The History and Antiquities of London, Westminster, Southwark, and Parts Adjacent, vol. 2

Allen, Thomas
1828

Brewers. 14.

Brewers. 14.

Arms. Gu. on a chevron ar. between three pair of barley garbs in saltier or, three tuns sa. hooped of the third. Crest. A demi-moorish woman, couped at the knees, proper; her hair dishevelled or, habited sa. frettee ar. her arms extended, holding in each hand three ears of barley of the second. Motto. In God is all our trust.

The brewers' company, which is the fourteenth among the city companies, was incorporated by king Henry VI., in the year 1438, by the name of The master, and keepers or wardens, and commonalty of the mystery or art of brewers of the city of London. This charter was re-confirmed by queen Elizabeth, July 13, second year of her reign.

This corporation anciently bore the arms of St. Thomas Becket, impaled with their own; but that saint's bones being taken up and burnt, and unsainted, by the powers in being, Clarencieux, king at arms, in the year 1544, separated them, and gave the brewers a crest in lieu thereof. Mr. Brayley says, It seems probable, from various circumstances, that the use of beer was not generally introduced till about the reign of Henry VII., in whose time the breweries, which then stood on the banks of the Thames, at St. Catherine's (Wapping), and are distinguished by the name Bere-house, in the map given in the Civitates Orbis, were twice spoiled by the king's officers, either for sending too much abroad unlicensed, or for brewing it too weak for home consumption. In Rymer's Foedera, under the date 1492, is a license granted to John le Merchant a Fleming, to export fifty tuns, or butts of beer, (quinquaginta dolia servitae vocatae Bere) and we find that one of the king's attendants into France, in the same year, was Petrus Vanek, a beer-brewer, of Greenwich, in Kent. Rym. Foed. vol. xii. p. 471, and 485. In 1504, the ale of London was sold at 11. 10s. per dolium, and the beer, per dolium, at 11. 3s. 4d. Dolium, says Fleetwood, (Chron. Pres.) "does here, I believe, signifie a pipe, or butt, which contains 126 gallons; so that the ale comes to near 3d. the gallon;--and the beer to rather more than 2 1/4d. for the same quantity. In the work generally called Arnold's Chronicle, printed by Pynson, about 1521, is the following Receipt for making beer, x quarters malte, ii quarters wheete, ii quarters ootes, x pound weight of hoppys, to make xi barrels of sengyll beer. Twelve years afterwards the price of ale had advanced to about three-pence the gallon, and that of beer was about one half-penny cheaper.Brayley's Hist. of Lond. ii. p. 40l.

In the 23rd year of Henry VIII. the brewers were restrained by a statute from making any more sorts, or kinds of beer, than two, the strong and the double, and it was ordered that the same should be sold after the rate and price of 6s. 8d. the barrel, of the best, and 3s. 4d. the barrel of double beer, and ale, or not above. Notwithstanding this, the prices of both liquors were gradually and considerably increased, till at length, in 1590, the lord mayor, sir John Allot, issued a proclamation requiring the brewers to return to the rates prescribed by the statutes.

There was an estimate made about this time as to what quantity of beer was exported yearly to the Low Countries and other places; from which it appeared that there were twenty great brewhouses, or more, situated on the Thames side, from Milford stairs to below St. Katherines, which brewed yearly the quantity of seven or eight brewings of sweet beer or strong beer, that passed to Embden, the Low Countries, Calais, Dieppe, and thereabouts. And account but 600 brewings at 44 barrels the brewing, it makes 26,400 barrels, which at 7 to a tun, makes 3,771 tuns.Strype's Stow, ii. p. 204.

The demand for beer from foreign countries increased greatly during the whole of the reign of Elizabeth, and the liberty of exporting it was only checked, by proclamation, during the occasional occurrence of dearth and scarcity. One record states, that 500 tuns were exported at once for the queen's use; or, as it has been explained, for the service of her army in the Low Countries; considerable quantities, also, were sent to Embden and Amsterdam.

During the succeeding reigns, to the present time, the prices of ale and beer have been highly augmented through the operation of the successive imposts that have been laid on malt and hops, the duties on which now form an important branch of the public revenue. So great, indeed, has the consumption become, that in the year ending on January 5th, 1812, the duties on malt alone, produced the vast sum of 3,315,389l. The most rapid increase in price took place in the course of the last reign, at the commencement of which, in 1760, ale was sold at 5d. the quart, and strong beer, or porter (which had first come into general use in the time of George I.) at 3d. the quart. Since then the prices have been progressively advanced, and ale is now retailed at eightpence the quart; and porter at five pence the quart; the former price at a first view appears to be equal to the sum for which eight gallons of ale could have been obtained in the reign of Henry III. yet, when the increase in the value of money is properly estimated, it will be found that the augmentation has not been greater than in the proportion of one and a half to one.The quantity of porter brewed in London, by the ten principal houses from the 5th of July 1826, to the 5th of July 1827, was as follows: Barrels. Barclay, Perkins. and Co.341,330 Truman, Hanbury, and Co.203,532 Whitbread, and Co.191,328 Reid, and Co.174,476 Combe, Delfield, and Co.125.534 Calvert, Felix, and Co.100,339 Meux Henry, and Co.95,159 Taylor and Co.64,688 Hoare and Co.64,003 Elliott and Co.52,204 Total1,412,603

The hall of this company, which is a neat edifice of brick and stone, stands on the north side of Addle-street.

The Names of the Company of Bruers from the Record in the Chapter-house. John BrycksaaJohn Kennyhm James WylkinsonJohn Nevill Water BarleyWillm. Shawe George FfothergillJohn Awthorne John RanwikeThomas Stafford Willm. PirryRobert Langley Edward ClerkWillm. Chard Robert BilbyNicholas Shepard Christofer PayneNicholas Custard John MargetsonRobert Wodde Thomas PerryvallMyghell Quadles Thomas TyrryJohn Bawden Alan FfynleysonJohn Medrynghm Robert NycollesGeorge Slayter John BowghmWillm. Hynderwill Robert NycolsonHenry Roberts Christofer WhitelockeJohn Ellys John MoolAlexander Hudson Henry PottThomas Stepheson Willm. JenynsRobert Long Robert MolsonJohn Ferrar James HarwardJohn Mylner Rowland AtkynsonChristofer Ward Willm. HollandWillm. Moryce Thomas HogesonRogier Betts Richard PykeryngJames Baycon Cristofer RobynsonAdam Ranwyke John SeefowleJohn Bell Hugh EfoxJohn Vnderhill John DaldronJames Paynter John RowslyeRosier Turner Antony AntonyJohn Robynson Nicholas BrierleyThomas Rodes Richard PelterThomas Coke Thomas ButtRichard Adams John CocksWillm. Fforster Rogier ThaycherWillm. Thomas Willm. ArcherWillm. Comaunder John AleynWillm. Brough John ElcockHugh Mynors John BargaineEvan Lloyd Willm. KelseyWillm. Mody John BartonLaurence Brunt Stephen CockRobert Moldyng Rowland Shakelady It is a livery company, and is governed by a master, three wardens, and twenty-eight assistants.

. on a chevron between pair of barley garbs in saltier , tuns hooped of the . . A demi-moorish woman, couped at the knees, ; her hair dishevelled , habited frettee her arms extended, holding in each hand ears of barley of the . .

In God is all our trust.

The brewers' company, which is the among the city companies, was incorporated by king Henry VI., in the year , by the name of

The master, and keepers or wardens, and commonalty of the mystery or art of brewers of the city of London.

This charter was re-confirmed by queen Elizabeth, , year of her reign.

This corporation anciently bore the arms of St. Thomas Becket, impaled with their own; but that saint's bones being taken up and burnt, and unsainted, by the powers in being, Clarencieux, king at arms, in the year , separated them, and gave the brewers a crest in lieu thereof. Mr. Brayley says,

It seems probable, from various circumstances, that the use of beer was not generally introduced till about the reign of Henry VII., in whose time the breweries, which then stood on the banks of the Thames, at

St. Catherine's

(

Wapping

), and are distinguished by the name Bere-house, in the map given in the

Civitates Orbis

, were twice

spoiled by the king's officers, either for sending too much abroad unlicensed, or for brewing it too weak for home consumption.

In Rymer's

Foedera

, under the date

1492

, is a license granted to John le Merchant a Fleming, to export

fifty

tuns, or butts of beer, (

quinquaginta dolia servitae vocatae Bere

) and we find that

one

of the king's attendants into France, in the same year, was

Petrus Vanek, a beer-brewer, of Greenwich, in Kent.

Rym. Foed. vol. xii. p. 471, and 485. In 1504, the ale of London was sold at 11. 10s. per dolium, and the beer, per dolium, at 11. 3s. 4d. Dolium, says Fleetwood, (Chron. Pres.) "does here, I believe, signifie a pipe, or butt, which contains 126 gallons; so that the ale comes to near 3d. the gallon;--and the beer to rather more than 2 1/4d. for the same quantity. In the work generally called Arnold's Chronicle, printed by Pynson, about 1521, is the following Receipt for making beer, x quarters malte, ii quarters wheete, ii quarters ootes, x pound weight of hoppys, to make xi barrels of sengyll beer.

Twelve

years afterwards the price of ale had advanced to about

three-pence

the gallon, and that of beer was about

one

half-penny cheaper.

385

 

In the year of Henry VIII. the brewers were restrained by a statute from making

any more sorts, or kinds of beer, than

two

, the strong and the double,

and it was ordered

that the same should be sold after the rate and price of

6s. 8d.

the barrel, of the best, and

3s. 4d.

the barrel of double beer, and ale, or not above.

Notwithstanding this, the prices of both liquors were gradually and considerably increased, till at length, in , the lord mayor, sir John Allot, issued a proclamation requiring the brewers to return to the rates prescribed by the statutes.

There was an estimate made about this time as to what quantity of beer was exported yearly to the Low Countries and other places; from which it appeared that there were great brewhouses, or more, situated on the Thames side, from Milford stairs to below St. Katherines, which brewed yearly the quantity of or brewings of sweet beer or strong beer, that passed to Embden, the Low Countries, Calais, Dieppe, and thereabouts. And account but brewings at barrels the brewing, it makes barrels, which at to a tun, makes tuns.

The demand for beer from foreign countries increased greatly during the whole of the reign of Elizabeth, and the liberty of exporting it was only checked, by proclamation, during the occasional occurrence of dearth and scarcity. record states, that tuns were exported at once

for the queen's use;

or, as it has been explained, for the service of her army in the Low Countries; considerable quantities, also, were sent to Embden and Amsterdam.

During the succeeding reigns, to the present time, the prices of ale and beer have been highly augmented through the operation of the successive imposts that have been laid on malt and hops, the duties on which now form an important branch of the public revenue. So great, indeed, has the consumption become, that in the year ending on , the duties on malt alone, produced the vast sum of The most rapid increase in price took place in the course of the last reign, at the commencement of which, in , ale was sold at the quart, and strong beer, or porter (which had come into general use in the time of George I.) at the quart. Since then the prices have been progressively advanced, and ale is now retailed at eightpence the quart; and porter at the quart; the former price at a view appears to be equal to the sum for which gallons of ale could have been obtained in the reign of Henry III. yet, when the increase in the value of money is properly estimated, it will be found that the augmentation has not been greater than in the proportion of and a half to .

386

 

The hall of this company, which is a neat edifice of brick and stone, stands on the north side of .

 
 
Footnotes:

[] Brayley's Hist. of Lond. ii. p. 40l.

[] Strype's Stow, ii. p. 204.

[] The quantity of porter brewed in London, by the ten principal houses from the 5th of July 1826, to the 5th of July 1827, was as follows: Barrels. Barclay, Perkins. and Co.341,330 Truman, Hanbury, and Co.203,532 Whitbread, and Co.191,328 Reid, and Co.174,476 Combe, Delfield, and Co.125.534 Calvert, Felix, and Co.100,339 Meux Henry, and Co.95,159 Taylor and Co.64,688 Hoare and Co.64,003 Elliott and Co.52,204 Total1,412,603

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 Title Page
 Dedication
 CHAPTER I: History of London, from the Accession of William and Mary, to the reign of George the Second
 CHAPTER II: History of London during the reign of George the Second
 CHAPTER III: History of London from the Accession of George the Third, to the year 1780
 CHAPTER IV: History of London continued to the Union
 CHAPTER V: History of London from the Union to the Jubilee, 1809
 CHAPTER VI: History of London from the Jubilee to the Peace of 1814
 CHAPTER VII: History of London continued to the accession of George the Fourth
 CHAPTER VIII: Account of the Civil Government of the City by Portreves, Bailiffs, and Mayors, with a list of the latter...
 CHAPTER IX: An account of the Aldermen and Sheriffs, with a list of the latter
collapseCHAPTER X: Lists and brief Accounts of the various Officers and Courts within the City
collapseCHAPTER XI: Some account of the Ecclesiastical Government of the city of London, with a List and Biographical Notices of the Bishops of the see
collapseCHAPTER XII: Some Account of the Military Government of London, and the Artillery Company
collapseCHAPTER XIII: An Account of the twelve principal Companies of the City of London
collapseCHAPTER XIV: An Account of the Companies of the City of London, alphabetically arranged
 CHAPTER XV: An Account of the River Thames
collapseCHAPTER XVI: Historical and topographical account of London Bridge, Westminster Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Southwark Bridge, and the Thames Tunnel
collapseCHAPTER XVII: Topographical and Historical Account of the Tower of London
This object is in collection:
Edwin C. Bolles papers
Subjects
London (England)--History
Antiquities
Permanent URL
http://hdl.handle.net/10427/44305
ID: tufts:UA069.005.DO.00067
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