Old and New London, A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places.Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources. vol 6Walford, Edward
Southwark (continued).-High Street, &c.
Southwark (continued).-High Street, &c.
The , as we have already shown, serving for many centuries as the entrance into London from Surrey and Kent, and, indeed, from the Continent, has always been a very important thoroughfare of the metropolis; but, as a pleasant, gossiping writer of modern times, Mr. Miller, has truthfully observed in his
Starting from , and passing under the railway bridge which spans the road, we now make our way southward. The alterations made in the , when was planned and formed, involved the demolition of the [extra_illustrations.6.57.2] . This building stood at the angle formed by the and Compter Street, and dated its erection from the close of the last century, when it was built in place of an older edifice, which had become ruinous. The old , in its turn, too, occupied the place of a still older hall, having been rebuilt in the reign of Charles II. After the union of the parish of St. Margaret-at-Hill with that of , the old church of the former parish was desecrated, being used partly as a prison, and partly as a court of justice. The building was destroyed in the fire of . A statue of the king was placed in front of the building by which it was succeeded; and on the base of the pediment was an inscription notifying the
with the date . On side of the statue were the arms of London; and on the other, those of . On the occasion of the rebuilding of the hall in , the statue of the king, instead of being replaced in its original situation, was sold, and set up in a neighbouring court called Crown Court, upon a pedestal of brickwork, the inside of which, strange to say, was made to serve as a watch-box for a
At the same time, a figure of Justice, which had formerly, in conjunction with of Wisdom, supported the Lord Mayor's seat in the , was placed near the bar of a neighbouring coffee-house. On this event, the following is preserved in Concanen and Morgan's
After remaining for some time in Crown Court, the poor unfortunate monarch, we believe, found a resting-place in the shady nook of a garden in the . The prison, or compter, as it was called, was removed to , , but has since been demolished. [extra_illustrations.6.58.1]
[extra_illustrations.6.58.2] was a very plain and unpretending structure. It consisted of a rusticated basement, from which rose Ionic pilasters. The windows were arched, and the interior was fitted up as a police-office. The police-court was eventually removed further southward, to . In front of the , facing , the hustings for the election of representatives for the borough were usually erected.
The has been occasionally used for criminal trials. Thus we read that on the , of the judges went in procession from to the on Hill, and opened the special commission for the trial of the prisoners concerned in the rebellion in Scotland. Those prisoners who were found guilty and received sentence of death were soon afterwards hung, drawn, and quartered on Common. Between their trial and execution the prisoners were confined in the new gaol, .
On Hill, in the immediate neighbourhood of the , Fair was formerly held. This fair, afterwards so famous, was established by virtue of a charter from King Edward VI., dated . The charter cost the good citizens of London nearly -a large sum at that period-and the fair itself was to be held on the , , and . It was of the great fairs of special importance, described in a proclamation of Charles I.,
The fairs here referred to, according to Rymer, were
It was opened in great state by the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, who rode over , and so on to , thence back to the Bridge House, where, of course, was a banquet.
writes John Timbs,
Allusions to the fair are frequent enough in the old writers; but it is most familiar to us through Hogarth's picture of
In his time the fair lasted days, and extended from Hill, the spot where it was originally held (near the ), to the Mint; and of course the visitors comprised a considerable portion of the inhabitants of that favoured locality. In Hogarth's plate--a copy of which we reproduce on page -we see Figg, the prize-fighter, with plastered head, riding on a miserable nag; Cadman, a celebrated rope-dancer, is represented flying by a rope from the tower of to that part of the Mint which lies in the rear. of the houses opposite. The portrait of another famous rope-dancer, Violante, is introduced by Hogarth. From the steeple of the church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, soon after its completion, this slack-rope performer descended, head foremost, on a rope stretched across to the Royal Mews, in the presence of the princesses and a host of noble personages. Besides these characters, Hogarth shows us a beautiful woman beating a drum, attended by a black boy with a trumpet; a booth tumbling down, and the name of the piece to be performed, the , is inscribed on the tottering paper lantern. Tamerlane, in full armour, is being taken into custody by a bum-bailiff; and in the background are shows with enormous placards announcing the Royal Wax-work, the horse of Troy, and the wonderful performances of Bankes and his horse. If the company frequenting the fair was of a strange sort, the entertainments offered appear to have been of a suitable character. From old advertisements of the fair, of dates between and , we learn that at Lee and Harper's great booth was performed a thrilling tragedy called ; but, lest the audience should be too much affected, it was lightened by the . There appears to have been as great a taste for burlesque as that which now exists; but the subjects were curiously chosen. We have the rudiments of a modern pantomime in , interspersed with comic scenes between Punch, Harlequin, Scaramouch, Pierrot and Columbine,
we are told,
The performers, it should be remembered, were not wretched show-folk, but the regular actors of the large theatres, who regularly established booths at Bartholomew's and Fairs, in which the most charming actresses and accomplished actors thought it no disgrace to appear in the miserable trash mentioned above. In the biography of
we read that the sound of revelry had but just died away, to be caught up, as if in echo, by , when the , having shed a tearful paragraph upon
| the opening sepulchre of |
proceedeth to tell how that
This was on the . days afterwards we read,
So far the humble player-now for the courtier poet.
received the news of Doggett's death, we have not the smallest doubt that he was too much overcome to go on with the part he was playing at Fair; and having that day divided the profits of the speculation with Pinkey and Jubilee Dickey, he assiduously mourned his departed master at the
which then stood next door to the King's Bench. [extra_illustrations.6.59.1]
Besides the theatrical entertainments, Faux's sleight of hand and the mechanical tricks and dexterity of Dr. Pinchbeck were for many years favourite adjuncts of Fair.
John Evelyn in his
under date , says,
From Pepys's own quaint and amusing description, too, we glean some further particulars of the entertainments provided here. On the , he writes:
In the reign of George II. the fairs of London were in the zenith of their fame. Mr. Frost observes in his
Fair was not finally suppressed till . The booth-keepers used to collect money for the relief of the prisoners in the Marshalsea.
In the registers of the parish of occurs the following curious entry, under date -:
To what this may refer, whether to any religious ceremony or public procession, it is at this distant period difficult to tell.
At the east end of , close by Hill, formerly stood Union Hall. On the opening of this street to the Borough by taking down the
in , Union Hall was built by subscription, for the use of the magistrates, previous to which time they sat at the
which was afterwards converted into a private house. On the passing of the Police Act in Union Hall was made of the Metropolitan police offices. On the destruction of the old , as above mentioned, the sessions for the county were held there, though it was not adequate to the business till the county gaol and a session house were built nearer to .
At No. in the was born Dr. Elliotson, F.R.S., the celebrated physician. He was the son of a chemist and druggist, whose house bore the sign of the
of which a token exists. Dr. Elliotson wats a devoted student
| of mesmerism and mesmeric influences, upon which he wrote largely. Thackeray, it may be added, was taken ill when writing |
and was saved from death by Dr. Elliotson, to whom, in gratitude, he dedicated the novel when he lived to finish it. Dr. Elliotson died in .
, opposite , keeps in remembrance a mint for the coinage of money, which was established here by Henry VIII. at Suffolk House, the residence of his brother-in-law, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. The mansion was a large and stately edifice, fronting upon the . It was ornamented with turrets and cupolas, and enriched with carved work; at the back, the range of outbuildings formed an enclosed court. The house was sometimes called the
as well as Suffolk House; and it is likewise mentioned as
in Sir John Howard's expenses, under the year . It was exchanged by the Duke of Suffolk with Henry VIII., the king giving him in return the house of the Bishop of Norwich in St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. On this exchange the mansion took the name of Place, and a mint was established here for the king's use.
Edward VI., in the year of his reign, came from and dined at this house, where he knighted John Yorke, of the Sheriffs of London. He afterwards returned through the City to . Queen Mary gave the mansion to Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of York,
as a recompense for York House, , which was taken from Wolsey and the see of York by her royal father.
Archbishop Heath sold the premises, which were partly pulled down, many small cottages being built on the site. Some portion of the house which was left became the residence of Edward Bromfield, who was Lord Mayor in . He was owner of the premises in . His son John was created a baronet in , and in he was described as
in the marriage settlement with Joyce, only child of Thomas Lant, son and heir of William Lant, a merchant of London. This estate devolving to the Lant family, we find that in the reign of Queen Anne an Act was passed for the improvement of , empowering Thomas Lant to let leases for years. In it was advertised
|to be let as acres, on which were houses, with a rental of per annum. The entire estate was sold early in the present century, in lots, the rental of the estate having been just doubled. The family of Lant are still kept in remembrance by , which runs from parallel with .|
A back attic at the house of an
belonging to the Marshalsea, in , was of the temporary homes of Charles Dickens when a boy; it was the same in which he described Mr. Bob Sawyer as living many years afterwards.
The various members of the family of the Insolvent- Court Agent are immortalised as the
The Mint is thus curiously described in the
published in :--
And then follows a long list of penalties, including the pillory, to which all persons resisting their authority are exposed. It is added,
The Mint, as the district was called, consisted, therefore, of several streets, whose inhabitants claimed the privilege of protection from arrest for debt--a privilege which, says the
The place had become a refuge for the worst characters--in fact, another Alsatia, into which few bailiffs or officers of justice dared to venture. Felons and outlaws, debtors and vagabonds, herded there ; and to this day it is of the plague-spots of the metropolis. Marriages, not , like those of Mayfair and the Fleet, were performed here constantly, and highwaymen and burglars found a secure retreat in its mazy courts. Mat o' the Mint is of Macheath's companions, and Jonathan Wild was a frequent visitor. To poor authors it was a more secure Grub Street; but though duns could not enter, starvation and death could. Here, in , died Nahum Tate, once poet laureate, and, in conjunction with Brady, the author of that metrical version of the Psalms which superseded Sternhold and Hopkins's psalmody in prayer-books. Allusion is often made to the precincts of the Mint by the poets and comic writers. The reader of Pope's satires will not forget the lines-
Nathaniel Lee, the dramatist, lived often in the Mint; he had frequent attacks of insanity, and at period of his life spent years in Bedlam. He wrote plays, and possessed genius (as Addison admitted) well adapted for tragedy, though clouded by occasional rant, obscurity, and bombast. Latterly, this ill-starred poet depended for subsistence on a small weekly allowance from the theatre. He died in or . Pope often alludes to the Mint with scorn, and he makes mention of Lee's existence here in the following couplet:--
There are numerous allusions in old gossiping books and pamphlets of the century to the customs of the Mint, the vagabond population of which maintained their privileges with a high hand. If a bailiff ventured to cross the boundary of the sanctuary, he was seized and searched for proofs of his calling; then, when the perilous documents were found, dragged by the mob from pump to pump, and thoroughly soused. A ducking in of the open sewer ditches followed, and then he was made to swear, kissing a brickbat debaubed with filth from the , that he would never again attempt to serve a process in the Mint. The next step was the payment of certain fees for the purchase of gin. If he had no money in his pockets, he was handed over to the tender mercy of the women and boys, who gave him a few more duckings and shampooings with filthy brickbats, and then kicked him out of the precincts.
An attempt was made to curtail the privilege of protection afforded by the Mint in the reign of William III., but it was not finally suppressed till the Georgian era.
Thomas Miller, in his
published in , gives the following description of the old Mint, which he had written years previously, after visiting the remains of this dilapidated neighbourhood:--
says Charles Knight, in his
The Mint is awfully memorable in modern annals; for amid the squalor of its narrow streets appeared, in , the case of Asiatic cholera in the metropolis. Again, Thomas Miller, in his work above quoted, refers to this miserable locality when he says,
In the autobiographical reminiscences of his childhood, which are embodied in his
by Mr. John Forster, Charles Dickens describes the quaint old streets of
shops which lay between Rowland Hill's chapel in the , and his humble lodgings in , mentioned above, along which he had to pass night by night, in returning from his drudgery at . He tells us of the boot-lace and hat and cap shops which he patronised, and of another shop conspicuous for its sign of
over the door, and which may still be seen at the corner of , . He tells us also how on Saturday nights he would be seduced into the inside of show-vans containing the
in this immediate neighbourhood.
In the early part of the year , steps were taken by the Metropolitan Board of Works with the view of levelling with the ground a large part of the disreputable neighbourhood now under notice. The areas comprised , , and Elizabeth Place. area included the wretched street of that name, associated with robberies and crimes of all sorts, which leads from the Borough to ; and it was further proposed to widen the new street and to a minimum width of feet, and to extend Little of the same width into , at a cost of over .
is named from Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, who, as stated above, lived here, in Suffolk House. This street was formerly known by the name of
an appellation which it very well deserved. The
is the sign of a public-house in this street, where it has stood for upwards of half a century.
says Mr. Larwood, in his
In this street lived the last barber who let blood and drew teeth in London, the last of the
| barbersurgeons; he died there about , as Mr. Cunningham was told by an old and intelligent hairdresser in ; |
adds Mr. John Timbs, in his
At the corner of and stands Winchester Hall. This is neither more nor less than a concert-room, of the ordinary music-hall type, and is attached to a public-house which originally bore the sign of
Close by this spot, in former times, were some well-known pleasure-grounds. They bore the name of Finch's Grotto Gardens, and were situated on the west side of . They were opened as a place of public resort about the year of the reign of George III. Here Suett and Nan Cuttley acted and sang, if we may trust the statement of John Timbs, who adds that the old Grotto House was burnt down in , but soon afterwards rebuilt, a stone being inserted in its wall with the following inscription:--
writes Mr. John Reynolds in his agreeable work,
He goes on to say, as a proof of the estimate in which the place was held, that Tommy Lowe, after having once been proprietor of Marylebone Gardens, and having kept his carriage,
Finch's Grotto Gardens, doubtless, was of those suburban tea-gardens which were at time pretty plentiful in the outskirts of London. The Prussian writer, D'Archenholz, in his account of England, published towards the close of the last century, is represented by Chambers as observing that,
A large building, occupying sides of a quadrangle, adjoining Finch's Grotto Gardens, was at time the workhouse of parish. It was built at an expense of about , and was opened in . Under the new Poor Law Act, the parish of forms a union with that of Christchurch; is the larger parish of the .
At the south-west corner of , and at the entrance to the , stands the large building, surrounded by a high brick wall, formerly known as the King's (or Queen's) Bench Prison. The original stood on the east side of the , near the Marshalsea, and was certainly as old as the time of Richard II. Thither Prince Hal (afterwards Henry V.) was sent by Judge Gascoigne for endeavouring to rescue a convicted prisoner, of his personal attendants--that is, if we may believe the genial old gossiper, Stow-but some historians have repudiated the story altogether. It is, however, mentioned by Hall, Grafton, and Sir Thomas Elyot, a favourite of Henry VIII., in his book called
In a play called ., written in the time of Elizabeth, before , in the scene in which the historical account of the violence of the prince against the chief justice is introduced, [extra_illustrations.6.64.2] , a famous comedian and mimic, acts both judge and clown. Knell, another droll comedian of the time, acted the prince, and gave the chief justice such a blow as felled him to the ground, to the great diversion of the audience. Tarlton, the judge, goes off the stage, and returns as Tarlton, the clown: he demands the cause of the laughter.
says the clown:
Readers of the
of Charles Dickens will not forget the glimpse that we catch from him of the interior of the old , and of its many inmates suffering and dying of the
The prison was removed to the present situation towards the close of the last century. Wilkes was confined here in , and the mob endeavoured to rescue him. A riot ensued, the military were called out, and fired on the people in Fields, which [extra_illustrations.6.64.3]
| at that time extended as far as this spot. A spectator, William Allen, was killed, and the jury returned a verdict of |
against the soldier who fired the shot. The soldier was a Scotchman, a countryman of
and in those days that was enough to condemn him. The tomb of Allen might be seen in the old church at . The was burnt down by Lord George Gordon's rioters in . It was, however, speedily rebuilt, and is thus described by Mr. Allen, in his
adds the writer,
A strict attention to the
it may be added, was very seldom enforced--.a fact so notorious, that when Lord Ellenborough, as chief justice of the King's Bench, was once applied to for an extension of the
his lordship gravely replied that he really could perceive no grounds for the application, since to his certain knowledge the rules already extended to the East Indies! In cases of this kind, however, when discovery took place, the marshal became answerable for the escape of the debtor. This prison was properly a place of confinement for all cases that could be tried in the Court of King's Bench.
writes Mr. Richardson, in his ,
The state of this gaol is thus described by Smollett, about the time of its establishment in the ; it was much in the same state down till late in the present century:--
John Howard, the philanthropist, found in the a subject for deserved complaint. He describes the Gatehouse at as empty, but this as full to overflowing. Indeed, it was so crowded in the summer of , that a prisoner paid for a separate bed, and many who had no crown-pieces to spare for such a luxury, lay all night in the chapel. The debtors, with their families, amounted to a , -thirds of whom were lodged within the prison walls, the rest
Here, at the close of the last century, the notorious George Hanger, Lord Coleraine, was an inmate for nearly a twelvemonth. We have already had occasion to speak of this eccentric and unfortunate nobleman. At time he tried to
by recruiting for the East India Company, and at another by starting as a coal merchant. With respect to the former occupation, he tells us that he spent -
as the lawyers say--in establishing and organising agencies for recruits in all the large towns of England, but that an end was put to this work by various disputes among the directors in as to the best place for recruiting barracks. The decision, wherever it placed the depot, threw him out of employ, robbed him of his and years' labour, and lost him an income of a year. The result was that he was sent to the King's Bench, and had to start afresh with a capital of in hand! No wonder that next year he thought of trade in earnest as much better than such precarious work. Not long before this, Major Hanger--as he was more frequently called-had become of the jovial associates of the then Prince of Wales, who made him of his equerries, with a salary of a year, an appointment which, together with the employment which he undertook of raising recruits for the East India Company, afforded him the means of living for a time like a gentleman. His good fortune did not, however, last long, and the major was soon on the high road to the King's Bench, which he entered in . He spent about months in
as he jokingly styles his prison, possibly remembering the lines of Lovelace-
and he declares that he
Released from prison, he now applied for employment on active service, but in vain; so he formed the resolution of taking to trade, and set up at time as a coal merchant, and at another as dealer in a powder for the special purpose of setting razors. Specimens of this powder he carried about in his pocket to show to
whom he canvassed for their patronage! How far he flourished in the coal business we do not hear; but, as he mentions a kind friend who gave him a salary sufficient to keep the wolf from the door, in all probability he did not make of those gigantic fortunes which the coal owners and coal merchants are in the habit of realising now-a-days at the cost of the long-suffering British householder.
In this prison were confined many of the objects of Government prosecutions during the ministries of Pitt, Addington, Perceval, and Lord Liverpool.
John Timbs tells us, in his
that amongst those who were living here in lodgings,
in , was the indefatigable and eccentric William
| Coombe, better known as |
the author of
He wrote this to fit in with some drawings by Rowlandson; and the combined, published by Ackerman, in , became of the luckiest of literary ventures. Besides the above work, Coombe was also the author of
(generally ascribed to Lord Lyttelton), the
&c. He had travelled, when young, as a man of fortune, on the Continent, and had made
and had been a companion of Lawrence Sterne. In middle life, however, he ran through his fortune, and took to literature as a profession, and among other connections he had formed with Mr. Walter, of the . Mr. Crabb Robinson tells us in his
adds Mr. Robinson,
Coombe is said to have been the author of nearly various publications, none, however, published with his own name. He ran through more than fortune, and died at an advanced age.
Poor Haydon, about , was an inmate of this prison, where he painted a
that was held within its walls. The picture was purchased by George IV. for . Another painter of note who was consigned to the King's Bench was George Morland. In he was arrested, and being allowed to live
instead of within the gaol itself, he took a house in the neighbourhood, in Fields, which soon became the haunt of all the profligates of the prison.
writes the author of
In the early part of the present century, the emoluments of the
of the King's Bench amounted to about a year; of which arose from the sale of beer, and from the
About the year an Act was passed for the better regulation of this prison, by which the practice of granting
was abolished; and the prison thenceforth, till its abolition as a debtor's prison about the year , was governed according to regulations provided by of the secretaries of state. After the abolition of imprisonment for debt, this prison remained unoccupied for a short period. It was afterwards used as a military prison, and about it passed into the hands of the Convict Department.
Near the was the manufactory and bleaching-ground of Mr. Alsager, who gave up his prosperous business in order to write the
for the , in which he ultimately came to own a share.
Again making our way towards , we pass by
into , a thoroughfare mentioned in
published in the
In a large house, on the east side of this street, resided for many years Mr. (afterwards Sir James) South, the son of a chemist and druggist. While practising medicine, South gave special attention to astronomy. Between and , from the roof of his house, which was nearly opposite , he, in conjunction with Mr. (afterwards Sir) J. F. Herschel, made some valuable observations on double and triple stars, both astronomers being armed with what in that day were considered powerful telescopes of inches aperture, constructed by Tulley. A few years later South removed to , Kensington, where he fitted up a telescope of larger dimensions. Of the sale of his instruments at the last-named place we have given an account in a former chapter. He was of the founders of the Royal Astronomical Society, and was knighted by William IV. in . He died in .
George IV., in his last hours, expressed a desire that Sir James should receive from the Civil List a pension of per annum, which was
| conferred by King William IV. Many years ago, when it was thought desirable by some persons to have a national observatory, Sir James South offered to build it at his own expense, and endow it with his own magnificent instruments; but the offer was declined by the Government. A scientific account of Sir James South's astronomical observations in , and of their results, accompanied by an elaborate description of the -feet and -feet telescopes with which they were made, will be found in the |
Another distinguished native of the same part of is the gifted poetess, Eliza Cook, who was born here in , and who from early womanhood has stirred the hearts of the middle classes of Englishmen and Englishwomen by her spirited and hearty songs as few other poets have done. Joseph Lancaster, the educationist, was born in in .
Until the formation of the Dover Road early in the present century, , commencing eastward of , at the north end of , was part of the great way from Dover and the Continent to the metropolis. This narrow thoroughfare, originally called Kentish Street, was a wretched and profligate place. As far back as it was described as
and to the last it was noted for its turners' and brush-makers' shops, and broom and heath yards; yet some of these men rose to wealth and position. John Evelyn tells us of Burton, a broom-man, who sold kitchen-stuff in ,
During the plague in , Evelyn, under date of , writes:
was the route taken by Chaucer's jolly pilgrims, of whom we shall have more to say in the next chapter, when dealing with the
Inn; by the Black Prince, when he rode a modest conqueror with the French king by his side; and by which Jack Cade's rabble rout poured into the metropolis, quite as intent, we may fairly suppose, upon plunder as upon political reform. In this street, as early as the century, stood the Loke, an hospital for lepers, afterwards known as the Lock, a name still retained by the well-known hospital in the , Paddington. An open stream, or rather ditch, dividing the parishes of St. George and St. Mary, , was also called the Lock; but whether it derived its name from the hospital, or the hospital from the stream, is uncertain. It rose in (the open ground on its banks being called , a name which it still retains), was crossed from early times by a bridge at the end of , and flowed through into the river.
has borne its evil reputation to the present day; and it is immortalised in Charles Dickens's
Since the formation of the Dover Road, has been no longer the great highway to Kent, a fearful necessity to timid travellers; but it still retains much of its old character, as the chosen resort of broom and brush makers. Towards the close of the last century this street, although the only thoroughfare from the City to the , presented a scene of squalor and destitution unequalled even in . Gipsies, thieves, and such-like characters, were to be met with in almost every house and men, women, children, asses, pigs, and dogs were often found living together in the same room. Filled with a noble desire to do something to instruct and improve the condition of the rising generation in this crowded neighbourhood, Thomas Cranfield, a hard-working tailor, then residing in , and formerly a corporal at the siege of Gibraltar in , resolved, if possible, to establish a Sunday-school in . For this pur. pose, in , he hired a room, and at once undertook, with no other help than that given by his wife, the education of the
who came to receive instruction in this novel manner. The
reputation borne by the neighbourhood for vice and profligacy was in itself quite sufficient to deter many persons with any benevolent intentions from venturing into the street. Undaunted by the magnitude of the undertaking, for some months this philanthropic individual and his wife, travelling every Sunday all the way from with of their children, occupied themselves with the task they had set themselves, and with so much success, that in a short time the fruits of their selfdenying exertions became conspicuously apparent to others, and at last other voluntary teachers summoned up courage to undertake the same work. Finding his labours in rewarded with success, and being now reinforced by additional volunteers, Cranfield determined to open a similar school in the Mint, close by, a locality even worse than . This school also succeeded, and soon after their establishment these schools were incorporated with the Sunday-school carried on in , under the title of the |
the [extra_illustrations.6.71.2] becoming the president. of these schools still exist, and many of the children born in within the last years owed their education and their position in after life to the voluntary instruction given in these Sunday-schools. A nobleman on occasion being present at of these Sunday-school anniversaries at , and being struck not only with the cleanly appearance of the children, but with the respectability of the teachers, asked Rowland Hill what salary the latter received for their arduous duties. Mr. Hill gave the following reply:
, at the corner of the , Borough, and of , is dedicated to [extra_illustrations.6.71.3] , the patron saint of England. The original church, which stood here, belonged to the Priory of ; it was a very ancient edifice, and was dedicated to St. George of Cappadocia. It is described in the
published in , as
We hear of the old church as having been given in , by Thomas Arderne, on whose ancestor the parish had been bestowed by the Conqueror, to the abbot and monks of . It is stated in the work above mentioned that among the distinguished persons who lie buried in , are Bishop Bonner, who is said to have died in , in the Marshalsea Prison (a place, as Dr. Fuller observes, the safest to secure him from the people's fury); and the famous Mr. Edward Cocker, a person so well skilled in all parts of arithmetic as to have given rise to the classic phrase,
The tradition in Queen Anne's time was that Bonner's grave was under the east window of the church, and that Cocker,
Such, at all events, was the statement of the then sexton; and, as he died about the year , in all probability the tradition may be accepted. Cocker's fame was chiefly made by his
published after his death by his friend, John Hawkins, who possibly wrote the following epigram upon him:--
Here also was interred John Rushworth, the author of
relating to proceedings in Parliament from to . Rush. worth died in the King's Bench. In the graveyard of this church it was the custom to bury prisoners who died in the King's Bench and the Marshalsea.
In this church General George Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, was married in , to Nan Clarges, the daughter of a farrier in , and widow of another farrier named Radford or Ratford, who had been his sempstress, and
Mr. Henry Jessey, who subsequently became an Anti-Pedobaptist, and was immersed by Hanserd Knollys, was, during the Commonwealth, the minister of this church.
The old church having undergone many repairs, and being ruinous, the parishioners applied to Parliament, and obtained an Act to have another church erected in its place; in consequence of which the present edifice was begun in , and
| finished in about years. The architect was a Mr. John Price, and the expense of the building was defrayed by a grant of out of the funds appropriated for building new churches in the metropolis and its vicinity. It was repaired in , at a cost of . The plan of the building is a parallelogram, with a square tower at the west end, surmounted by a storey of an octagon form, and crowned by an octangular spire, finished with a ball and vane. The church throughout is very plain. It is built of dark red brick, with stone dressings, in a heavy Dutch style, and has altogether a tasteless aspect. In looking at such a building as this, well may we exclaim in the words of a divine of the century, |
Pennant describes the steeple of as
It may be added
|that the large bell of this church is tolled nightly, and is probably a relic of the curfew custom.|
About midway between and , stood in very remote times the Marshalsea, or prison of the Court of the Knight Marshal, in which all disputes arising between servants of the royal household, and offences committed within the King's Court, were adjudicated upon. Its jurisdiction extended for miles round , the City of London excepted. It was once of high dignity, and coeval with the Courts of Common Law. This [extra_illustrations.6.72.1] , as it was afterwards called, was removed from to in ; it was abolished by Act of Parliament in , and ceased to exist from the end of that year. For very many years no legal business was transacted in the Marshalsea Court, though it continued to be opened and closed with the same legal formalities as the , the judges and other officers being the same in both.
Here follow the names of these privileged gentlemen, with a note to the effect that
In we find the Marshalsea described as
We have no exact record of the establishment of the [extra_illustrations.6.73.1] , but we find it casually mentioned in an account of a mob riot in . A sailor belonging to the fleet commanded by the Duke of Lancaster, Lord High Admiral, was killed by a man of gentle blood, who was imprisoned in the Marshalsea; but it being supposed by the sailors that powerful friends were at work to obtain his pardon, a number of sailors broke into the prison, murdered the offender, and then hanged his body on the gallows, returning afterwards to their ships with trumpets sounding. years afterwards, Wat Tyler's followers seized and murdered the marshal of the prison. Bishop Bonner, the last Roman Catholic Bishop of London, having been deposed by Queen Elizabeth. died (as f
|stated above) a prisoner in the Marshalsea, where he had been ordered to be confined. He had been previously imprisoned there during the reign of Edward VI. He was buried, as we have already seen, in , hard by.|
says Charles Knight, in his
Bonner died on the , having been a prisoner here for about years. In Queen Elizabeth's time, the Marshalsea was the in importance among the prisons in London. Political satirists, George Wither among them, were confined there; and, in conjuncti.n with the other prisons,
| it was the place of durance of Udal and other Puritan martyrs. Among other notorious inmates was George Barnwell, who killed his uncle at Camberwell, if we may believe the mock heroic lines on that hero of the shop and counter in the |
In Colonel Culpeper was consigned to the Marshalsea as a prisoner. John Evelyn tells the story of his seizure, in his
under date of the above year:--
The Marshalsea escaped Lord George Gordon's rioters, in , when the King's Bench, the Borough, and Clink prisons were demolished; but shortly afterwards it was removed nearer to , where it remained until its abolition in . At that time it contained rooms and a chapel.
For a description of this prison as it was half a century ago, the reader may as well be referred to the
of Charles Dickens, who lays within its precincts most of the scenes of the part, and several in the latter part of the . These scenes were drawn from life, as the elder Dickens passed here a considerable part of his days while his son was a lad; and here the future
coming to visit his selfish and indolent father, picked up much of his practical acquaintance with the lower grades of society and London life, which he afterwards turned to account.
Most readers of Dickens's works will remember old Mr. William Dorritt, the
and Amy, the
In , whilst engaged in the purchase of Gad's Hill, Charles Dickens paid a visit to the Marshalsea, then in the course of demolition, to see what traces were left of the prison, of which he had received such early and vivid impressions as a boy, and which he had been able to rebuild almost brick by brick in
by the aid of his wonderfully retentive memory. He writes to his friend, John Forster,
Some considerable portion of the Marshalsea is still standing, in , on the north side of ; it is now used for business purposes.
In was published a book entitled
This is a very scarce little volume, known to few, and unmentioned by the bibliographers. At the time of publication the Court, whose authority was held by Fleta to be next to the High Court of Parliament, was kept every Friday in the Court House on Hill, and might be held in any other fit place within miles of .
In the neighbourhood of the Marshalsea prison there was formerly an inn with a sign-board called the
If we may trust a statement in Tom Brown's
this board, whether it represented the hand of a man or of a woman, was always regarded as an evil sign.
, it is almost needless to remark, embraces an important manufacturing and commercial district. Along the water-side, from to , there is a long succession of wharves and warehouses, which all seem to ply a busy trade. A considerable hat manufacture is carried on in and around parish.
| abounds with tanners and curriers. is also the chief place of business for persons connected with the hop trade; and within its limits are probably the largest vinegar-works, and certainly of the largest breweries in the world. Apparently, some of the tradesmen of |
were persons of substance in the Middle Ages. At all events, a writer in , on the authority of Mr. W. D. Cooper, says
Mr. Timbs confirms his identity by an extract which he quotes from the Subsidy Roll of Richard II., A.D. , in which Henry Bayliff,
and Christian, his wife, are assessed at . He adds,
As we have shown in a previous chapter, too, coming down to more recent times, the elder Mr. Thrale, the founder of Barclay and Perkins's brewery, was for some time a representative of in the , as also was Mr. Apsley Pellatt, of the Falcon Glass Works.
The tradesmen of Southwark-even if some of them have attained to opulence-are, however, we fear, like those of most other places; and there are, or have been,
among them, for in the
we read that in the reign of Edward VI. Grig, a poulterer in Surrey, was set in the pillory at Croydon, and again in the Borough, for
The principles of free trade would seem to have been almost unknown in the reign of Edward I., if, as stated by Maitland in his
it was ordained that
and the bakers of in like manner were forbidden to trade in the City.
The Surrey side of the Thames being so low and flat, and void of all that can act as a relief to its monotony, was almost on that very account predisposed to be made into a pleasure resort. Added to this, its rents were low, on account of the tolls upon the bridges, and hence a sufficient number of acres to constitute a public garden were easily obtainable, even by somewhat impecunious speculators, and the very great success of had somehow or other familiarised the public mind with the idea that it was the
to go across the water for pleasure, leaving the cares of home for the north side of the river.
The sanitary arrangements of certainly were not good in the early part of the reign of George III. Pigs and sheep were killed for the London markets in many parts of the Borough.
writes Dr. Johnson, during his Scottish tour, with reference to this circumstance,
We can form a tolerably accurate notion of the extent and appearance of at the beginning of the century. Southward of and the Mint spread Fields, reaching nearly to the archiepiscopal palace at , and the village of . The was a lane between hedgerows; and there were bishops' palaces and parks, mansions, theatres, and pleasure-gardens near the green banks of the river. There were forts for the defence of the borough at the end of , near the , and in Fields, where afterwards stood the
at the eastern end of the present Bethlehem Hospital. The old of had gabled houses and large quadrangular inns, dating from the early Norman times; and between them and the Abbey of were open spaces and streams flowing gently towards the river. Pasture-lands, farms, and water-mills were farther east towards Redriff (now ), and was indeed a grazing place for horses. Now all that is changed; but it is pleasant to think of the old days, even amid the constant bustle and crowding at the entrance of the busiest of London railway stations.
The journal of a London alderman, at the close of the last century, under date of Sunday, , thus describes the of his day:--
[extra_illustrations.6.57.2] Town Hall
[extra_illustrations.6.58.1] Southwark toward St. Margaret's Hill
[extra_illustrations.6.58.2] The new Town Hall
[extra_illustrations.6.59.1] Turkish Rope Dancer
[extra_illustrations.6.64.2] Richard Tarlton
 See Vol. V, p. 294.
 See Vol. V., p. 209.
 See Vol. V., p. 131.
 See Vol. V., p. 215.
[extra_illustrations.6.71.1] New School of St. George the Martyr
[extra_illustrations.6.71.2] Rev. Rowland Hill
[extra_illustrations.6.71.3] St. George the Martyr
 Others, however, hold that he lies buried at Copford, in Essex.
 See Vol. III., p. 122.
[extra_illustrations.6.72.1] Marshal's, or Palace Court
[extra_illustrations.6.73.1] Marshalsea prison