The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 2

Allen, Thomas
1828

History of London from the Union to the Jubilee, 1809.

History of London from the Union to the Jubilee, 1809.

 

The commencement of the new century, , was distinguished by the union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, which had been resolved on by the parliaments in the course of the preceding year. On this occasion new standards were hoisted, and the Park and Tower guns were fired: a meeting of the privy council was held, and the new oaths taken by all the members that were in town. The style and titles of the king were now altered, and a royal proclamation of this day, ordered them to be expressed in Latin, as follows:

Georgius Tertius, Dei Gratia Britanniarum Rex, Fidei Defensor.

The excessive dearness of corn still continuing, it was judged expedient to prohibit the use of fine wheat flour after the ; and all loaves were in consequence made of the brown, or household kind. Notwithstanding this, the prices of corn continued to advance, and in the last weeks of March the quartern loaf in London was as high as The average prices of wheat in , was about per quarter; and the average in all Middlesex, per quarter.

On the , in the afternoon, the metropolis and its vicinity experienced of the most violent storms of thunder, lightning, and wind, that was ever remembered, accompanied with rain, which fell in such quantities for half an hour, that the streets were almost impassable, In the midst of the storm, the wind and rain forced in part of the sky-light of the court of Common Pleas, and for a time, totally impeded all business, the counsellors, &c. hurrying into Westminster-hall, to avoid the descending torrents. The hurricane did great damage also in many parts of the kingdom.

The Paddingdon canal was opened on the morning of the , with a grand procession of boats, to Bull's bridge, near Uxbridge, where they arrived about noon, and, being joined by the city shallop, with the sub-committee of the Thames, and several pleasure boats, the procession returned to the great dock at Paddington.

Intelligence having been received, of the adjustment of the differences between Great Britain and Russia, on the , lord Hawkesbury immediately transmitted the pleasing information to the lord mayor.

Preliminaries of peace, between his majesty and the French government, were signed at lord Hawkesbury's office, in , on the d of October, and on the , general Lauriston, Bonaparte's aide-de-camp, arrived with the ratification. In his passage through the town to M. Otto's residence, his carriage was followed by a numerous concourse of people, who afterwards

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took the horses from it, and drew him and M. Otto to , with expressions of the most tumultuous joy. On the ratifications being exchanged, the Park and Tower guns were fired, and at night there was a general illumination through the metropolis, which was repeated on the following evening.

A memorable example of English justice was displayed on the , by the execution, before Newgate, of John Wall, once governor of Goree, in Africa, for the murder of a serjeant, named Armstrong, whom he had caused to be tied to a gun carriage and flogged with such severity that the unfortunate victim died on the day afterwards. This was as far back as the year : some time after which Wall returned to England, and was apprehended for the crime, but made his escape from the officers on the road from Bath, and had lived upon the continent till the year . He then, most fatally for his safety returned to this country, and lived in privacy till a short time before his trial, when, apparently induced by perturbation of mind, and deluded by the hope that the witnesses of his guilt were no more, he wrote to the secretary of state that he was ready to surrender to take his trial. The evidence against him was conclusive, and though an attempt was made to rebut it by witnesses, who stated the garrison at Goree to have been in a state of mutiny when the punishment was inflicted on Armstrong, the jury pronounced a verdict of

Guilty:

various inconsistencies in their testimony being evident. Great interest was made to preserve his life, and a short reprieve was twice granted to the importunity of his friends whole day is said to have been occupied by the great law officers of the crown in considering his case, and the judges conferred together for hours, at the lord chancellor's, on the same subject. The result was against him; in the then state of the public mind, to have pardoned him might have been dangerous, even if his guilt had been questionable. On the morning of his execution a vast crowd surrounded the scaffold, and far, very far, contrary to the usual conduct of the multitude on these occasions, his ascending it became the signal for the utterance of distinct huzzas; and again, when the rope was affixed to his neck, the brutal exultation of the populace was evinced by another very loud shout. Under this extreme pressure of ignominy the criminal bowed his head, as if the detestation of his fellow-creatures had penetrated to his soul; but his sufferings were not yet ended: at the moment the platform dropped, the knot of the cord shifted to the back of his neck, and he remained suspended in convulsive agony nearly minutes. His body was afterwards dissected, as customary in all cases of execution for murder.

On the , a common hall was held for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of applying to parliament for the repeal of the Income tax; when a petition being prepared and agreed to, it was ordered to be presented by alderman Combe, the other representatives of the city having offended the livery by voting for the tax.

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The Easter dinner at the Mansion-house was remarkable for the absence of the sheriffs, in consequence of a conceived omission of attention from the lord mayor, to their official situation. The prince of Wales having honoured the dinner with his presence, they thought it their duty to apologize to his royal highness by letter, in which, after stating the lord mayor's neglect of that respect towards them which custom had established, and which from their high office they had a right to demand, they conclude

Under this impression your royal highness will not be surprised, that we resented what we considered indignity to our station ; that we refused to be mere puppets, in what he presumed to be his private pageant; that we consented to sacrifice the unbounded pleasure we ought to have enjoyed, in humbly receiving, and dutifully waiting upon your royal person, to the feelings of public propriety.

Peace was proclaimed in the cities of London and , on the , and, notwithstanding the ardour with which the preliminary articles had been received was considerably abated by the insidious conduct of France, during the interval that had elapsed since that period, yet, generally speaking, the most lively sensations of joy were excited on the present occasion. The streets were crowded at a very early hour, by persons of almost every rank, impatiently waiting for the procession; and the vast number of strangers from the country, whom curiosity had attracted, added much to the bustle of the scene. The procession was formed at , and the ceremony commenced at o'clock, by Windsor herald reading the proclamation of peace for the time, after which the procession moved forward along , in the following order:

Horse Guards clearing the way.
Beadles of Westminster, two and two, bare headed, with staves.
Constables of Westminster, in like manner.
High Constable with his staff on horseback.
Officers of the High Bailiff of Westminster, with white wands on horseback.
Clerk of the High Bailiff.
High Bailiff and Deputy Steward.
Horse Guards.
 Horse-guards to flank the Procession. Knight's Marshalmen, two and two, Knight Marshal. Drums. Drum Major. Trumpets. Serjeant Trumpeter. Pursuivants. Horse-guards to flank the Procession.
Heralds.
Serjeant at Arms Kings of Arms Horse Guards. Serjeant at Arm

When the procession reached it halted, and the reading of the proclamation was repeated. It then proceeded along to Temple-bar, where it arrived at o'clock. On its

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approach to the bar on the side, the horse guards filed off, and lined both sides of the way. The beadles and constables of , and the officers of the high bailiff did the same, and made a lane for the knight marshal and his officers to ride up to Temple-bar, the gates of which were shut. The junior officer of arms, then coming out of the rank, between trumpeters, and preceded by horse guards, rode up to the gate, and, after the trumpets had sounded thrice, knocked with a cane. Being asked by the city marshal from within

Who comes there?

he replied

the officers of arms, who demand entrance into the city, to publish his majesty's proclamation of peace.

The gates being opened, he was admitted alone, and the gates were shut again. The city marshal, preceded by his officers, conducted him to the lord mayor, to whom he showed his majesty's warrant, which his lordship having read, he returned, and gave directions to the city marshal to open the gates, who attended the officer of arms on his return to them, and, on leaving him, said

Sir, the gates are opened.

The trumpets and guards, being in waiting, reconducted him to his place in the procession, which then moved on into the city, the officers of retiring as they came to Temple-bar, and the city procession fell in behind the kings of arms, in the following order:

Four Constables together. Six Marshalmen, on foot, three and three. Six Trumpeters, three and three. Two City Marshals on horseback.
Sheriffs Officers on foot Two Sheriffs on horseback. Sword and Mace bearers on horseback. Sheriffs Officers on foot.
Porter in a black gown with a Staff. Lord Mayor on horseback, hearing the ancient sceptre of the city, which is of gold and glass ornamented with pearls and precious stones round the coronet and surmounted with the national arms. Beadles.
Household on foot.
Six footmen in rich Liveries, three and three.
State Coach, with six horses decorated with ribbands, &c.
Aldermen in Seniority, in their Coaches.
Carriages of the two Sheriffs.
Officers of the city in Carriages according to their seniority.
Horse Guards.
The Volunteer Corps of the city.
The Artillery Company.
The East India Volunteers.

The proclamation was read at the bottom of , after which the procession moved on through , , and , to . At the end of , the cavalcade halted till the proclamation was again read, and when the procession reached the it was read for the last time. The procession then passed along

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, and , to ,, and returned back along , , and to the Mansion-house, from whence the horse guards escorted the heralds to their college in , and afterwards proceeded to St. James's, with the knight marshal and his men.

Illuminations of the most splendid nature succeeded the ceremonial of the day. The Mansion-house, the Bank, the India-house, the public offices, and theatres, as well as the houses of many individuals, were particularly distinguished for the taste and splendour of their decorations; but the object of universal attraction, was the French minister, M. Otto's house, in , which was most brilliantly illuminated with coloured lamps, disposed in the form of a temple of the Ionic order, having the entablature divided in the centre by the word AMITY, in brilliant light; and above it, beneath an arch, a large transparency, representing England and France, with their various attributes, in the act of uniting their hands before an altar dedicated to Humanity; this was surmounted by the word : the letters G. R. surmounted by a royal, and F. R. by a civic crown, also appeared issuing from between trees of laurel, formed by green lamps; and the whole was terminated above by a large and most brilliant star. The excessive brilliancy of this illumination was probably never exceeded; the sight could hardly sustain the radiance, even at the distance of many yards. The crowd was so immense, that, for a long time, those who had reached the square, could find no avenue for retreat; and many carriages were jammed in for hours.

During the elections for a new parliament, in July, the metropolis was thrown into great confusion by the tumultuary assemblies of people which accompanied the choosing of the members for and Middlesex. In , Mr. Fox and sir Alan Gardiner were opposed by Graham, an auctioneer; and though the latter scarcely possessed a single necessary qualification for a statesman, he polled votes. In Middlesex, the popular candidate was sir Francis Burdett, who obtained his election against Mr. Justice Mainwaring, through the extraordinary circumstance of the sheriffs, R. A. Cox, esq. and sir William Rawlins, knt. receiving the votes of persons, by whom, and a few others, a company had been formed for erecting a flour-mill at Isleworth, on about a

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quarter of an acre of ground; which had been bargained for just a -month before. The original shares in this concern were only of the value of guineas each; the purchase money was unpaid, no regular conveyance had been made, the mill was unfinished, and not a farthing of profit had been derived from it by any of the proprietors, yet it was sworn by each of them, that he possessed a freehold of the clear yearly value of ! Every day during the election, the road to Brentford was the scene of great disorders, and many acts of personal violence, menace, and insult were committed by both parties; but chiefly by the opposers of Mainwaring, who had highly displeased the populace by his conduct as chairman of the county magistrates, when the enquiry respecting the Cold Bath Fields prison was going on.

On the , the day appointed for the meeting of the new parliament, colonel Edward Marcus Despard, and other persons were apprehended at the Oakley-arms, , , on a charge of treasonable practices; and after several examinations, of them, with the colonel, were committed to different gaols for trial. They were accused of forming a conspiracy to overturn the constitution, and destroy the king and other branches of the royal family; and the associations to which they belonged were stated to consist of several divisions of about tens persons each, which assembled in various public-houses about town. On the , a special commission was appointed for their trials, which came on in the following month, at the New , , . Despard, with others, was adjudged guilty; but of them were recommended to mercy, and afterwards pardoned. In his opening speech, the attorney-general stated the conspirators to consist

of the lowest order of the people, as journeymen, day-labourers, and common soldiers;

and of those convicted were privates in the guards. The execution took place on the , on the top of the county gaol; but that part of the sentence on traitors, which directs the bowels to be taken out, &c. and the body to be quartered, was remitted, The head, however, of each sufferer, was afterwards cut off, and exhibited to the crowd, which considerable and very orderly; though some confusion had been expected, and a strong military force was provided to resist any attempt that might have been made by the populace to rescue the prisoners. Colonel Despard strongly asserted his innocence on the scaffold; and it does not appear that any of his associates made any other confession inferring guilt, than that they had done wrong in attending the meeting.

At a court of common council, held on the it was unanimously resolved to subscribe to the royal Jennerian Society, which had been instituted a short time before for the purpose of exterminating the smallpox by the introduction of the vaccine inoculation.

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The being the anniversary of the memorable battle of Alexandria, the Turkish piece of ordnance taken on that day, was placed opposite the gunner's house, in . It is feet in length, but was originally feet. The carriage was made for it in London.

A most extraordinary forgery was practised in the city on the . At an early hour in the morning, a man delivered a letter at the Mansion-house, which he said he had brought from the secretary of state, and requested it might be delivered immediately; it was accordingly given to the lord mayor, and soon after the following literal copy appeared in front of the Mansion-house;

Lord Hawkesbury presents his compliments to the lord mayor, and has the honor to acquaint his lordship that the negociation between this country and the French republic is brought to an amicable conclusion.

Downing-street

,

8

o'clock,

May 5, 1803

.

Printed notices were then posted round the Custom-house, declaring the embargo to be taken off saltpetre, &c. In consequence of this delusion, the consols experienced an immediate rise from to . A real treasury messenger soon arrived, however, to announce the deception, on which the genuine communication was read in the public streets by the city marshal. The confusion which ensued was beyond all description; the Stock Exchange was immediately shut, and the committee came to a resolution that all bargains made that morning should be void; and the consequence of the detection of this artifice was a rapid fall in the funds to their price in the morning.

A similar attempt was made days after, through the medium of a morning paper, notoriously in the interest of the government, in which a paragraph appeared, stating the amicable termination of the differences with France. The committee for managing the Stock Exchange, however, in order to guard against a imposition, would not allow the doors to be opened until the truth of the report could be officially ascertained. At their instance, the lord mayor addressed a note to lord Hawkesbury, soliciting information, and stating the occasion of his application. To this note, the chancellor of the exchequer, in the absence of lord Hawkesbury, returned an answer, signifying that no information had been received by government which could be the subject of a public communication, and cautioning the lord mayor against receiving reports through unauthorised channels. An extract of this answer being made public, the Stock Exchange was opened, and business went on as usual.

The differences which very soon after the signing of the definitive treaty at Amiens, had arisen between the governments of Great Britain and France, most unhappily terminated in war; and, after an interval of less than months, the rival nations were again involved in inveterate hostility. His majesty's declaration on this subject was laid before parliament on the ; and

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the strong discussions which arose upon it were, as usual, decided in favor of administration.

About the middle of June, the minister signified his intention to impose a property tax, on the principle of that so lately repealed on income, but only to the amount of per cent.; and this measure was, in the course of the session, passed into a law, notwithstanding the opposition of the livery of London, and other considerable public bodies.

The commencement of the war with France was attended on the part of the consul with strong threats of invasion; to provide effectually against which, the parliament passed an act to enable his majesty to arm the people ; every man from the age of to being rendered liable to enrolment and military duty. Several other acts for increasing the military force of the country were also passed; and, in consequence of these and other measures, the people began to form volunteer associations in every part of the kingdom; yet, no where were greater zeal and ardour displayed than in the metropolis itself. The city of London took the lead; and, on the , a special court of aldermen was held at , for the purpose of considering of the best plan for arming the citizens at large; and subsequently, meetings were held in all the wards to carry the resolutions of the aldermen into effect. Almost every parish and public office had also its distinct meeting, and many thousands were quickly enrolled as volunteers to defend the independence of Britain. The squares, gardens, and even church-yards of London and its vicinity, soon became places of military exercise; and within little more than months from this time, viz. on the and , the number of effective volunteers alone, within the cities of London and , and the parishes immediately adjacent, amounted to , as appears by the general orders issued from the horse guards, after the volunteer reviews on those days, by his majesty in .

On the , a general fund, under the name of the patriotic fund, was established at Lloyd's coffee-house, on an enlarged scale, for the reward of those individuals who should distinguish themselves in the service of their country; for assisting the relations

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of those who might fall in battle, and for relieving the wounded. Such was the alacrity with which subscriptions were presented, that the total amount before the end of August was more than ; towards this sum, the city gave in its corporate capacity.

In consequence of the negligence of some of those whose duty it was to see the lights put out, Astley's amphitheatre, near Westminster-bridge, was destroyed by fire, early in the morning of the . The immense quantity of inflammable materials it contained, caused the flames to rage with such fury, that nearly houses were consumed before the fire could be got under. An accident of the same kind, and in the same place, occurred on the night of the duke of York's birth-day, .

In , a committee of the house of commons was appointed to investigate the proceedings at the recent contested election for Middlesex; and, on their report, made , it was resolved,

that sir Francis Burdett had not been duly elected; that William Mainwaring, esq. was duly elected ; but that he, having by his agents, violated the Treating Act, was thereby incapacitated from sitting in parliament.

In consequence of this decision, a new writ was issued, and the younger Mainwaring was put in nomination against sir Francis. The election commenced on the , and was carried on with as much heat and violence as had ever been remembered. The numbers admitted on the poll for Burdett exceeded those for Mainwaring by ; yet the examination into the legality of some of these votes having been deferred by the sheriffs to the day after the election, it was then found that the power of the sheriffs had ceased; and the undecided votes having been deducted, Mainwaring had a majority of , and he was therefore returned. On a petition of sir Francis, the house resolved,

that though the questionable votes had been improperly added, it was the prerogative of the house of commons alone to strike them off again; and, therefore, that the return should have been made in conformity to the numbers oon the poll.

Through this decision, sir Francis became the nominal sitting member, yet the business was not brought to a final issue till the , when Mainwaring was declared to have been duly elected.

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About the middle of May, a new change took place in the administration, and Mr. Pitt resumed his former office of prime minister; the temporary retirement of Mr. Addington was, in the following January, rewarded by his return to power, with the title of viscount Sidmouth, and the place of lord president of the council.

Spanish dollars, re-stamped at Mr. Bolton's mint, at Soho, near Birmingham, with his majesty's head, and the inscription,

Georgius III. Dei gratia rex

on the obverse; and Britannia, with the words

Five

Shillings Dollar,

Bank of England

,

on the reverse, were issued from the Bank on the .

A case was heard at on the , relative to the right of freemen of the city of London, carrying the goods of non-freemen for hire, without paying the city toll, when it was determined that, under such circumstances, a freeman was not entitled to the full exemption, and the defendant was therefore adjudged to pay half-toll.

The were opened on the . The vessel appointed for this service was called the London Packet, a fine -masted vessel from Oporto, laden with wine. Early in the forenoon, she displayed the flags of the different trading nations expected to use the docks, and about noon, she was committed to the charge of the Dock-masters, who conducted her safely across the entrance bason into the great dock, at the north east corner of which she was moored, for the purpose of unloading her cargo.

The directors of the West India Dock company served originally without any remuneration, and when, towards the end of the last year, it was proposed to give them a salary, the corporation of London came to an unanimous resolution, that it would be highly unbecoming, and inconsistent with the dignity of the city, that the aldermen, and common councilmen, who were part of that body, should receive any pecuniary emolument for the execution of a public trust, confided, in so material a degree, to the corporation of London. This resolution was, however, ineffectual, for which reason a motion was submitted to the court of common council, on the , to declare such members of that court, as accepted a salary for their duty of directors of the West India Dock Company, ineligible to be elected on any commission or committee of the court, so long as they continue directors with a salary, but upon a division it was carried in the negative by a majority of . The numbers being for the question ; against it .

On the , the court of common council agreed on a petition to parliament, to enable the corporation to raise a further sum of , for finishing the canal at the , which was presented the same day, and an act of parliament was afterwards passed in conformity to the prayer of it.

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The foundation stone of the , at , laid on the , by captain Joseph Huddart, (in the absence of captain Cotton, the chairman of the company, who was confined by illness), accompanied by Joseph Woolmore, esq. the deputy chairman, and several of the directors. These docks, though not so large as either the London or , are capable of admitting ships of greater burthen, by having deeper water, and locks of larger dimensions. They consist of docks and an entrance bason. The dock for discharging inwards covers eighteen acres; that for loading outwards acres; the entrance bason is about acres. The docks formerly belonging to Messrs. Ferry and Co. were purchased by the company, and named the Brunswick dock.

In the spring of , the parliament increased the duties on property ; and, under this advance, the minister estimated its produce at On the , the house of commons ordered the speaker's warrant to be issued for the commitment to Newgate of the late sheriffs of Middlesex, for their conduct in respect to the Isleworth millers, &c. during the contest between Burdett and Mainwaring. They were afterwards reprimanded at the bar of the house, and discharged on paying the customary fees.

A dreadful fire destroyed the whole of the water-mills, at the northern extremity of the cut from the Thames to the Lea, on the ; some granaries and dwelling-houses were also burnt, with upwards of sacks of corn and flour. barges afloat were consumed to the water's edge, and all the inflammable materials on the adjacent road and bridge, and even the piles, to a distance of feet in the stream, were in a blaze, and presented a spectacle not less singular than terrific. Had it not been for a fortunate shift of wind, while the conflagration was at its height, the whole village of must have been involved in the common calamity.

About this period, the delinquency of lord Melville, whilst treasurer of the Navy, in making use of the public money for his own emolument, through his agent, Alexander Trotter, occupied a very enlarged share of popular attention; and, on the , the house of commons, on the motion of Mr. Whitbread, and in despite of every effort of the minister to screen his old associate, came to a series of resolutions, in which it was declared, that lord Melville

had been guilty of a gross violation of the law, and a high breach of duty.

On this momentous question, the speaker, Mr. Abbot, gave the casting vote, the numbers on each side, viz. , being equal. It was afterwards determined, that a criminal prosecution should be brought against lord Melville; and, on the , his majesty struck out his name from the list of privy councillors. On the , a

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motion for proceeding by impeachment, instead of by prosecution in the lower courts, was carried by a majority of ; and, on , the trial of the viscount came on before the house of lords. On the , the peers, much to the dissatisfaction of the nation, declared him

not guilty

on all the charges; though, on the and articles, which accused him of knowingly permitting his agent Trotter to make a fraudulent application of the public money for his own benefit, upwards of of the lords voted him

guilty.

On the , intelligence arrived at the admiralty of the unprecedented naval victory off Cape Trafalgar, fought , in which Nelson, the British commander, fell. The death of this hero sadly damped the public joy, and even the illuminations of the metropolis testified the mixture of exultation and sorrow which pervaded the minds of its inhabitants. The crape and the cypress were entwined with the laurel, and the darkness of some streets contrasted with the brilliancy of others.

An address of congratulation on this occasion was presented to his majesty, by the corporation of London, on the ; and on the , the court of common council came to a resolution to erect a monument in , to the memory of lord Nelson, and voted a sword of the value of guineas to admiral Collingwood, his in command, and swords of the value of guineas to admirals lord Northesk, the in command, and sir Richard Strachan, who, with a small squadron of observation, stationed off Ferrol, had been so fortunate as to fall in with and capture ships of the line, which escaped from the action off Cape Trafalgar. At the same court, a letter was read from the honourable Mrs. Damer, offering to execute and present to the court a bust of lord Nelson, either in bronze or marble; which were accepted, and the thanks of the court unanimously voted for her liberal proposal.

But great as were these testimonies of civic gratitude, greater still awaited the remains of the departed hero. A national tribute of respect was paid to him by a public funeral, the ceremonial of which, so immediately connected with the city of London, is here inserted entire:

On the , the heralds and naval officers, who were to assist in the procession by water, assembled at the governor's house in Greenwich hospital, where they were met by the lord mayor, aldermen, and committee appointed by the corporation of London, and proceeded to their several barges.

The body was then carried from the saloon, where it had lain in state, through the great hall, out at the eastern portal, round

154

the Royal Charlotte ward, to the north gate, and placed on board the state barge. The coffin was covered with a velvet pall, adorned with escutcheons. During the procession from the great hall to the barge, a very noble band of music played the dead march in Saul; minute guns were fired; and the bells tolled in unison.

The body being embarked, the procession moved in the following order, about o'clock.

. Harbour Masters.

. Water Bailiff.

. Rulers of the company of Watermen, &c.

. Chaplain and Staff of the River Fencibles.

. Boat with drums muffled.

. Officer commanding gun-boats.

. Gun-boats, and . . River Fencibles flanking.

. row-boats, with an officer in each.

. State Barge. Drums- trumpets with their banners in the steerage--the standard at the head, borne by a captain, supported by lieutenants of the royal navy--the Guidon, at the door place, also borne by a captain, and supported by lieutenants; all in their full uniform coats, with black waistcoats, breeches, and (stockings, and crape round their arms and hats--Rouge Croix and Blue Mantle Poursuivants of Arms, in close mourning, with their tabards over their cloaks; and hat-bands and scarves.

. barge. trumpets in the steerage--Heralds of Arms, bearing the Surcoat; Target and Sword; Helm and Crest; and Gauntlet and Spurs of the deceased. The Banner of the deceased as a knight of the Bath, at the head, borne by a captain; and the Great Banner, with the augmentations, at the door-place, borne by a captain, supported by lieutenants.

. barge, covered with black velvet (the other barges being covered with black cloth), the top adorned with plumes of black feathers; and in the centre, upon shields of the arms of the deceased, joining in point, a viscount's coronet. trumpets, with their banners as before, in the steerage- bannerolls of the family lineage of the deceased, on each side, affixed to the external parts of the barge- officers of the royal navy, habited as those in the other barges, viz. to each banneroll.

THE BODY, covered with a large sheet, and a pall of velvet, adorned with escutcheons--Norroy king of arms (in the absence of Clarencieux) bearing, at the head of the body, a viscount's coronet upon a black velvet cushion.

At the head of the barge, the union flag of the united kingdom.

Attendants on the body, while at Greenwich, in mourning.

. barge, covered with black cloth. The chief mourner, sir Peter Parker, bart. admiral of the fleet, with a captain for his train bearer-- admirals, his supporters- admirals, assistant mourners- admirals, supporters of the pall, and admirals, supporters of the canopy, all in mourning cloaks over their

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respective full uniform coats, black waistcoats, breeches, and stockings, crape round their arms, and crape hat-bands.

Windsor Herald (acting for Norroy king of arms) habitied as the other officers of arms.

The banner of emblems, at the door place, borne by a captain, and supported by lieutenants of the royal navy, habited as those in the other barges. row-boats of the harbour marines.

. Corps flanking the state barges. . His majesty's barge.

. Barge with the lords commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral.

. Barge of the right hon. the Lord Mayor; who, in the arrangement of the procession by water, in his character of conservator of the Thames, highly distinguished himself by his judicious and unremitting attention; as did likewise Matthew Lucas, esq. commander of the river fencibles.

. Barge, with the committee specially appointed by the corporation of London. The only ornaments of this barge were the actual colours of the Victory, borne by select seamen from that ship, by the express permission of their captain, and with the sanction of the admiralty. These flags, and their brave supporters, formed a truly interesting part of the procession.

. Barge with the Committee of the Corporation for improving the navigation of the river Thames.

. Eighteen row-boats of River Fencibles, flanking the procession.

. The barges of the companies of Drapers, Fishmongers, Goldsmiths, Skinners, Merchant-taylors, Ironmongers, Stationers, and Apothecaries.

. row-boats, with Harbour Marines, flanking the Companies' Barges.

. Harbour Masters.

The Funeral Barge was rowed by seamen belonging to the Victory; the other barges by picked men from the Greenwich Pensioners. They had all their flags hoisted half-staff high; and, as the procession passed the Tower, minute-guns were there fired. Not a vessel was suffered to disturb the procession. The decks, yards, rigging, and masts, of the numerous ships on the river, were all crowded with spectators; and the number of ladies was immense.

The Navigation Barge, which is usually stationed at Kew for excursions up the river, and which, though as long as a gun ship, draws but feet of water was, on this occasion, for the time, brought through Westminster-bridge, and moored opposite the Temple, for the accommodation of such members of the corporation (in deep mourning and violet gowns) as were not actually engaged in the procession.

At a quarter before , the procession approached

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; the king's, admiralty, lord mayor's, and city barges, immediately drew up in lines, through which the barge with the body passed. All the oars were advanced, and the trumpets and other bands played the Dead March in Saul, the gun-boats firing minute-guns all the time. Exactly at , the funeral barge began to disembark its charge.

A procession then commenced from to the

Admiralty on foot.

. Drums and Trumpets.

. Rouge Croix, Poursuivant of Arms.

. The Standard.

. Trumpet.

. Blue Mantle, Poursuivant of Arms.

. The Guidon.

. Trumpets.

. Rouge Dragon, Poursuivant of Arms.

. Banner of the Deceased, as Knight of the Bath.

. Trumpets.

. Richmond Herald.

. The Great Banner.

. Gauntlet and Spurs, borne by York Herald.

. Helm and Crest, borne by Somerset Herald.

. Sword and Target, borne by Lancaster Herald.

. Surcoat, borne by Chester Herald.

. Trumpets.

. Norroy King of Arms, (in the absence of Clarencieux) bearing the Coronet on a black velvet cushion.

.

 3 Bannerolls borne by 3 Officers in the R. N. 2 Pall Bearers being admirals. THE BODY, covered with a black velvet Pall, adorned with Escutcheons under a Canopy supported by six Admirals. 2 Pall Bearers being admirals. 3 Bannerolls borne by 3 Officers in the R. N.

. Garter principal King of Arms.

.

 Supporter to the Chief Mourner. The chief mourner, Sir Peter Parker, Bart. Admiral of the fleet. Supporter to the chief mourner.

. Train Bearer.

. The Admirals, assistant mourners.

. Windsor Herald, acting for Norroy King of Arms.

. The Banner of emblems, borne and supported as in the barge. Every necessary preparation had been made at the admiralty for receiving the body. The captains' room, in which it was placed, was hung with superfine black cloth for this solemn occasion. The room was lighted with wax tapers, placed in sconces on the sides.

The body remained in the room, guarded by the officers of the house and the undertakers, till the ceremony of its removal to St.

Paul's commenced.

On Thursday, the , an hour before daylight, the drums of the different volunteer corps in every part of the metropolis beat to arms; and, soon after, the troops lined the streets, in ranks, from to the Admiralty. The life-guards were mounted at their post in Hyde-park by day-break, where

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the carriages of the nobility, &c. with the mourning coaches appointed to form a part of the procession, began to be assembled at o'clock, in a line from to . By , carriages were assembled, of which number nearly were mourning coaches, principally filled with naval officers; all of which, under the direction of the proper officers, were marshalled in their due order of precedence, and drove into , to be in readiness to fall into the procession on the proper signal. In were drawn up all the regiments of cavalry and infantry quartered within miles of London, who had served in the glorious campaigns in Egypt, after the ever-memorable victory at the Nile; and a detachment of flying artillery, with field pieces, and their ammunition tumbrils. At , the procession commenced from the Admiralty, with the march of their several regiments, led by his royal highness, the duke of York, attended by his aides-de-camp and staff, in the following order:

. A detachment of the Light Dragoons.

. companies of light infantry of the old buffs, with the band playing Rule Britannia, drums muffled, as an advanced guard.

. The and regiments, in sections, commanded by the hon. major Charles Hope; their colours honourably shattered in the campaign of Egypt, which word was inscribed upon them, borne in the centre, and hung with crape.

. The rear guard, formed by a detachment of the , preceded by their national pipes, playing the Dead March in Saul.

. The and regiments, commanded by the hon. Brigadier-general Robert Meade, with their bands playing as before.

. The , , and light dragoons, and the Scotch greys, squadrons of each, commanded by major-general William St. Leger. The trumpets at intervals sounded a solemn dirge, and performed the dead march.

. The Royal Horse Artillery, with field pieces.

The whole of the military were under the command of general sir David Dundas, K. B. and lieutenant-general Henry Burrard.

. Marshalmen, on foot, to clear the way.

. Messenger of the College of Arms, in a mourning cloak, with a badge of the college on his shoulder, his staff tipped with silver, and furled with sarsnet.

. Conductors in mourning cloaks, with black staves headed with viscount's coronets.

. Pensioners from Greenwich Hospital, and , in mourning cloaks, with badges of the crests of the deceased on their shoulders, and black staves in their hands.

. seamen and marines of his majesty's ship Victory, and , in their ordinary dress, with black neck handkerchiefs and stockings, and crape in their hats.

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. Watermen of the deceased, in black coats, with their badges.

. Drums and Fifes. . Drum Major. . Trumpets.

. Serjeant Trumpeter.

. Rouge Croix, Poursuivant of Arms(alone in a mourning coach) in close mourning, with his tabard over his cloak, black silk scarf, hat-band, and gloves.

. The Standard, borne in front of a mourning coach, in which were a captain and lieutenants of the royal navy, in their full uniform coats, with black cloth waistcoats, breeches, and black stockings, and crape round their arms and hats.

. Trumpets.

. Blue Mantle, Poursuivant at Arms (alone in a mourning coach), habited as Rouge Croix.

. The Guidon, borne in front of a mourning coach, in which were a Captain and Lieutenants of the Royal Navy, dressed as those who bore and supported the Standard.

. Servants of the Deceased, in mourning, in a mourning coach.

. Officers of his Majesty's Wardrobe, in mourning coaches.

. Gentlemen. . Esquires.

. Deputations from the Great Commercial Companies of London.

. Physicians of the Deceased, in a mourning coach.

. Divines, in clerical habits.

. Chaplains, of the Deceased, in clerical habits, and Secretary of the Deceased, in a mourning coach.

. Trumpets.

. Rouge Dragon, and Portcullis, Poursuivants of Arms (in a mourning coach), habited as before.

. The Banner of the Deceased as a Knight of the Bath, borne in front of a mourning coach, in which were a Captain and Lieutenants of the Royal Navy, dressed as those who bore and supported the Guidon.

. Attendants on the Body while it lay in state at Greenwich; viz. Rev. A. Scott (Chaplain to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales), Joseph Whidbey and John Tyson, Esquires, in a mourning coach.

. Knights Bachelors.

. Serjeants at Law.

. Deputy to the Knight Marshal, on horseback.

. Knights of the Bath.

. A Gentleman Usher (in a mourning coach) carrying a carpet and black velvet cushion, whereon the trophies were to be deposited in the Church.

. Comptroller, Treasurer, and Steward of the Household of the Deceased (in a mourning coach), in mourning cloaks, bearing white staves.

Next followed the carriages of the different degrees of Nobility and great Law Officers, who attended to show their respect to the memory of the Deceased, beginning with the younger sons of Barons, and ending with the following distinguished personages:

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Duke of Norfolk, Earl Marshal.

Earl Camden, K. G. Lord President of the Council.

Archbishop of Canterbury.

His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge.

His R. H. the Duke of Sussex.

His R. H. the Duke of Cumberland.

His R. H. the Duke of Kent.

His R. H. the Duke of Clarence.

His Royal Highness the Duke of York, Commander in Chief.

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.

The Prince of Wales, and Dukes of Clarence, Cambridge, and Sussex, were in coaches and .

The Duke of York and his staff, with the Dukes of Kent and Cambridge, and the Colonels of Volunteers, followed the funeral Car on horseback.

Richmond Herald (alone in a mourning coach), habited as the other Officers of Arms.

. The Great Banner, borne in front of a mourning coach, in which were a Captain and Lieutenants of the Royal Navy, dressed as those who supported the Banner.

. Gauntlet and Spurs; Helm and Crest; Target and Sword; Surcoat; in front of mourning coaches, in which were York, Somerset, Lancaster, and Chester Heralds, habited as before.

. A mourning coach, in which the Coronet of the Deceased, on a black velvet cushion, was borne by Norroy King of Arms (in the absence of Clarencieux), habited as before, and attended by Gentlemen Ushers.

. The Lieutenants of the Victory, habited as before, with the Bannerolls, in mourning coaches.

. The Admirals, in like habits, who were to bear the Canopy, in mourning coaches.

. The Admirals, in like habits, to support the Pall, in a mourning coach.

. THE BODY, placed on a funeral Car, or open Hearse, decorated with a carved imitation of the head and stern of his Majesty's ship the Victory, surrounded with Escutcheons of the Arms of the Deceased, and adorned with appropriate mottos and emblematical devices; under an elevated Canopy, in the form of the upper part of an ancient Sarcophagus, with sable Plumes, and the Coronet of a Viscount in the centre, supported by Columns, representing Palm Trees, with wreaths of natural laurel and cypress entwining the shafts; the whole upon a -wheeled carriage, drawn by led horses, the Caparisons adorned with Armorial Escutcheons.

The head of the Car was ornamented with a figure of Fame. The stern, carved and painted in the naval style, with the word

Victory,

in yellow raised letters on the poop. Between the Escutcheons were inscribed the words

Trinidad,

Bucentaur,

160

L'Orient,

and

St. Josef.

The coffin, placed on the quarterdeck, with its head towards the stern, with an English Jack pendant over the poop, and lowered half staff. The corners and sides of the Canopy were decorated with black ostrich feathers, and festooned with black velvet, richly fringed, immediately above which, in the front, was inscribed, in gold, the word

Nile,

at end. On side the following motto-

Hoste devicto requievit

; behind, the word

Trafalgar;

and on the other side the motto-

Palmam qui meruit, ferat.

[N. B. The black velvet Pall, adorned with Escutcheons of the Arms of the Deceased, and the Bannerolls of the Family Lineage, were removed from the Hearse, in order to afford an unobstructed view of the Coffin containing the remains of the gallant Admiral.]

. Garter, Principal King of Arms, in his official habit, with his sceptre (in his carriage, his servants being in full mourning), attended by Gentlemen Ushers.

. The Chief Mourner, in a mourning coach, with his supporters, and his Train-bearer; all in mourning cloaks.

. Assistant Mourners (in mourning coaches), in mourning cloaks as before.

. Windsor Herald, acting for Norroy King of Arms (in a mourning coach), habited as the other officers of arms, and attended by Gentlemen Ushers.

. The Banner of Emblems, in front of a mourning coach, in which were Captains, and Lieutenants of the Royal Navy.

. Relations of the Deceased, in mourning coaches.

. Officers of the Navy and Army, according to their respective ranks; the seniors nearest the body: The whole in mourning coaches.

. The private chariot of the deceased Lord, empty-the blinds drawn up--the coachman and footmen in deep mourning, with bouquets of cypress.

The whole moved on in solemn pace, through to Temple Bar-gate, where the lord mayor of London waited to receive the procession, accompanied by the aldermen, recorder, sheriffs, and the following gentlemen, selected from the committee appointed by the corporation for arranging their attendance at the funeral: Samuel Birch, Esq. chairman; Daniel Pinder, Esq. father of the corporation; sir William Rawlins, knight; Solomon Wadd, John Nichols, Samuel Goodbehere, Jacob Boak, James Dixon, James Taddy, John Ord, Thomas Marriot, and Edward Colbatch, esquires.

On the arrival of the military preceding the whole, the lord mayor had a short conversation with his royal highness the duke of York.

As the procession advanced, the deputation of the common

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council, in elegant chariots, and in their violet gowns, fell in as had been previously adjusted, before the physicians of the deceased: and were preceded by select sailors from the Victory, who had accompanied the committee in their barge, bearing the union, jack, and pendant of the ship; whose honourable tatters attracted universal attention.

The aldermen, in their scarlet gowns, fell in before the masters in Chancery; and (by an especial sign manual) the lord mayor on horseback, bearing the city sword, attended by the sheriffs, rode between his royal highness the prince of Wales and the heralds at arms.

On the arrival of the procession at (which was filled at an early hour by all those who could obtain places), the cavalry marched off to their barracks; the Scotch regiments drew up in the area fronting the church, and marched in at the western gate.

The Greenwich pensioners, with the seamen and marines from the Victory, entered the western gate, ascended the steps, and divided in a line on each side under the great western portico.

On the arrival of the body and the funeral car at the great entrance, it was drawn up without the western gate. The body was taken from the car, covered with the pall, and borne by men; and was received within the gate by the supporters and pall-bearers, who had previously alighted for its reception.

The remainder of the procession entered the church, and divided on either side according to their ranks; those who had proceeded remained nearest the door.

Immediately after the great banner, near the entrance of the church, the dean and chapter fell into the procession, attended by the minor canons and vicars choral, &c. of , assisted by the priests and gentlemen of his majesty's chapels royal, and the minor canons and vicars choral of the collegiate church of St. Peter, , and others, who sang the part of the burial service, set to music by Dr. Croft.

The Body was borne into the church and choir, preceded by Richmond herald; the great banner borne by a captain; and the gauntlet and spurs, helm and crest, target and sword, and surcoat, by heralds as before.

The Coronet by Norroy King of Arms.

THE BODY, with the supporters of the pall and canopy.

Garter King of Arms.

Chief mourner, and assistant mourners.

Windsor herald.

The banner of emblems.

Relations of the deceased; viz.

Horatio Nelson, esq. commonly called viscount Merton, nephew; G. Matcham, esq. nephew; G. Matcham, esq. brother-in-law;

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William Earl Nelson, sole brother and heir; T. Bolton, esq. nephew; T. Bolton, esq. brother-in-law. Rev. R. Rolfe, T. T. Berney, esq., hon. H. Walpole, hon. G. Walpole, cousins.

The remainder of the procession followed in the order as before marshalled.

The officers of arms, and the bearers of the banners, with their supporters, entered the choir, and stood within, near the door; and all above and including the rank of knights bachelors, as well as the staff officers, and the naval officers who attended the procession, had seats assigned to them in the choir.

The chief mourner, his supporters, and train bearer, were seated on chairs near the body, on the side next the altar; and the assistant mourners, supporters of the pall, and supporters of the canopy, on stools on each side.

The relations also near them in the choir; and garter was seated near the chief mourner.

The prince of Wales, and his royal brothers, were at the east end of the prebendal stalls, on the south side of the choir.

The duchess of York was also seated in the choir; her royal highness was conducted to her seat by the bishop of Lincoln.

The officers of the navy, and the staff officers commanding the troops were seated near the altar.

The lord mayor, aldermen, recorder, and sheriffs, were in their accustomed seats (the prebend stalls), at the east end of the north side of the choir; their ladies in the closets over them; and the deputation of the common council in the seats immediately under the aldermen.

The carpet and cushion (on which the trophies were afterwards to be deposited) were laid by the gentleman usher who carried them, on a table placed near the grave, which was under the centre of the dome, and behind the place which was to be there occupied by the chief mourner.

The coronet and cushion, borne by Norroy, king of arms (in the absence of Clarencieux), was laid on the body.

The gentlemen of the choirs ascended into a gallery on the east side of the organ, from which the evening service was performed.

At the conclusion of the service in the choir, a procession was made thence to the grave, with the banners and bannerolls as before; during which was performed on the organ a grand solemn dirge, composed and played by Mr. Attwood; the officers of arms preceded with the trophies; the gentlemen of the choir of accompanying the body; the gentlemen of the chapels royal and stationing themselves in a gallery on the west side of the organ; the body borne and attended as before.

The chief mourner, with his supporters, and near them garter, had seats at the east end of the grave; the train bearer stood behind the chief mourner, and near him the relations of the

163

deceased. At the opposite end sat the right reverend the lord bishop of Lincoln, dean of the cathedral, attended by the canons residentiaries. A supporter of the pall stood at each angle; the assistant mourners, the supporters of the canopy, and bearers of the bannerolls, on either side. On the right of the dean were the chaplains; on the left the officers of the household of the deceased. The great banner was borne on the north, the banner of the deceased, as a knight of the Bath, on the south of the grave; the standard and guidon behind the chief mourner; the trophies in the angles.

The royal dukes, foreign ambassadors, and naval officers, had seats reserved for them in the front of the south side of the dome.

At the grave was sung:

Man that is born of a woman, &c.

The remainder of the burial service was then read by the dean; and after the collect an anthem was sung, selected from Handel's grand funeral anthem.

There was an excellent contrivance for letting down the body into the grave. A bier was raised from the oblong aperture under the dome, for the purpose of supporting the coffin, by invisible machinery; the apparatus being totally concealed below the pavement. This contrivance prevented all those disagreeable circumstances which too often occur at the funerals of the great.

Upon a signal given from that the body was deposited, the troops being drawn up in , the artillery fired their guns, and the infantry gave vollies, by corps, times repeated.

The service of the interment being over, garter proclaimed the style; and the comptroller, treasurer, and steward of the deceased, breaking their staves, gave the pieces to garter, who threw them into the grave.

The interment thus ended, the standard, banners, bannerolls, and trophies, were deposited on the table behind the chief mourner; and the procession, arranged by the officers of arms, returned.

The vast space under the dome of was illuminated by a temporary lanthorn, the contrivance of Mr. Wyatt, consisting of an octagonal framing of wood, painted black, and finished at top by angles, and at bottom by a smaller octagon. On it were disposed about patent lamps; and it was suspended by a rope from the centre of the lanthorn. When drawn up, it illuminated the whole church, and had a most impressive and grand effect, contributing greatly to the magnificence of the spectacle.

During the whole of this solemn ceremony, the greatest order prevailed throughout the metropolis; and, as the remains of the much-lamented hero proceeded along, every possible testimony

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of sorrow and of respect was manifested by an immense concourse of spectators of all ranks. From the admiralty to the cathedral, the streets were lined with the several volunteer corps of London and , the militia, and many other military bodies, both cavalry and infantry.

The lord mayor and corporation of London were entitled to the grateful acknowledgments of the public (who profited by their attention throughout every department), not only for the exemplary manner in which they provided for the peace of the city, but for the comfortable access afforded, under their direction, to all who entered it.

Upon this celebration it seems hardly necessary to offer a word more, when we consider the general feeling of the nation on the subject. The funeral of a hero, who had achieved, in the service of his country, the greatest naval exploits that were ever performed by any conqueror that has yet existed, was attended by the sons of his sovereign, by the chief nobility, gentry, and merchants of the empire, and by many thousands of subjects of all classes, with an universal, an unmixed, and a heartfelt sense of grief for his loss; but at the same time, with a glorious exultation in the deeds by which his life had been adorned, and his death consecrated to immortal honours.

In the course of the year , the obsequies of other distinguished personages, the right hon. William Pitt, and the right hon. Charles James Fox, were also celebrated in London with great solemnity and funeral pomp. The former died on the d of January, and was buried on the d of February; the latter died on the , and was interred on the . These eminent statesmen were both deposited within a few yards of each other in .

The decease of Mr. Pitt led to a total change of administration, and the country began to entertain strong hopes that some of its many grievances would be ameliorated; yet the emergencies of government were so great, that of the measures of lord Henry Petty, the new chancellor of the exchequer, was to increase the imposition upon property to per cent.! Measures, however, were taken, in the course of the summer, to open a negociation for peace, under the direction of Mr. Fox, who had been appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs; and had it not been for his lamented death, whilst the discussions were pending, it is more than probable that the sword of destruction would have been once more sheathed.

A motion was made in the court of common council, on the ,

That this court, deeply impressed with a sense of the inflexible integrity, transcendant ability, and splendid virtue of the late illustrious minister, the right hon. W. Pitt, do cause a monument to be erected within the

Guildhall

of this city, to perpetuate his memory, with a suitable incription, expressive

of their veneration for so pre-eminent a character, and of the irreparable loss this nation has sustained by the death of so exalted and disinterested a statesman.

After a very animated debate, the question was determined in the affirmative by a majority of .

At the elections for a new parliament in May, the city of was the scene of a singular contest, between or different interests; and the result most unequivocally demonstrated that the cause of reform was gaining ground. It had been proposed to put in nomination a former candidate, Mr. Paull, who had much distinguished himself in parliament, by urging an inquiry into the conduct of marquis Wellesley, whilst governor of India; yet the intemperate conduct of this gentleman, on several occasions, and more particularly in forcing sir Francis Burdett to fight a duel, in which both parties were wounded, led to another decision, and sir Francis Burdett himself was proposed as a candidate, and placed at the head of the poll. This was effected by a committee of the electors, without any expence to the baronet, and even without his knowledge; his wound having obliged him to be confined to his house, and kept free from agitation.

On the evening of Thursday, , a dreadful accident happened at Sadler's Wells, through a mistaken alarm of fire. The audience were thrown into the greatest confusion, and in the sudden effort made to quit the house by the people in the gallery, many were thrown down whilst descending the staircase, and the pressure from above preventing all possibility of aid, eighteen hapless beings, male and female, were totally deprived of life. Many others were greatly bruised and hurt, and several were restored from a state of apparent death, by medical assistance.

The public attention in London, during the latter part of , and beginning of the following year, was much engaged by the proceedings against general Whitelocke, for his conduct at Buenos Ayres, in South America; and after a trial of weeks before a court martial, assembled at Chelsea-hospital, he was declared unfit and unworthy to serve his majesty in any military capacity whatsoever.

On the morning of the , the whole of Covent-garden theatre was destroyed by fire, together with several adjoining houses. But the destruction of the theatre itself formed but a small part of the calamity; an engine had been introduced within the avenue opening from the piazza, when, dreadful to relate, the covering of the passage fell in, and involved all beneath in the burning rubbish. The remains of unfortunate sufferers were afterwards dug out in a most shocking

166

state; and others, in whom life remained, were sent to the hospital most miserably mangled and burnt.

On the , a numerous meeting of the merchants, bankers, &c. of London was held at the City of London tavern, , for raising a subscription to defray the expence of clothing, &c. the Spanish army, and books having been opened for the purpose, upwards of was subscribed within a few weeks afterwards.

About o'clock, on the morning of the , an accidental fire broke out in the king's palace, St. James's, and destroyed a considerable part of the building before it could be got under. The damage in the destruction of property, &c. was estimated at

On the , about o'clock at night, the superb theatre of was discovered to be on fire, and, though such a vast building, it was entirely consumed by o'clock on the following morning.

The entrance of his majesty into the year of his reign, on , was celebrated as a Jubilee; and every part of the kingdom, but more particularly the metropolis, partook in the festive rejoicings which this event produced.

At an early hour, the day was ushered in by the ringing of bells in the different churches; and at half past , the lord mayor proceeded from the Mansion-house to , in the city state coach, drawn by his set of beautiful grey horses, preceded by the trumpets sounding, and the band of the West London militia playing

God save the king.

At , his lordship being joined by the members of the corporation, at half-past , the procession moved from thence to . In the large space between the iron gates and the west door, the West London militia received his lordship with presented arms; and on entering the west door of the cathedral, he was received by the dean and chapter. The centre aisle to the choir was lined on each side by the river fencibles, in full uniform. A most excellent and appropriate sermon was preached by his lordship's chaplain, from the of the of Kings, and the verse.

And they blessed the king, and went into their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness the Lord had done for David, his servant, and for Israel, his people.

The coronation anthem was performed previous to the sermon, by the full choir, with great effect. The procession returned about o'clock in the same order. At o'clock, the corporation were introduced up the grand stair-case in front of the Mansion-house, the trumpets sounding their entrance into the vestibule. The building had been previously decorated with a splendid illumination, consisting of elegant devices of the oak, the shamrock, and the thistle, in coloured lamps. In the centre was a radiant display of G. R. and the crown, with

Long may

he reign.

On entering the grand saloon, lined by the band of the West London militia, playing

God save the king,

Rule Britannia,

&c. the company were individually received by the lord mayor, in his robes of state. The saloon was brilliantly lighted with several large Grecian lamps, beautifully painted; and, at half-past , the doors of the magnificent Egyptian-hall were thrown open, illuminated by the blaze of innumerable lamps, arranged round the pillars, and the elegant lustres and chandeliers suspended from the roof. The tables were laid out with the greatest taste, and covered with an elegant and hospitable dinner, the whole of it served in plate; and there was a plentiful supply of excellent wines, of superior quality and flavour. The band continued during the dinner to play several military and other airs. After the cloth was removed, was sung by several professional gentlemen. The lord mayor then gave

The king, God bless him, and long may he reign over a free and united people,

drunk with times . When this effusion of loyal feeling had subsided, the grand national anthem of

God save the king

was performed by the professional gentlemen present, with appropriate additional verses on the occasion, accompanied by the military band. The toasts which were select and loyal, were followed by

Rule Britannia

sung in full chorus by the band and the company present. The illuminations of the public buildings and offices were unusually tasteful and splendid on the occasion; to heighten the public joy, a proclamation was also issued for pardoning all deserters from the fleet, whether they returned to their duty or not. Another proclamation announced the pardon of all deserters from the land forces, provided they surrendered in months. The lords of the admiralty ordered an extra allowance of of beef, of flour, and of raisins to every men in his majesty's ships in port, or half a pint of rum each man. crown debtors were also on this occasion discharged from prison, by the society for the relief of persons confined for small debts. The city of London had recently subscribed to this useful institution. A form of prayer was likewise composed and ordered by authority to be read in the churches on this occasion.

Another benevolent trait in the Jubilee transpired through Mr. Percival, who sent a letter to the Society for the Relief of Persons confined for Small Debts, to say, that his majesty had graciously given orders to present them with from his private purse. In addition to this, his majesty gave for the liberation of persons confined for small debts in Scotland; and the same sum for those under similar circumstances in Ireland. The merchants of London, pursuant to the example set by the corporation, also gave for the same charitable purposes.

 
 
Footnotes:

[] Whilst the preparations for this magnificent display were going on, a circumstance or two occurred most highly characteristic of the national feelings. The entablature was at first surmounted by the word CONCORD; this was mistaken by the populace for Conquered, and, with true John Bull spirit, they insisted that it should be removed, as being intended to convey the inference that the English had been conquered by the French. M. Otto, after some fruitless attempts at explanation, very prudently gave way, and the word Amity was substituted. It was next discovered by some sailors, that the letters G. R. were not distinguished by a crown; this was next stipulated for, and put up accordingly.

[] The following are the numbers of each corps mustered on the above occasion. In the eastern district, the Loyal London cavalry mustered 217 effective men; the hon. Artillery company 994; 1st regiment of Royal East India volunteers, 640; 2nd do. 636; 3rd do. 585; 1st regiment of Loyal London volunteer infantry, 737; 2nd do. 657; 3rd do. 804; 4th do. 790; 5th do. 501; 6th do. 647; 7th do. 404; 8th do. 777; 9th do. 651; 10th do. 587; 11th do. 293; 1st regiment of Tower Hamlets, 350; Whitechapel, 445; Mile-end, 333; St. George in the east, 230; Ratcliff, 183; Shoreditch, 294; Bromley St. Leonard, 175; Bethnal-green, 166; St. Catherine's, 121; Christ-church, 184. Total, 12,40l.--In the western district, the number of effective men was--in the London and Westminster light-horse volunteers, 727;Westminster cavalry, 225; Southwark yeomanry, 69; Clerkenwell cavalry, 46; Lambeth do. 40; St. George's regiment of volunteer infantry, 663; St. James's do. 954; Bloomsbury and Inns of Court do. 929; Royal Westminster, do. 961; Prince of Wales's do. 640; St. Margaret's and St. John's do. 625; Loyal North Britons, 286; Mary-la-bonne, 905; Law Association,835; Duke of Gloucester's 462; Somerset-place, 380; St. Giles's and St. George's, 605; Clerkenwell, 701; Loyal British Artificers, 542; Loyal Britons, 127; St. Andrew's and St. George's, 514; 1st & 2nd battalions of Queen's Royal, 696; Knightsbridge, 124; St. Clement's Danes, 245; 1st Surrey, 515; St. Sepulchre's, 174; St. Saviour's, 151; Loyal Southwark, 545; Lambeth, 555; Christchurch, 171; St. John's, 138; St. Olave's, 116; Rotherhithe, 158; Duke of Cumberland's sharp-shooters, 84; Gray's inn corps of riflemen, 38.-Total, 14,676.--Grand total, 27,077.

[] Brayley, i. 605.

[] Brayley's History of London, i. 607.

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: History of London, from the Accession of William and Mary, to the reign of George the Second
 CHAPTER II: History of London during the reign of George the Second
 CHAPTER III: History of London from the Accession of George the Third, to the year 1780
 CHAPTER IV: History of London continued to the Union
 CHAPTER V: History of London from the Union to the Jubilee, 1809
 CHAPTER VI: History of London from the Jubilee to the Peace of 1814
 CHAPTER VII: History of London continued to the accession of George the Fourth
 CHAPTER VIII: Account of the Civil Government of the City by Portreves, Bailiffs, and Mayors, with a list of the latter...
 CHAPTER IX: An account of the Aldermen and Sheriffs, with a list of the latter
collapseCHAPTER X: Lists and brief Accounts of the various Officers and Courts within the City
collapseCHAPTER XI: Some account of the Ecclesiastical Government of the city of London, with a List and Biographical Notices of the Bishops of the see
collapseCHAPTER XII: Some Account of the Military Government of London, and the Artillery Company
collapseCHAPTER XIII: An Account of the twelve principal Companies of the City of London
collapseCHAPTER XIV: An Account of the Companies of the City of London, alphabetically arranged
 CHAPTER XV: An Account of the River Thames
collapseCHAPTER XVI: Historical and topographical account of London Bridge, Westminster Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge, and the Thames Tunnel
collapseCHAPTER XVII: Topographical and Historical Account of the Tower of London
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44305
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00067
To Cite: DCA Citation Guide
Usage: Detailed Rights