemical Manufacturers. a. Acid, Alkali, Alum, Copperas, Prussian-Blue, and other Manufacturers. b. Gunpowder Manufacturers, Percussion-Cap, Cartridge, and Firework Makers. c. Brimstone and Lucifer-match Manufacturers. d. White-lead, Colour, Black-lead, Whiting, and Blue Manufacturers. e. Oil and Turpentine Distillers, and Varnish Manufacturers. f. Ink Manufacturers, Sealing-wax and Wafer Makers. g. Blacking Manufacturers. h. Soap Boilers and Grease Makers. i. Starch Manufacturers. j. Tallow and Wax Chandlers. k. Artificial Manure Manufacturers. l. Artificial Stone and Cement Manufacturers. m. Asphalte and Tar Manufacturers. n. Glue and Size Makers. o. Polishing Paste, and Glass and Emery Paper Makers. p. Lime, Coke, and Charcoal Burners. q. Manufacturing Chemists and Drug Manufacturers. r. Workers connected with Provisions, Luxuries, and Medicines. i. Bakers, and Biscuit Makers. ii. Brewers. iii. Soda-water and Ginger-beer Manufacturers. iv. Distillers and Rectifiers. v. British Wine Manufacturers vi. Vinegar Manufacturers. vii. Fish and Provision Curers. viii. Preserved Meats and Preserved Fruit Preparers. ix. Sauce and Pickle Manufacturers. x. Mustard Makers. xi. Isinglass Manufacturers. xii. Sugar Bakers, Boilers, and Refiners. xiii. Confectioners and Pastry-cooks. xiv. Rice and Farinaceous Food Manufacturers. xv. Chocolate, Cocoa, and other Manufacturers of Substitutes for Tea. xvi. Cigar, Tobacco, and Snuff Manufacturers. xvii. Quack, and other Medicine Manufacturers, as Pills, Powders, Syrups, Cordials, Embrocations, Ointments, Plaisters, &c. 3. Workers connected with the Superlative Arts, that is to say, with those arts which have no products of their own, and are engaged either in adding to the beauty or usefulness of the products of other arts, or in inventing or designing the work appertaining to them. a. Printers. b. Bookbinders. c. Painters, Decorators, and Gilders. d. Writers and Stencillers. e. Dyers, Bleachers, Scourers, Calenderers, and Fullers. f. Print Colourers. g. Designers of Patterns. h. Embroiderers (of Muslin, Silk, &c.), and Fancy Workers. i. Desiccators, Anti-dry-rot Preservers, Waterproofers. j. Burnishers, Polishers, Grinders, Japanners, and French Polishers. k. Engravers, Chasers, Die-Sinkers, Embossers, Engine-Turners, and Glass- Cutters. l. Artists, Sculptors, and Carvers of Wood, Coral, Jet, &c. m. Modellers and Moulders. n. Architects, Surveyors, and Civil Engineers. o. Composers. p. Authors, Editors, and Reporters. *** Operatives are divisible, according to the mode in which they are paid, into— 1. Day-workers. 2. Piece-workers. 3. "Lump" or Contract-workers; as at the docks. 4. Perquisite-workers; as waiters, &c. 5. "Kind" or Truck-workers; as the farm servants in the North of England, Domestic Servants and Milliners, Ballast-heavers, and men paid at "Tommy-shops." 6. Tenant-workers; or those who lodge with or reside in houses belonging to their employers. The Slop-working Tailors generally lodge with the "Sweaters," and the "Hinds" of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland have houses found them by their employers. These "Hinds" have to keep a "Bondager," that is, a female in the house ready to answer the master's call, and to work at stipulated wages. 7. Improvement-workers; or those who are considered to be remunerated for their work by the instruction they receive in doing it; as "improvers" and apprentices. 8. Tribute-workers, as the Cornish Miners, Whalers, and Weavers in some parts of Ireland, where a certain proportion of the proceeds of the work done belongs to the workmen. The wages of "society-men" among operatives are settled by custom, the wages of "non-society-men" are settled by competition. Operatives are also divisible, according to the places at which they work, into— 1. Domestic workers, or those who work at home. 2. Shop or Factory workers, or those who work on the employer's premises. 3. Out-door workers, or those who work in the open air; as bricklayers, agricultural labourers, &c. 4. Jobbing-workers, or those who go out to work at private houses. 5. Rent-men, or those who pay rent for a. A "seat" at some domestic worker's rooms. b. "Power," as turners, and others, when requiring the use of a steam-engine. Some operatives have to pay rent for tools or "frames," as the sawyers and "stockingers," and some for gas when working on their employer's premises. Operatives are further divisible, according to those whom they employ to assist them, into— 1. Family workers, or those who avail themselves of the assistance of their wives and children, as the Spitalfields Weavers. 2. "Sweaters" and Piece-master workers, or those who employ other members of their trade at less wages than they themselves receive. 3. "Garret-master" workers, or those who avail themselves of the labour (chiefly) of apprentices. Operatives are moreover divisible, according to those by whom they are employed, into— 1. "Flints" and "Dungs;" "Whites" and "Blacks," according as they work for employers who pay or do not pay "society prices." 2. Jobbing piece-workers, or those who work single-handed for the public (without the intervention of an "employer") and are paid by the piece. These mostly do the work at their own homes, as cobblers, repairers, &c. 3. Jobbing day-workers, or those who work single-handed for the public (without the intervention of an "employer") and are paid by the day. These mostly go out to work at persons' houses and frequently have their food found them. Among the tailors and carpenters this practice is called "whipping the cat." 4. "Co-operative men," or those who work in "association" for their own profit, obtaining their work directly from the public, without the intervention of an "employer." Lastly, Operatives admit of being arranged into two distinct classes, viz., the superior, or higher-priced, and the inferior, or lower-priced. The superior, or higher-priced, operatives consist of— 1. The skilful. 2. The trustworthy. 3. The well-conditioned. The inferior, or lower-priced operatives, on the other hand, are composed of— 1. The unskilful; as the old or superannuated, the young (including apprentices and "improvers"), the slow, and the awkward. 2. The untrustworthy; as the drunken, the idle, and the dishonest. Some of the cheap workers, whose wages are minimized almost to starvation point, so that honesty becomes morally impossible, have to deposit a certain sum of money, or to procure two householders to act as security for the faithful return of the work given out to them. 3. The inexpensive, consisting of— a. Those who can live upon less; as single men, foreigners, Irishmen, women, &c. b. Those who derive their subsistence from other sources; as Wives, Children, Paupers, Prisoners, Inmates of Asylums, Prostitutes, and Amateurs (or those who work at a business merely for pocket-money). c. Those who are in receipt of some pecuniary or other aid; as Pensioners, Allottees of land, and such as have out-door relief from the workhouse. II. Auxiliaries, or those engaged in promoting the enrichment and distributing the riches of the community. A. PROMOTERS OF PRODUCTION. 1. Employers, or those who find the materials, implements, and appurtenances for the work, and pay the wages of the workmen. a. Administrative Employers, or those who supply wholesale or retail dealers. These are subdivisible into— i. Standard Employers, or those who work at the regular standard prices of the trade. ii. "Cutting" Employers, or those who work at less than the regular prices of the trade; as Contractors, &c. b. Executive Employers, or those who work directly for the public without the intervention of a wholesale or retail dealer; as Builders, &c. c. Distributive Employers, or those who are both producers and retail traders. i. Those who retail what they produce; as Tailors, Shoemakers, Bakers, Eating-house Keepers, Street Mechanics, &c. ii. Those who retail other things (generally provisions), and compel or expect the men in their employ to deal with them for those articles, as the Truck-Masters and others. iii. Those who retail the appurtenances of the trade to which they belong, and compel or expect the men in their employ to purchase such appurtenances of them; as trimmings in the tailors' trade, thread among the seamstresses, and the like. d. Middlemen Employers, or those who act between the employer and the employed, obtaining work from employers, and employing others to do it; as Sub-contractors, Sweaters, &c. These consist of— i. Trade-working Employers, or those who make up goods for other employers in the trade. ii. Garret-masters, or those who make up goods for the trade on the smallest amount of capital, and generally on speculation. iii. Trading Operative Employers, or those who obtain work in considerable quantities, and employ others at reduced wages to assist them in it; as "Sweaters," "Seconders," &c. These are either— a. Piece Masters; as those who take out a certain piece of work and employ others to help them at reduced wages. b. "Lumper" Employers, or those who contract to do the work by the lump, which is usually paid for by the piece, and employ others at reduced wages in order to complete it. *** Employers are known among operatives as "honourable" or "dishonourable," according as the wages they pay are those, or less than those, of the Trade Society. 2. Superintendents, or those who look after the workmen on behalf of employers. a. Managers. b. Clerks of the Works. c. Foremen. d. Overlookers. e. Tellers and Meters, or those who take note of the number and quantity of the articles delivered. f. Provers, or those whose duty it is to examine the quality or weight of the articles delivered. g. Timekeepers, or those who note the time of the operatives coming to and quitting labour. h. Gatekeepers, or those who see that no goods are taken out. i. Clerks, or those who keep accounts of all sales and purchases, incomings, and outgoings of the business. j. Pay Clerks, or those who pay the workmen their wages. 3. Labourers. a. Acting as motive powers. i. Turning wheels, working pumps, blowing bellows. ii. Wheeling, dragging, pulling, or hoisting loads. iii. Shifting (scenes), or turning (corn). iv. Carrying (bricks, as hodmen). v. Driving (piles), ramming down (stones, as paviours). vi. Pressing (as fruit, for juice; seeds, for oil). b. Uniting or putting one thing to another. i. Feeding (furnace), laying--on (as for printing machines). ii. Filling (as "fillers-in" of sieves at dust-yards). iii. Oiling (engines), greasing (railway wheels), pitching or tarring (vessels), pasting paper (for bags). iv. Mixing (mortar), kneading (clay). v. Tying up (plants and bunches of vegetables). vi. Folding (printed sheets). vii. Corking (bottles), or caulking (ships). c. Separating one thing from another. i. Sifting (cinders), screening (coals). ii. Picking (fruit, hops, &c.), shelling (peas), peeling, barking, and threshing. iii. Winnowing. iv. Weeding and stoning. v. Reaping and mowing. vi. Felling, lopping, hewing, chopping (as fire-wood), cutting (as chaff), shearing (sheep). vii. Sawing. viii. Blasting. viii. Breaking (stones), crushing (bones and ores), pounding (drugs). ix. Scouring (as sand from castings), scraping (ships). d. Excavating, sinking, and embanking. i. Tunnelling. ii. Sinking foundations. iii. Boring. iv. Draining, trenching, ditching, and hedging. v. Embanking. vi. Road-making, cutting. B. DISTRIBUTORS OF PRODUCTION. 1. Dealers, or those who are engaged in the buying and selling of commodities on their own account. a. Merchants or Importers, and Exporters. b. Wholesale Traders. c. Retail Traders. d. Contracting Purveyors, or those who supply goods by agreement. e. Contractors for work or repairs; as Road Contractors, and others. f. Contractors for privileges, as the right of Printing the Catalogue of the Great Exhibition, or selling refreshments at Railway Stations, &c. g. Farmers of revenues from dues, tolls, &c. h. Itinerants, or those who seek out the Customers, instead of the Customers seeking out them. i. Hawkers, or those who cry their goods. ii. Pedlars, or those who carry their goods round. 2. Agents, or those who are engaged in the buying or selling of commodities for others, as Land Agents, House and Estate Agents, Colonial and East India Agents, &c., &c. a. Supercargoes. b. Factors, or Consignees. c. Brokers, Bill, Stock, Share, Ship, Sugar, Cotton, &c. d. Commission Salesmen, or Unlicensed Brokers. e. Buyers, or those who purchase materials or goods for Manufacturers, or Dealers. f. Auctioneers, or those who sell goods on Commission to the highest bidder. 3. Lenders and Lettors-out, or those who receive a certain sum for the loan or use of a thing. a. Lenders or Lettors-out of commodities, as— i. Job-horses, carriages, chairs and seats in parks, gardens, &c. ii. Plate, linen, furniture, piano-fortes, flowers, fancy dresses, Court suits, &c. iii. Books, newspapers, prints, and music. b. Lettors-out of tenements and storage room, as— i. Houses. ii. Lodgings. iii. Warehouse-room for imports, &c., as at wharfs. iv. Warehouse-room for furniture and other goods. c. Lenders of money, as— i. Mortgagees. ii. Bankers. iii. Bill-discounters. iv. Loan offices with and without policies of assurance. v. Building and investment societies. vi. Pawnbrokers. vii. Dolly shopmen. *** The several modes of distributing goods or money are— 1. By private contract or agreement. 2. By a fixed or ticketed price. 3. By competition, as at Auctions. 4. By games of chance, as Lotteries (with the "Art Union"), Raffles (at Fancy Fairs), Tossing (with piemen and others), Prizes for skill (with throwing sticks, &c.), Betting, Racing, &c. The places at which goods are distributed are— 1. Fairs, or annual gatherings of buyers and sellers. 2. Markets, or weekly gatherings of buyers and sellers. 3. Exchanges, or daily gatherings of merchants and agents. 4. Counting-houses, or the places of business of wholesale traders. 5. Shops, or the places of business of retail traders. 6. Bazaars, or congregations of shops. 4. Trade Assistants. a. Shopmen and Warehousemen. b. Shopwalkers. c. Cashiers or Receivers. d. Clerks. e. Accountants. f. Rent-Collectors. g. Debt-collectors. h. Travellers, Town as well as Commercial. i. Touters. j. Barkers (outside shops). k. Bill deliverers. l. Bill-stickers. m. Boardmen. n. Advertizing-van Men. 5. Carriers. a. Those engaged in the external transit of the Kingdom. i. Mercantile Sailing Vessels. ii. Mercantile Steam Vessels. b. Those engaged in the internal Transit of the Kingdom. i. Those engaged in the coasting trade from port to port. ii. Those engaged in carrying inland from town to town, as— a. Those connected with land carriage; as railroad men, stage coachmen, mail coachmen, and mail cartmen, post boys, flymen, waggoners, country carriers, and drovers. b. Those connected with water carriage; as navigable river and canal men, bargemen, towing men. iii. Those engaged in carrying to and from different parts of the same town by land and water. a. Passengers; as Omnibus-men, Cabmen, Glass and Job Coachmen, Fly Men, Excursion-van Men, Donkey-boys, Goatcarriage boys, Sedan and Bath Chair Men, Guides. b. Goods; as Waggoners, Draymen, Carters, Spring-Van Men, Truckmen, Porters (ticketed and unticketed, and public and private men). g. Letters and Messages; as Messengers, Errand Boys, Telegraph Men, and Postmen. d. Goods and Passengers by water; as Bargemen, Lightermen, Hoymen, Watermen, River Steamboat Men. c. Those engaged in the lading and unlading and the fitting of vessels, as well the packing of goods. i. Dock and wharf labourers. ii. Coal whippers. iii. Lumpers, or dischargers of timber ships. iv. Timber porters and rafters. v. Corn porters. vi. Ballast heavers. vii. Stevedores, or stowers. viii. Riggers. ix. Packers and pressers. III. Benefactors, or those who confer some permanent benefit by promoting the physical, intellectual, or spiritual well-being of others. A. EDUCATORS. 1. Professors. 2. Tutors. 3. Governesses. 4. Schoolmasters. 5. Ushers. 6. Teachers of Languages. 7. Teachers of Sciences. 8. Lecturers. 9. Teachers of "Accomplishments"; as Music, Singing, Dancing, Drawing, Wax-Flower Modelling, &c. 10. Teachers of Exercises; as Gymnastics. 11. Teachers of Arts of Self-Defence; as Fencing, Boxing, &c. 12. Teachers of Trades and Professions. B. CURATORS. 1. Corporeal. a. Physicians. b. Surgeons. c. General Practitioners. d. Homœopathists. e. Hydropathists. 2. Spiritual. a. Ministers of the Church of England. b. Dissenting Ministers. c. Catholic Ministers. d. Missionaries. e. Scripture Readers. f. Sisters of Charity. g. Visitants. IV. Servitors, or those who render some temporary service or pleasure to others. A. AMUSERS, or those who contribute to our entertainment. 1. Actors. 2. Reciters. 3. Improvisers. 4. Singers. 5. Musicians. 6. Dancers. 7. Riders, or Equestrian Performers. 8. Fencers and Pugilists. 9. Conjurers. 10. Posturers. 11. Equilibrists. 12. Tumblers. 13. Exhibitors or Showmen. a. Of Curiosities. b. Of Monstrosities. B. PROTECTORS, or those who contribute to our security against injury. 1. Legislative. a. The Sovereign. b. The Members of the House of Lords. c. The Members of the House of Commons. 2. Judicial. a. The Judges in Chancery, Queen's Bench, Common Pleas, Exchequer, Ecclesiastical, Admiralty, and Criminal Courts. b. Masters in Chancery, Commissioners of the Bankruptcy, Insolvent Debtors, Sheriffs, and County Courts, Magistrates, Justices of the Peace, Recorders, Coroners, Revising Barristers. c. Barristers, Pleaders, Conveyancers, Attorneys, Proctors. 3. Administrative or Executive. a. The Lords Commisioners of the Treasury; the Secretaries of State for Home, Foreign, and Colonial Affairs; the Chancellor and Comptroller of the Exchequer; the Privy Council, and the Privy Seal; the Board of Trade, the Board of Control, and the Board of Health; the Board of Inland Revenue, the Poor-Law Board, and the Board of Audit; the Commissioners of Woods and Forests; the Ministers and Officials in connection with the Army and Navy, the Post Office, and the Mint; the Inspectors of Prisons, Factories, Railways, Workhouses, Schools, and Lunatic Asylums; the Officers in connection with the Registration and Statistical Departments; and the other Functionaries appertaining to the Government at home. b. The Ambassadors, Envoys Extraordinary, Ministers Plenipotentiary, Secretaries of Legation, Chargés d'Affaires, Consuls, and other Ministers and Functionaries appertaining to the Government abroad. c. The Governors and Commanders of British Colonies and Settlements. d. The Lord Lieutenants, Custodes Rotulorum, High and Deputy Sheriffs, High Bailiffs, High and Petty Constables, and other Functionaries of the Counties. e. The Mayors, Aldermen, Common Councilmen, Chamberlains, Common Sergeants, Treasurers, Auditors, Assessors, Inspectors of Weights and Measures, and other Functionaries of the Cities or incorporated Towns. f. The Churchwardens, the Commissioners of Sewers and Paving, the Select and Special Vestrymen, the Vestry Clerks, the Overseers or Guardians of the Poor, the Relieving Officers, the Masters of the Workhouses, the Beadles, and other Parochial Functionaries. g. The Masters and Brethren of the Trinity Corporation, the Pier and Harbour Masters, Conservators of Rivers, and other Functionaries connected with Navigation, and the Trustees and Commissioners in connection with the Public Roads. h. The Naval and Military Powers; as the Army, Navy, Marines, Militia, and Yeomanry. i. The Civil Forces; as Policemen, Patrole, and Private Watchmen. j. Sheriffs' Officers, Bailiffs' Followers, Sponging-house Keepers. k. Governors of Prisons, Jailers, Turnkeys, Officers on board the Hulks and Transport Ships, Hangmen. l. The Fiscal Forces; as the Coast Guard, Custom-house Officers, Excise Officers. m. Collectors of Imposts; as Tax and Rate Collectors, Turnpike Men, Toll Collectors of Bridges and Markets, Collectors of Pier and Harbour dues, and Light, Buoy, and Beacon dues. n. Guardians of special localities; as Rangers, and Park-keepers, Arcadekeepers, Street-keepers, Square-keepers, Bazaar-keepers, Gate and Lodge-keepers, Empty-house-keepers. o. Conservators; as Curators of Museums, Librarians, Storekeepers, and others. p. Protective Associations; as Insurance Companies against Loss by fire, shipwreck, storms, railway accidents, death of cattle, Life Assurance Societies, Provident or Benefit Clubs, Guarantee Societies, Trade Protection Societies, Fire Brigade and Fire-escape Men, Humane Society Men, and Officers of the Societies for the Suppression of Mendicity, Vice, and cruelty to Animals. SERVANTS, or those who contribute to our comfort or convenience by the performance of certain offices for us. 1. Private Servants, regularly engaged. a. Stewards. b. Farm Bailiffs. c. Secretaries. d. Amanuenses. e. Companions. f. Butlers. g. Valets. h. Footmen, Pages, and Hall Porters. i. Coachmen, Grooms, "Tigers," and Helpers at Stables. j. Huntsmen and Whippers-in. k. Kennelmen. l. Gamekeepers. m. Gardeners. n. Housekeepers. o. Ladies' Maids. p. Nursery Maids and Wet Nurses. q. House Maids and Parlour Maids. r. Cooks and Scullery Maids. s. Dairy Maids. t. Maids of all work. 2. Private Servants temporarily engaged. a. Couriers. b. Interpreters. c. Monthly Nurses and Invalid Nurses. d. Waiters at Parties. e. Charwomen. f. Knife, boot, window, and paint Cleaners, Pot scourers, Carpet beaters. 3. Public Servants. a. Waiters at hotels and public gardens. b. Masters of the Ceremonies. c. Chamber-Maids. d. Boots. e. Ostlers. f. Job Coachmen. g. Post-boys. h. Washerwomen. i. Dustmen. j. Sweeps. k. Scavengers. l. Nightmen. m. Flushermen. n. Turncocks. o. Lamplighters. p. Horse Holders. q. Crossing Sweepers.

Those Who Cannot Work.V. Those that are provided for by some Public Institution. A. THE INMATES OF WORKHOUSES. B. THE INMATES OF PRISONS. 1. Debtors. 2. Criminals (Some of these, however, are made to work by the authorities). C. THE INMATES OF HOSPITALS. 1. The Sick. 2. The Insane; as Lunatics and Idiots. 3. Veterans; as Greenwich and Chelsea Hospital men. 4. The Deserted Young; as the Foundling Hospital children. D. THE INMATES OF ASYLUMS AND ALMSHOUSES. 1. The Afflicted; as the Deaf, and Dumb, and Blind. 2. The Destitute Young; as Orphans. 3. The Decayed Members of the several Trades or Sects. a. Trade and Provident Asylums and Almshouses. b. Sectarian Asylums and Almshouses—as for aged Jews, Widows of Clergymen, &c. E. THE INMATES OF THE SEVERAL REFUGES AND DORMITORIES FOR THE HOUSELESS AND DESTITUTE. VI. Those who are Unprovided for. A. THOSE WHO ARE INCAPAcitATED FROM WANT OF POWER. 1. Owing to their Age. a. The Old. b. The Young. 2. Owing to some Bodily Ailment. a. The Sick. b. The Crippled. c. The Maimed. d. The Paralyzed. e. The Blind. 3. Owing to some Mental Infirmity. a. The Insane. b. The Idiotic. c. The Untaught, or those who have never been brought up to any industrial occupation; as Widows and those who have "seen better days." B. THOSE WHO ARE INCAPAcitATED FROM WANT OF MEANS. 1. Having no tools; as is often the case with distressed carpenters. 2. Having no clothes; as servants when long out of a situation. 3. Having no stock-money; as impoverished street-sellers. 4. Having no materials; as the "used-up" garret or chamber masters in the boot and shoe or cabinet-making trade. 5. Having no place wherein to work; as when those who pursue their calling at home are forced to become the inmates of a nightly lodging-house. C. THOSE WHO ARE INCAPAcitATED FROM WANT OF EMPLOYMENT. 1. Owing to a glut or stagnation in business; as among the cotton-spinners, the iron-workers, the railway-navigators, and the like. 2. Owing to a change in fashion; as in the button-making trade. 3. Owing to the introduction of machinery; as among the sawyers, handloom weavers, pillow-lace makers, threshers, and others. 4. Owing to the advent of the slack season; as among the tailors and mantuamakers, and drawn-bonnet-makers. 5. Owing to the continuance of unfavourable weather. a. From the prevalence of rain; as street-sellers, and others. b. From the prevalence of easterly winds; as dock-labourers. 6. Owing to the approach of winter; as among the builders, brickmakers, market-gardeners, harvest-men. 7. Owing to the loss of character. a. Culpably; from intemperate habits, or misconduct of some kind. b. Accidentally; as when a servant's late master goes abroad, and a written testimonial is objected to.

Those Who Will Not Work.VII. Vagrants or Tramps. Under this head is included all that multifarious tribe of "sturdy rogues," who ramble across the country during the summer, sleeping at the "casual wards" of the workhouses, and who return to London in the winter to avail themselves of the gratuitous lodgings and food attainable at the several metropolitan refuges. VIII. Professional Beggars and their Dependents. A. NAVAL AND MILITARY BEGGARS. 1. Turnpike Sailors. 2. Spanish Legion Men, &c. 3. Veterans. B. "DISTRESSED-OPERATIVE" BEGGARS. 1. Pretended Starved-out Manufacturers, as the Nottingham "Driz" or Lace- Men. 2. Pretended Unemployed Agriculturists. 3. Pretended Frozen-out Gardeners. 4. Pretended Hand-loom Weavers, and others deprived of their living by Machinery. C. "RESPECtable" BEGGARS. 1. Pretended Broken-down Tradesmen, or Decayed Gentlemen. 2. Pretended Distressed Ushers, unable to take situation for want of clothes. 3. "Clean-Family Beggars" with children in very white pinafores, their faces newly washed, and their hair carefully brushed. 4. Ashamed Beggars, or those who "stand pad with a fakement" (remain stationary, holding a written placard), and pretend to hide their faces. D. "DISASTER" BEGGARS. 1. Shipwrecked Mariners. 2. Blown--up Miners. 3. Burnt-out Tradesmen. 4. Lucifer Droppers. E. BODILY AFFLICTED BEGGARS. 1. Having real or pretended sores, vulgarly known as the "scaldrum dodge." 2. Having swollen legs. 3. Being crippled, deformed, maimed, or paralyzed. 4. Being blind. 5. Being subject to fits. 6. Being in a decline, and appearing with bandages round the head. 7. "Shallow coves," or those who exhibit themselves in the streets half clad, especially in cold weather. F. FAMISHED BEGGARS. 1. Those who chalk on the pavement, "I am starving." 2. Those who "stand pad" with a small piece of paper similarly inscribed. G. FOREIGN BEGGARS. 1. Frenchmen who stop passengers in the street and request to know if they can speak French, previous to presenting a written statement of their distress. 2. Pretended Destitute Poles. 3. Hindoos and Negroes, who stand shivering by the kerb. H. PETTY TRADING BEGGARS. 1. Tract sellers. 2. Sellers of lucifers, boot-laces, cabbage-nets, tapes, and cottons. *** The several varieties of beggars admit of being sub-divided into— a. Patterers, or those who beg on the "blob," that is, by word of mouth. b. Screevers, or those who beg by screeving, that is, by written documents, setting forth imaginary cases of distress, such documents being either— i. "Slums" (letters). ii. "Fakements" (petitions). I. THE DEPENDENTS OF BEGGARS. 1. Screevers Proper, or the writers of slums and fakements for those who beg by screeving. 2. Referees, or those who give characters to professional beggars when a reference is required. IX. Cheats and their Dependents. A. THOSE WHO CHEAT THE GOVERNMENT. 1. Smugglers defrauding the Customs. 2. "Jiggers" defrauding the Excise by working illicit stills, and the like. B. THOSE WHO CHEAT THE PUBLIC. 1. Swindlers, defrauding those of whom they buy. 2. "Duffers" and "horse-chaunters," defrauding those to whom they sell. 3. "Charley-pitchers" and other low gamblers, defrauding those with whom they play. 4. "Bouncers and Besters" defrauding, by laying wagers, swaggering, or using threats. 5. "Flatcatchers," defrauding by pretending to find some valuable article—as Fawney or Ring-Droppers. 6. Bubble-Men, defrauding by instituting pretended companies—as Sham Nextof-Kin-Societies, Assurance and Annuity Offices, Benefit Clubs, and the like. 7. Douceur-Men, defrauding by offering for a certain sum to confer some boon upon a person as— a. To procure Government Situations for laymen, or benefices for clergymen. b. To provide Servants with Places. c. To teach some lucrative occupation. d. To put persons in possession of some information "to their advantage." 8. Deposit-Men, defrauding by obtaining a certain sum as security for future work or some promised place of trust. C. THE DEPENDENTS OF CHEATS ARE— 1. "Jollies," and "Magsmen," or accomplices of the "Bouncers and Besters." 2. "Bonnets," or accomplices of Gamblers. 3. Referees, or those who give false characters to swindlers and others. X. Thieves and their Dependents. A. THOSE WHO PLUNDER WITH VIOLENCE. 1. "Cracksmen"—as Housebreakers and Burglars. 2. "Rampsmen," or Footpads. 3. "Bludgers," or Stick-slingers, plundering in company with prostitutes. B. THOSE WHO "HOCUS," OR PLUNDER THEIR VICTIMS WHEN STUPIFIED. 1. "Drummers," or those who render people insensible. a. By handkerchiefs steeped in chloroform. b. By drugs poured into liquor. 2. "Bug-hunters," or those who go round to the public-houses and plunder drunken men. C. THOSE WHO PLUNDER BY MANUAL DEXTERITY, BY STEALTH, OR BY BREACH OF TRUST. 1. "Mobsmen," or those who plunder by manual dexterity—as the "lightfingered gentry." a. "Buzzers," or those who abstract handkerchiefs and other articles from gentlemen's pockets. i. "Stook-buzzers," those who steal handkerchiefs. ii. "Tail-Buzzers," those who dive into coat-pockets for sneezers (snuffboxes,) skins and dummies (purses and pocket-books). b. "Wires," or those who pick ladies' pockets. c. "Prop-nailers," those who steal pins and brooches. d. "Thimble-screwers," those who wrench watches from their guards. e. "Shop-lifters," or those who purloin goods from shops while examining articles. 2. "Sneaksmen," or those who plunder by means of stealth. a. Those who purloin goods, provisions, money, clothes, old metal, &c. i. "Drag Sneaks," or those who steal goods or luggage from carts and coaches. ii. "Snoozers," or those who sleep at railway hotels, and decamp with some passenger's luggage or property in the morning. iii. "Star-glazers," or those who cut the panes out of shop-windows. iv. "Till Friskers," or those who empty tills of their contents during the absence of the shopmen. v. "Sawney-Hunters," or those who go purloining bacon from cheesemongers' shop-doors. vi. "Noisy-racket Men," or those who steal china and glass from outside of china-shops. vii. "Area Sneaks," or those who steal from houses by going down the area steps. viii. "Dead Lurkers," or those who steal coats and umbrellas from passages at dusk, or on Sunday afternoons. ix. "Snow Gatherers," or those who steal clean clothes off the hedges. x. "Skinners," or those women who entice children and sailors to go with them and then strip them of their clothes. xi. "Bluey-Hunters," or those who purloin lead from the tops of houses. xii. "Cat and Kitten Hunters," or those who purloin pewter quart and pint pots from the top of area railings. xiii. "Toshers," or those who purloin copper from the ships along shore. xiv. Mudlarks, or those who steal pieces of rope and lumps of coal from among the vessels at the river-side. b. Those who steal animals. i. Horse Stealers. ii. Sheep, or "Woolly-bird," Stealers. iii. Deer Stealers. iv. Dog Stealers. v. Poachers, or Game Stealers. vi. "Lady and Gentlemen Racket Men," or those who steal cocks and hens. vii. Cat Stealers, or those who make away with cats for the sake of their skins and bones. c. Those who steal dead bodies—as the "Resurrectionists." 3. Those who plunder by breach of trust. a. Embezzlers, or those who rob their employers. i. By receiving what is due to them, and never accounting for it. ii. By obtaining goods in their employer's name. iii. By purloining money from the till, or goods from the premises. b. Illegal Pawners. i. Those who pledge work given out to them by employers. ii. Those who pledge blankets, sheets, &c., from lodgings. c. Dishonest servants, those who make away with the property of their masters. d. Bill Stealers, or those who purloin bills of exchange entrusted to them, to get discounted. e. Letter Stealers. D. "SHOFUL MEN," OR THOSE WHO PLUNDER BY MEANS OF COUNTERFEITS. 1. Coiners or fabricators of counterfeit money. 2. Forgers of bank notes. 3. Forgers of checks and acceptances. 4. Forgers of wills. E. DEPENDENTS OF THIEVES. 1. "Fences," or receivers of stolen goods. 2. "Smashers," or utterers of base coin or forged notes. XI. Prostitutes and their Dependents. A. PROFESSIONAL PROSTITUTES. 1. Seclusives, or those who live in private houses or apartments. a. Kept Mistresses. b. "Prima Donnas," or those who belong to the "first class," and live in a superior style. 2. Convives, or those who live in the same house with a number of others. a. Those who are independent of the mistress of the house. b. Those who are subject to the mistress of a brothel. i. "Board Lodgers," or those who give a portion of what they receive to the mistress of the brothel, in return for their board and lodging. ii. "Dress Lodgers," or those who give either a portion or the whole of what they get to the mistress of the brothel in return for their board, lodging, and clothes. 3. Those who live in low lodging-houses. 4. Sailors' and soldiers' women. 5. Park women, or those who frequent the parks at night, and other retired places. 6. Thieves' women, or those who entrap men into bye streets for the purpose of robbery. 7. The Dependents of Prostitutes: a. "Bawds," or Keepers of Brothels. b. Followers of Dress Lodgers. c. Keepers of Accommodation Houses. d. Procuresses, Pimps, and Panders. e. Fancy-Men. f. Magsmen and Bullies. B. CLANDESTINE PROSTITUTES. 1. Female Operatives. 2. Maid Servants. 3. Ladies of Intrigue. 4. Keepers of Houses of Assignation. C. COHABITANT PROSTITUTES. 1. Those whose paramours cannot afford to pay the marriage fees. 2. Those whose paramours do not believe in the sanctity of the ceremony. 3. Those who have married a relative forbidden by law. 4. Those whose paramours object to marry them for pecuniary or family reasons. 5. Those who would forfeit their income by marrying, as officers' widows in receipt of pensions, and those who hold property only while unmarried.

Those Who Need Not Work.XII. Those who derive their income from rent. A. LANDLORDS OF ESTATES. B. LANDLORDS OF HOUSES. XIII. Those who derive their income from dividends. A. FUNDHOLDERS. B. SHAREHOLDERS. 1. In Mines. 2. In Canals. 3. In Railways. 4. In Public Companies. XIV. Those who derive their income from yearly stipends. A. ANNUITANTS. B. PENSIONERS. XV. Those who hold obsolete or nominal offices. SINECURISTS. XVI. Those who derive their incomes from trades in which they never appear. A. SLEEPING PARTNERS. B. ROYALTY MEN. XVII. Those who derive their incomes by favour from some other. A. PROTEGES. B. DEPENDENTS. XVIII. Those who derive their support from the head of the family. A. WIVES. B. CHILDREN.

I enter upon this part of my subject with a deep sense of the misery, the vice, the ignorance, and the want that encompass us on every side—I enter upon it after much grave attention to the subject, observing closely, reflecting patiently, and generalizing cautiously upon the phenomena and causes of the vice and crime of this city—I enter upon it after a thoughtful study of the habits and character of the "outcast" class generally—I enter upon it, moreover, not only as forming an integral and most important part of the task I have imposed upon myself, but from a wish to divest the public mind of certain "idols" of the platform and conventicle—"idols" peculiar to our own time, and unknown to the great Father of the inductive philosophy—and "idols," too, that appear to me greatly to obstruct a proper understanding of the subject. Further, I am led to believe that I can contribute some new facts concerning the physics and economy of vice and crime generally, that will not only make the solution of the social problem more easy to us, but, setting more plainly before us some of its latent causes, make us look with more pity and less anger on those who want the fortitude to resist their influence; and induce us, or at least the more earnest among us, to apply ourselves steadfastly to the removal or alleviation of those social evils that appear to create so large a proportion of the vice and crime that we seek by punishment to prevent.

Such are the objects of my present labours: the result of them is given to the world with an earnest desire to better the condition of the wretched social outcasts of whom I have now to treat, and to contribute, if possible, my mite of good towards the common weal.

But though such be my ultimate object, let me here confess that my immediate aim is the elimination of the truth; without this, of course, all other principles must be sheer sentimentality—sentiments being, to my mind, opinions engendered by the feelings rather than the judgment. The attainment of the truth, then, will be my primary aim; but by the truth, I wish it to be understood, I mean something than the bare facts. Facts, according to my ideas, are merely the elements of truths, and not the truths themselves; of all matters there are none so utterly useless by themselves as your mere matters of fact. A fact, so long as it remains an isolated fact, is a dull, dead, uninformed thing; no object nor event by itself can possibly give us any knowledge, we must compare it with some other, even to distinguish it; and it is the distinctive quality thus developed that constitutes the essence of a thing—that is to say, the point by which we cognize and recognise it when again presented to us. A fact must be assimilated with, or discriminated from, some other fact or facts, in order to be raised to the dignity of a truth, and made to convey the least knowledge to the mind. To say, for instance, that in the year there were criminal offenders in England and Wales, is merely to oppress the brain with the record of a fact that, , is so much mental lumber. This is the very mummery of statistics; of what rational good can such information by itself be to any person? who can tell whether the number of offenders in that year be large or

2

small, unless they compare it with the number of some other year, or in some other country? but to do this will require another fact, and even then this fact can give us but little real knowledge. It may teach us, perhaps, that the past year was more or less criminal than some other year, or that the people of this country, in that year, were more or less disposed to the infraction of the laws than some other people abroad; still, what will all this avail us? If the year which we select to contrast criminally with that of be not itself compared with other years, how are we to know whether the number of criminals appertaining to it be above or below the average? or, in other words, how can the be made a measure of the other?

To give the least mental value to facts, therefore, we must generalize them, that is to say, we must contemplate them in connection with other facts, and so discover their agreements and differences, their antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. It is true we may frame erroneous and defective theories in so doing; we may believe things which are similar in appearance to be similar in their powers and properties also; we may distinguish between things having no real difference; we may mistake concomitant events for consequences; we may generalize with too few particulars, and hastily infer that to be common to all which is but the special attribute of a limited number; nevertheless, if theory may occasionally teach us wrongly, facts without theory or generalization cannot possibly teach us at all. What the process of digestion is to food, that of generalizing is to fact; for as it is by the assimilation of the substances we eat with the elements of our bodies that our limbs are enlarged and our whole frames strengthened, so is it by associating perception with perception in our brains that our intellect becomes at once expanded and invigorated. Contrary to the vulgar notion, theory, that is to say, theory in its true Baconian sense, is not opposed to fact, but consists rather of a collection of facts; it is not true of this or that thing alone, but of things belonging to the same class—in a word, it consists not of fact but an The theory of gravitation, for instance, expresses not only what occurs when a stone falls to the earth, but when every other body does the same thing; it expresses, moreover, what takes place in the revolution of the moon round our planet, and in the revolution of our planet and of all the other planets round our sun, and of all other suns round the centre of the universe; in fine, it is true not of thing merely, but of every material object in the entire range of creation.

There are, of course, methods of dealing philosophically with every subject —deductively and inductively. We may either proceed from principles to facts, or recede from facts to principles. The explains, the other investigates; the former applies known general rules to the comprehension of particular phenomena, and the latter classifies the particular phenomena, so that we may ultimately come to comprehend their unknown general rules. The deductive method is the mode of knowledge, and the inductive method the mode of it.

In a subject like the crime and vice of the metropolis, and the country in general, of which so little is known — of which there are so many facts, but so little comprehension—it is evident that we must seek by induction, that is to say, by a careful classification of the known phenomena, to render the matter more intelligible; in fine, we must, in order to arrive at a knowledge of its antecedents, consequences, and concomitants, contemplate as large a number of facts as possible in as many different relations as the statistical records of the country will admit of our doing.

With this brief preamble I will proceed to treat generally of the class that will not work, and then particularly of that portion of them termed prostitutes. But, , who are those that work, and who those that work? This is the primary point to be evolved.