Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places.Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 6Walford, Edward
Southwark (continued).-Old St. Thomas's Hospital, Guy's Hospital, &c.
Southwark (continued).-Old St. Thomas's Hospital, Guy's Hospital, &c.
We have already mentioned, in a previous chapter, the temporary church dedicated to St. Thomas by the canons of St. Mary Overy's, whose priory had been partly or entirely burnt down in the reign of King John. About the same time-or to give the exact date, in -Richard, Prior of , with the consent of the convent, founded close by it, in the land appropriated to the cellarer, an
or hospital, for converts and boys, which was dedicated to St. Thomas the Martyr (a Becket). For this ground, which adjoined the wall of the monastery, we read that the prior appointed a payment by the almoner to the cellarer, of Ios. annually, on the feast of St. Michael; and this almery, like the parent monastery, was exempt from all episcopal jurisdiction. After the priory church of St. Mary Overy had been repaired, and the canons had returned thither, the temporary building above mentioned, which stood within the precincts of the Priory of , was assigned for the use of the poor, and the support of certain brethren and sisters. In this hospital of St. Mary Overy was transferred from the land belonging to the priory to that of Amicius, Arch. deacon of Surrey, who was custos, or warden, of the hospital founded by the monks of , which had the advantage of a better supply of spring water, and pure air; and the institutions being united, the hospital was dedicated anew to the celebrated Archbishop of Canterbury, under the title of the
The new arrangement took place under the auspices of Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, who granted an indulgence for days to all such as should contribute to the expenses of the hospital, the bishop himself becoming a benefactor to it; hence it was always accounted as a foundation of the bishops of Winchester, and the prelates of that see had the patronage of it.
At the Dissolution, this hospital, or almery, was surrendered to the king. At this time its members were a master and brethren, and lay sisters. They made beds for poor infirm people, who also had victuals and firing supplied to them. The institution, however, was suffered to go to decay; but in , Ridley, Bishop of London,
|by a well-timed sermon, preached before King Edward VI., awakened the benevolence of his disposition. The young king consulted with him how he should commence some great charitable institutions, and by his advice, addressed a letter to the mayor and corporation of London, announcing his intention, and requiring their advice. After some consultation, at which the bishop assisted, different institutions were suggested, which at length produced , for the education of youth; , for the poor, and correcting the profligate; and this of St. Thomas, for the relief of the lame and sick.|
The citizens of London purchased the [extra_illustrations.6.90.1] , and after having repaired and enlarged it,
|opened it for the reception of the sick poor, under the patronage of the young king. In the course of months after the purchase of the hospital, the institution had received no less than poor infirm people. In the following year a charter of incorporation was granted for this foundation; but years afterwards the hospital was so poor that the lease was pawned for . Funds, however, were obtained for its support, and the establishment subsequently throve.|
In , part of was used as a military hospital, as we learn from the following entry in John Evelyn's
under date of of that year:--
Much injury was done to the property belonging to this establishment by the fires which, as already stated, took place in in the Stuart times, although the hospital itself received no damage on either occasion. However, towards the close of the century the building had become so much decayed that a public subscription was made in order to re-edify and enlarge it, and the stone of the new edifice was laid by Sir John Fleet, who was Lord Mayor of London in . The whole was executed at different times, and the work was not completed till the year .
The following description of the edifice is given in Brayley's , published in :--
A tablet over the entrance to the court-room in the old building, in allusion to the great fire of , , bore this inscription:--
Northouck tells us that the reason why this fire was so wide in its devastation was the fact that the houses there were chiefly built of timber, lath, and plaster; he adds that afterwards commissioners were appointed for rebuilding them regularly and substantially with brick,
There were at the above period wards for the reception of patients, each under the care of a sister or female superintendent, and or nurses. The number of beds was . The grand entrance, with its gates, lodges, &c., was from , between the north and south wings. In front was a dwarf stone wall, surmounted by lofty and massive iron railings, which were carried on and flanked the north side of the north wing, running along , up to the offices of the South-Eastern Railway.
Imposing as the building was, it seems to have had its drawbacks; for we read in a topographical account of it published many years ago, that
of we shall have more to say when we reach , where the institution is now located. But we may add here that it is of the oldest hospitals in the kingdom as an asylum where all sick poor could be relieved. Its charter dates from the time of Edward VI., who gave it some of its lands, which were then of such little value that--as we have shown above--the whole freehold was pawned to the City for , for the hospital was then in debt, as it had been ever since it was founded, in , by
How the value of land has increased at that spot near since then need not be told, beyond saying that some was sold by the hospital about the year at the rate of per acre, and some a little later at the rate of an acre. St. Thomas's, too, was made in the olden time into a distinct parish, and had peculiar rights of its own. Still, ancient possession and modern usefulness proved no adequate bar to the march of that universal leveller--the railway. The site was wanted, and the site was taken; certainly at a very heavy price--nearly . When thus
the choice of the hospital authorities for a new site was rather limited. It was felt necessary that the new building should be on the south side of the water; that it should be in the midst of a poor neighbourhood, to the wants of which it could administer; and that, above all, it should have a certain amount of open space around it. This latter was a difficult desideratum, and while waiting a choice, , its patients, and its staff were located in the music-hall which stands in the midst of what was once the at . Fortunately, at this time the southern Thames was being made, and the necessities of its construction compelled a considerable reclamation from the slimy foreshore of the river opposite the Houses of Parliament. The advantages of this site were instantly seen, and about and a half acres were bought by the hospital from the Board of Works for about . On this land the new hospital has been built. The south wing of the old hospital has been left standing, and has been converted into a chapel.
On the north side of St. Thomas's Street-the turning from the southward of the Station-stands [extra_illustrations.6.93.1] . It is a donative, in the gift of the governors of , the church having been originally part of the hospital-as, indeed, it continued down to the time of the removal of the hospital as above mentioned-forming a part of the south side of it. The old church having become ruinous and dilapidated, it was rebuilt early in the last century, at an expense of granted out of the coal duty, with the further assistance of the governors and others. The present edifice is a plain and unsightly building of red brick, with stone dressings, of a nondescript character, having a square tower in storeys attached to the south side. In the south side of the church, which is open to the street, are lofty circular arched windows, the key-stones of which are carved with cherubim; its elevation is finished with an attic over a cornice; in the centre is a pediment. The ground-floor of the tower forms a porch to the church. The interior of the church is exceedingly plain. The altar-screen is composed of oak, and encircled with Corinthian pilasters, surmounted by their entablature and a segmental pediment. This is crowned by
Gerard Johnson, a Hollander, who made the monumental bust and tomb of Shakespeare in Stratford-on-Avon Church, lived in the parish of St. Thomas, as ascertained by Mr. Peter Cunningham and Mr. J. O. Halliwell. Dugdale assures us that Gerard Johnson must often have Shakespeare.
On the south side of , and covering a large space of ground, stands Guy's Hospital-perhaps the noblest institution in London founded by man. It was founded, along with other charities, by an eccentric but philanthropic individual, Thomas Guy, a bookseller of London, of whom we have spoken in a previous volume, in our account of the Stock Exchange. The son of a lighterman and coaldealer, he was born in , , in . He was apprenticed to a bookseller in , and having been admitted a freeman of the Stationers' Company in , was received into their livery in . He began business with a stock of about , in the house which, till about the year , formed the angle between and , but which was pulled down for the improvements then made in that neighbourhood. His success was owing to the great demand for English Bibles printed in Holland, in which he dealt largely; but on the importation of these being stopped by law, he contracted with the University of Oxford for the privilege of printing Bibles; and having furnished himself with types from Holland, carried on this branch of business for many years, with great profit.
It has been stated by other writers, and also in the previous volume of this work, referred to above, that whatever foundation he might have laid for his future wealth, in the usual course of trade, no small portion of his property arose from his purchase of seamen's tickets. These, it is asserted, he bought at a large discount, and afterwards subscribed in the South Sea Company, which was established in , for the purpose of discharging those tickets, and giving a large interest. Here, it is added, Mr. Guy was so extensively, as well as cautiously, concerned that in he was possessed of stock, by disposing of which when it bore an extremely advanced price, he realised a considerable sum. But Charles Knight, in his
has shown good reasons for believing that seamen's tickets were not in use after Thomas Guy was out of his apprenticeship, and that therefore we must look to his sale of Bibles as the real basis of his wealth.
observes a writer in the in ,
Being a single man, Mr. Guy is reported to have spent but a very small portion of his profits as a
| bookseller. He dined on his counter, with no other tablecloth than a newspaper, and was not more nice about his wearing apparel. |
says Highmore, in his
Another anecdote has been related of Guy, which exhibits him in another light. He was so complete a pattern of economy, that the celebrated Vulture Hopkins once called upon him to have a lesson in the art of saving. Being introduced into the parlour, Guy, not knowing his visitor, lighted a candle; but when Hopkins said,
and immediately put out the candle. This was evidence sufficient for Hopkins, who acknowledged Guy to be his master, and took his leave.
The following anecdote which has been told concerning Mr. Guy will bear repetition:--
Thomas Guy served in several Parliaments as member for Tamworth, in Staffordshire, where his mother was born, and where he founded almshouses for poor persons, besides bestowing considerable benefactions. To he gave a perpetual annuity of , to receive, on the nomination of his trustees, children yearly, who must be his connections; and there are always applicants. He left to discharge poor prisoners in London, Middlesex, and Surrey, at each, and another to be distributed among poor housekeepers at the discretion of his executors. The erection of the hospital now under notice, the earliest part of which was built by Dance, is said to have cost nearly , the amount of the residue of Guy's personal property being stated at upwards of . His death happened on , in the eightieth year of his age, before which he saw his hospital covered with the roof. Besides his public expenses he gave during life to many of his poor relations or a year, and to others money to advance them in life; to his aged relations in annuities; and to his younger relations and executors the sum of .
Before Guy had founded the hospital to which he gave his name, he had contributed annually to for years, and had erected the stately iron gate with the large houses on each side.
It is now time to speak more of the hospital which bears his name. At the age of Mr. Guy procured from the governors of the lease of a large piece of ground for a term of years, at a rent of a year. Having cleared the space, which was then occupied by a number of poor dwelling-houses, he
| laid the stone of [extra_illustrations.6.95.1] in the spring of . He lived to see it covered in; but before the excellent institution was in full work the benevolent founder was laid in the grave; for the hospital received within its walls the patients on the . His trustees faithfully effected the completion of his great and good design, and shortly after procured an Act of Parliament for establishing the foundation, according to the directions of his will. Large and profitable estates were afterwards purchased in Herefordshire and Essex, for the benefit of the institution; the lease of an additional piece of ground was also obtained, for which, with the former, the governors still pay an annual sum to St. Thomas's. On this were erected handsome wings, connected by an iron railing and gates. These gates open into a square court, in the centre of which is [extra_illustrations.6.95.2] , by Scheemakers. In front of the pedestal is this inscription :-- |
On the west side of the pedestal is represented, in basso relievo, the parable of the Good Samaritan; on the south side are Mr. Guy's armorial bearings; and on the west, a representation of our Saviour healing the impotent man.
The centre of the principal front of the hospital is of stone, and consists of a rusticated basement, in which are arched entrances to the quadrangle, and windows. This supports pilasters and Ionic columns, the intercolumniation containing windows and niches, in which are emblematic figures, zEsculapius, the heathen god of medicine, and Hygieia, the goddess of health, daughter of AEsculapius. The tympanum is ornamented with an emblematic relief. This front was new faced about the year , and is, with the statues, the work of Bacon, who was a native of . Passing through the arches, the visitor enters a long corridor, on each side of which are several of the wards for the patients. The court-room, with its painted ceiling, is a handsome apartment; over the president's chair is a portrait of the founder, by Dahl.
The chapel, in the west wing, is plainly fitted up. At the end opposite the entrance is a marble statue of Guy. It was executed by Bacon, in , and is said to have cost . Mr. Guy is represented in his livery gown, holding out hand to raise a poor invalid lying on the earth, and pointing with the other to a distressed object, carried on a litter into of the wards, the hospital being in the background. On the pedestal is this inscription:--
The hospital was founded for the reception of patients, but having been enlarged through the aid of a munificent bequest in , from Mr. William Hunt, of Petersham, it now contains beds; an additional wing having been constructed accommodating more patients. The hospital buildings form an extensive and handsome range, and, with the large airing-grounds attached, occupy an area of abou.t acres. The administration of its affairs is under the care of governors; the treasurer being the general acting manager, and having the especial direction of the Medical School. The annual income of the institution is about , of which nearly are available for hospital purposes.
The ordinary medical staff consists of physicians and assistant-physicians for general medical cases;, obstetric physicians; surgeons, and lthree assistant-surgeons for general surgical cases; also ophthalmic, dental, and aural surgeons; besides other professors not engaged in the care of patients, who assist as lecturers and demonstrators in the school.
The school department comprises anatomical, pathological, and comparative anatomy museums, materia medica museum, model-room, dissectingroom, electrifying-room, chemical laboratories, library, besides every appurtenance that modern science has devised for medical institutions of the magnitude. Close by, a commodious theatre was erected by Dr. Edward Grainger, whose early death, in , was a loss to the medical world. At the age of , he commenced here a course of lectures on anatomy and physiology; but his pupils increasing beyond the capacities of his
|theatre, he built a larger room, and turned the former into a museum.|
Passing to the rear of the hospital buildings, amidst trees which flourish well and give a look of cheerfulness, so delightful to many a languid sufferer when permitted to walk forth into the air, the visitor reaches the museum. This is a neat edifice, comprising a valuable surgical collection, the principal feature of which is a vast variety of wax models, illustrative of the wonders of the human frame, and of remarkable cases of disease.
, we need scarcely add, has long held a prominent position among the philanthropic institutions in this country, both in respect to the great scope of the charity it dispenses as a hospital,
|and as of the schools of medicine in Europe. Some idea of the magnitude of its benevolent work may be gathered from the fact that in the course of a year it receives into its wards upwards of in-patients, and affords medical relief to upwards of out-patients, including a large number of minor accidents and urgent surgery cases, and upwards of lying--in women, who are attended to at their own homes.|
It should also be stated that a fund has been established for relieving the families of deserving and very poor patients in , by gifts of coal and other provisions, and in some instances by money. The chief distress of mothers and children must be during the absence of tlhei
in hospital, and few-except those who have undergone the trial-can conceive what this is, or what the anxiety which a patient suffers while powerless to help his family.
Between East and , and covering some considerable part of the ground formerly occupied by , is the cluster of stations, irregularly combined, and without any unity of plan or architectural beauty, forming the terminus of the following railways:-- The Crystal Palace; the London, Brighton, and South Coast; the South-Eastern; the North Kent; the South London, &c. From the approach is by an inclined road, which passes under an iron bridge, over which is carried the and extension of the South-Eastern Railway, which originally had its terminus here. , previous to the above-mentioned extension, was bounded on the south-west by and grounds, and on the north-east by a range of shops, communicating with . The south-western portion of the station comprises the booking-offices of the Brighton and South-Coast line, and also the offices of the Crystal Palace and of the South London lines. On the extreme south is the Railway Hotel, of those monster establishments of which we have already had occasion to speak in our notices of the Midland and other railway stations.
The London and was the line opened here, and, indeed, in the neighbourhood of London. It is remarkable as standing upon continuous series of brick arches, and is interesting to engineers from the experiment tried upon it as regards the respective value of stone sleepers (or square slabs) at intervals, or continuous bearers of wood, for the support of the rail. Stones were used, but with such unsatisfactory result, that they were taken up and replaced with timber. The improvement, it is said, has been most decisive. With reference to its formation, we read that in the substructions of this work were advancing rapidly, and so great was the quantity of bricks required for them, that the price of brickwork in and about London had been
At , the -class carriages on this line were simply common trucks, with no seats, and no covering overhead. The author of the
The original Act of the South-Eastern Railway Company was obtained in , for the express purpose of constructing a railway from London to Dover, the expenses of which were calculated at , to be raised in shares; but by subsequent Acts the company was authorised to form branch lines, and for that purpose to make loans and issue new shares, involving for the Maidstone and Isle of Thanet branches an expenditure of ; besides which there has been a further outlay of about , to complete the Hastings branch and that from Reigate, through Dorking and Guildford, to Reading.
The Greenwich Line, as stated above, had been previously constructed; and the Croydon Company had obtained the sanction of Parliament to pass over miles thereof to New Cross, whence they continued their line miles and a half to Croydon. The next miles and a quarter, as far as Red Hill, or the Reigate Junction, belonged originally to the South-Eastern and Brighton Companies in joint shares; but the whole has subsequently, as sanctioned by Act of Parliament, been purchased by the South-Eastern Company; so that the whole line, together with the Greenwich Line, which it holds on a lease of years, belongs to this company. More recently, also, besides constructing several branch lines, the South-Eastern Company has purchased the North Kent Line, thus becoming master of the whole railway communication for Kent, East Surrey, and a part of Sussex.
The railway was opened as far as Tunbridge, miles from London, in ; from thence to Ashford in the following December; as far as Folkestone in ; and to Dover in . The branch line to Maidstone was opened in September of the same year; that to Hastings, in ; and the junction line to Reading in . This railway has tunnels on its main line to Dover, and on its branch lines, some of them of a stupendous nature, involving not only very great engineering skill, but a vast outlay of capital; besides which, there are numerous embankments, deep cuttings, viaducts, and bridges, which bespeak no ordinary skill. Since , however, the greater number of the main-line trains to Hastings, Dover, Margate, &c., pass over a part of the North Kent Line by a more direct route to Tunbridge; the original main line to Red Hill being used for the Dorking and Reading trains, as well as by the Brighton Company.
The construction of the London and Brighton Railway seems to have been a somewhat slow and laborious undertaking; at all events, we read in
This railway, however, we need hardly state, was at length completed, and opened in , or in about years from the time of its commencement. [extra_illustrations.6.99.1]
On either side of the booking-office of the [extra_illustrations.6.99.2] , when it was erected, was a screen, masking the gateway of the carriage-road arrival side of this railway, and the other giving access to the carriage-road of the Dover line. The South-Eastern booking-office faces the approach road, and forms the main portion of the facade. Beyond it are the North Kent and Greenwich booking-offices. On the -floors of these several buildings are the offices, board-rooms, and other accommodations for the chief officials. There are spare lines for the reception of empty carriages under the same roofs as the respective arrival and departure lines. The roofs themselves are somewhat remarkable; and there are particular details connected with the roadway of a nature to merit prolonged examination. Immediately in the rear of the station are several elevated signalboxes, furnished with the latest and most approved appliances for signalling the arrival and departure of the several trains; so that, notwithstanding the large number of the lines of rail entering the station there is scarcely any room for accidentsindeed, an accident here is very rarely heard of.
A few words concerning the various lines of railway from Station may not be out of place here. By the line, miles in length, that favourite watering-place has been made a
it has many branch lines; and from Brighton, railways run east and west along the coast. The originally branched off from the Brighton line at the station of Red Hill, near Reigate, and reached Dover by a roundabout course, with a branch from Tunbridge through Tunbridge Wells to Hastings; but passengers are now generally conveyed to Dover, Hastings, &c., by the new line Sevenoaks. The metropolitan extension of this line crosses the river by an iron bridge to ; and also to the Station, built on the site of Hungerford Market. The passes by Forest Hill, Sydenham, and Norwood, with a short branch line through Mitcham to the South-Western Railway at Wimbledon, and another branch through Epsom to Horsham, on the London and Portsmouth line. The line branches off from the Sydenham station, and after passing close to Lower Norwood, Streatham, and Balham, reaches its terminus at the Victoria Station, . The line passes by a tunnel under Shooter's Hill to Woolwich, Gravesend, and Rochester, and thence to Maidstone. The line runs parallel with the as far as South , then passes southward to Clapham, and unites with western London at Victoria Station, .
At the entrance to Duke Street--which leads from down to , by the side of the railway approach-might have been seen during -, a lofty building bearing this inscription,
This telegraph station, which occupied the summit of a building once used as a shot tower, and erected in , was established by a Mr. Watson, of , about the year , with the object of connecting London with Deal by means of the old semaphore telegraph. The station near was placed in communication with a similar station near Forest Hill, and with others on elevated spots between the metropolis and Deal. At the summit of the tower were masts about feet apart, and feet high. On each side of these masts were the semaphore arms, which were to be seen in various positions, and were worked by levers in the tower below. This telegraph station, which was a conspicuous object to foot-passengers proceeding over , was entirely consumed in the great fire in which was destroyed, with the surrounding buildings, on the Igth of . This system of telegraphy was in its turn superseded by the electric telegraph, which very soon afterwards came into operation on all the railway lines in Great , and thus rendered unnecessary the old cumbrous system of semaphore telegraphy, the success of which depended so much on clear weather for the accurate interpretation of the signals. The shot-tower, close by , is shown in pages , , and of the present volume.
Before closing this chapter, and making our way into , we may be pardoned for saying a word or concerning the water-supply of about half a century ago. In the for , we read that
of these water works, we may state that in Peter Morris, a Dutchman, established a wheel worked by the tide at to lift water from the river, and propel it into the houses of the citizens, whose admiration he captivated by forcing a jet over the steeple of St. Magnus' Church, close by. These water-works, a cumbrous-looking structure of wood, stood on the Middlesex side of the Thames, adjoining the bridge, and near the site of Fishmongers' Hall steam-boat pier. The works subsequently passed into the possession of the Company, and lasted for years, until demolished by Act of Parliament in . On the Surrey side of the old bridge formerly stood the water-works for supplying the inhabitants of , which we have already mentioned, but these were removed long before the bridge was demolished.
 See ante, p. 21.
[extra_illustrations.6.90.1] old building
[extra_illustrations.6.93.1] St. Thomas's Church
 See Vol. I., p. 474.
[extra_illustrations.6.95.1] his new building
[extra_illustrations.6.95.2] a bronze statue of the founder
[extra_illustrations.6.99.1] Old South-Eastern Railway Station
[extra_illustrations.6.99.2] Brighton and South-Coast Railway